This chapter mainly focuses on what science is and what it isn't, and for the first two weeks of school I was in the Foundations of Biology course, which also discussed this very same topic. So, this whole chapter was basically a review for me. However, of course, there were small things in the chapter that were not covered in the beginning of that Biology class, correlation vs causation being the one that stuck out the most.
I think it grasped my attention the most because one, it was something I've never read in a textbook before, and it corresponds to real-life situations. Whenever something happens, people want to understand why, because that is our nature as human beings. More specifically, when something goes wrong, the blame is usually placed on whoever looks as though they were the cause. This is usually done without careful consideration as to who else could have been the culprit. Correlation doesn't equal causation, something that a lot of people don't usually think about when going through their every day lives. Assumptions are made, which come from one's life experiences. These assumptions don't take into account the possibility of the third variable. A specific real life application of this is in the court of law, as lawyers have to constantly prove this statement (correlation does not equal causation) true.
Maybe it stuck out because I liked reading court cases during my Law & Society class in my senior year of high school. Whatever the case, this stuck out the most to me.