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March 22, 2006

"Attachment and adolescent depression: The impact of early attachment experiences"

"Attachment & Human Development


Issue:
Volume 7, Number 4 / December 2005


Pages:
409 - 424


URL:
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Attachment and adolescent depression: The impact of early attachment experiences


Samantha K. Shaw A1 and Rudi Dallos A2

A1 University of Bristol, UK
A2 University of Plymouth, UK

Abstract:

Bowlby's (1969/1982) ideas of attachment as an interactional system provide the basis for an understanding of the development of adaptive and maladaptive working models of the self and other. More specifically, attachment theory can offer an in-depth understanding into the development of a depressotypic self-schema. Attachment theory is set alongside research into adolescent depression in order to illustrate the importance of the primary attachment relationship in protecting adolescents in our society from developing depressive symptomatology. Therefore, current research in adolescent depression is viewed through the lens of attachment theory. This view is complemented by an exploration of the role of culture in the production of gender differences in depression. Thus, a tripartite model of adolescent depression, including the individual, family relationships, and socio-cultural factors is offered as being of potential value for clinicians and researchers in this area.

Keywords:

Adolescents, depression, attachment, culture, gender "

"Predicting children's separation anxiety at age 6: The contributions of infant–mother attachment security, maternal sensitivity, and maternal separation anxiety"

"Attachment & Human Development


Issue:
Volume 7, Number 4 / December 2005


Pages:
393 - 408


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Predicting children's separation anxiety at age 6: The contributions of infant–mother attachment security, maternal sensitivity, and maternal separation anxiety


Danielle Horvath Dallaire A1 and Marsha Weinraub A2

A1 Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
A2 Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Abstract:

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the precursors and familial conditions which sustain school-aged children's separation anxiety. In a prospective, longitudinal study of 99 mother–child dyads, infancy measures of infant–mother attachment security, maternal separation anxiety, and maternal sensitivity were used to predict children's self-reported symptoms of separation anxiety at age 6. Insecurely attached children reported more separation anxiety than securely attached children. Insecure-ambivalent children reported marginally more separation anxiety than securely attached children, but not more than insecure-avoidant attached children. Regression analysis showed infant–mother attachment security and mother's sensitivity added uniquely to the prediction of children's separation anxiety, but mother's separation anxiety did not. Mediation tests show that the effect of mother's separation anxiety on children's separation anxiety may be mediated by maternal sensitivity. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

Keywords:

Separation anxiety, attachment, maternal sensitivity

"Clinical implications of the development of the person"

"Attachment & Human Development

Issue:
Volume 7, Number 4 / December 2005


Pages:
381 - 392


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Clinical implications of the development of the person


Gerhard J. Suess A1 and June Sroufe A2

A1 Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
A2 Private Practice in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Abstract:

The Minnesota longitudinal study of parents and children from birth to adulthood provides both a theoretical framework and a host of empirical findings that can serve to bridge the gap between research and clinical application. Key among these findings are: (a) the ongoing impact of early relationship experiences throughout the years, even with later experience and circumstances controlled; (b) the cumulative nature of experience and its continual impact with current context; (c) the important role of adult partner relationships; (d) the increasingly active role of the persons themselves in their own development; and (e) the interplay between experience, representation, and ongoing adaptation. These findings, and the theoretical structure underlying them, suggest the need for complex, comprehensive intervention that begins early, with a focus on altering the quality of parent – child relationships. At the same time, additional components, including couples therapy and efforts to alter the child's inner constructions of experience, are clearly suggested. One must attend to forces maintaining children on maladaptive developmental pathways once established, as well as understanding the factors that initiated such pathways.

Keywords:

Transactional intervention, attachment based intervention, Minnesota Longitudinal Study, research-based practice"

"Discovering pattern in developing lives: Reflections on the Minnesota study of risk and adaptation from birth to adulthood"

"Attachment & Human Development


Issue:
Volume 7, Number 4 / December 2005


Pages:
369 - 380


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Discovering pattern in developing lives: Reflections on the Minnesota study of risk and adaptation from birth to adulthood


Brian E. Vaughn A1

A1 Auburn University, Alabama, USA

Abstract:

The Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaptation was initiated in the mid-1970s as a short-term longitudinal study of infants at elevated risk for abuse and neglect. At the outset, the project leaders intended to characterize the infant, the caregiving environment, and the larger social milieu of the family in as comprehensive a manner as possible so as to test explicitly posed hypotheses about pathways leading from the child, the caregiving environment, and the social milieu to abuse or neglect. Paradoxically, only a minority of infants recruited to the study were ultimately abused or neglected over the 36-month period for which funding had been provided, but it proved possible to identify several antecedent indicators that predicted their outcome. It was also evident from the data that developmental casualty was elevated in this sample and the frequencies of suboptimal outcomes in social, emotional, and behavioral domains were greater than expected for less stressed samples. The study had yielded a wealth of information about infants and families from this at-risk sample and it was clear that the sample must be followed into childhood so as to describe the trajectories of developmental successes and casualties that were already apparent in the first 24 months of data. Alan Sroufe joined the project leaders in this endeavor and the childhood data supported the study of the sample into adolescence and now into adulthood. At this point, children of the original sample of infants are now being assessed using many of the protocols and procedures used with their parents. The study has produced hundreds of published reports about risk and its consequences, as well as about positive adjustment to life in a socio-cultural milieu that frequently can be non-supportive or even dangerous. This essay is a reflection on some accomplishments of the Minnesota study as these have helped shape how developmental scientists think about social and emotional development and more generally about how theory has guided the conceptual, empirical, and measurement plans for the study from its beginning.

Keywords:

Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaptation, attachment behavior, attachment security, organizational perspective, secure base"