struggling readers lack confidence, and care most about keeping some form of respect with their peers.
To improve social and emotional confidence in students who struggle Beers suggests: keeping expectations high and providing necessary scaffolding; creating classrooms that encourage risk, participation. and strong interaction through respect (know names, celebrate diversity, don't tolerate put-downs); encouraging responses that are aesthetic rather than simply efferent (information-seeking); recognizing stages of literary appreciation and choosing appropriate literature (at different stages, kids value different things); giving students "smart words" to use for discussion (past "it was boring" or "I liked it"); and providing time for sustained silent reading. Finally, Beers describes aliteracy as "not only an academic problem but a societal concern." She describes four types of aliterates, all challenging to motivate: dormant, uncommitted, unmotivated and unskilled readers. It requires tenacity and patience to connect these readers to texts, and to "build the confidence they need to fully enter into the community of readers."