Ziyue-Yi-Analytical-Problem-Aflatoxin in the Oil
My analytical problem is that develop a safe way (can't cheatable) to find out the concentration of aflatoxin in the vegetarian oil.
I want to do such an analytical problem because aflatoxin contamination is serious in China. Most cases of such contamination are found in the food oil in Chinese market. The small restaurant repeatly use the oil simple recycled from the sewer and the hood from the big restaurant. After several days transport and process, the oil touch too much fungi for a long time, the fatty acid is transferred to be aflatoxin. (1) Aflatoxin is a dangerous thing which can cause cancer. (1) Aflatoxin processed by liver and become a kind of oxide product which is the real poisonous stuff. (1)
The central hypothesis is that there's excess aflatoxin in the recycled oil which come from the old oil, and the excess aflatoxin makes people unhealthy. Of course, the analyte is aflatoxin. The aflatoxin come from a matrix of fatty acid/heavy metal (because one of the process of recycling)/food/water and some aromatic impurities.
1). Watanabe, Coran M.H.; Townsend, Craig A. Initial Characterization of a Type I Fatty Acid Synthase and Polyketide Synthase Multienzyme Complex NorS in the Biosynthesis of Aflatoxin B. Chemistry & Biology; Sep2002, Vol. 9 Issue 9, p981, 8p.
UV-Vis absorption spectrometry
The aflatoxins in the food are four type B1/B2/G1/G2. However, they're almost the same structures, so they have the same maximum absorption wavelength. The other types of aflatoxins are ignored because they arent common exsits in decaied food oil.
In methanol, 265nm and 360-362nm wavelength
B1 12400e 21800e
B2 12100e 24000e
G1 9600e 17700e
G2 8200e 17100e
Fact sheet of aflatoxin. http://www.micotoxinas.com.br/aflafacts.pdf (accessed Sept 2011).
Similar Analytical Problem(s)
Pesticides and Toxins in fragrances and natural flavors
Topic: presence of residual pesticides, or natural toxins in natural flavors and fragrances
Hypothesis: these toxins and pesticides are concentrated in the raw materials for naturally flavors and fragrances
Analytes: common pesticides, naturally produced plant toxins, heavy metals
Matrixes: alcohol, powdered, in oil emulsions, and occasionally in water
Simialr: we all focus on the things that come from a natural resource. So, the studies base on the toxins are produced with a process independent way (the toxins are not produced by the process/the tools of the process or the environment of the factory). A studies about the environment and planting method of the natrual raw material of the products is also needed to prove that the toxins come/not come from the natral raw material (flowers/beans etc.). The studies on other toxins exsitence in the product should also included in the research (so the problems caused by these toxins). A studies of customer method for using the product is another important studies. The same condition lab/sample comparison studeis should also me performed.
Different: he need to studies on eliminate the effect of the natrual flavor matrix on the signal while I will do the studeis on the interference of the food oil matrix on the signal.
Topic: proteins and Fruit Allergies
Hypothesis: any minor genetic altering of a plant will not affect the proteins that cause the allergic reactions
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Matrix: juice would also contain carbohydrates and other organic molecules
Similar: we all focus on the things that come from a natural resource. So, the studies base on the toxins are produced with a process independent way (the toxins are not produced by the process/the tools of the process or the environment of the factory). A studies about the environment and planting method of the natrual raw material of the products is also needed to prove that the toxins come/not come from the natral raw material. The studies on other toxins exsitence in the product should also included in the research. A studies of customer method for using the product is another important studies.The same condition lab/sample comparison studeis should also me performed.
Different: he need to studeis on all the types minor genetic modification of the fruites don affect the proteins levels, and secure the signal from the fruite matrix. I need to make sure the signal is OK from the matrix of the food oil.
Properties of aflatoxin and it producing fungi. http://www.icrisat.org/aflatoxin/aflatoxin.asp (accessed October 2011).
Sigma-Aldrich company's Aflatoxin B1/B2/G1/G2 Standard Solution (46323-U 46324-U 46325-U 46326-U) will be used.
For now, I will need two sets (4 solutions * 2) of the solutions, one is for atomic spectra, and the other one is for the mass spectra, if I will use the light based instrument (probably wont use because they are not accurate as I expected), there are will be another set of the soultions.
Each solution is 0.5 μg/mL (1 mL per pkg) in acetonitrile with a price of 43 USD.
The aflatoxin has electronactive property.
For identify, they have half potential near 1.2V. (chapter 3.22)
For quantify, there's calibration curve for them. (chapter 22.214.171.124)
http://eprints.utm.my/2889/1/75152.pdf (2011 DEC acessed).