CI5336 - Chapter 5 reflection
Key points of Chapter 5 in Real World Instructional Design
Most of chapter 5 covers how learning activities are delivered.
- Learning activities are always delivered within a context. In many cases, the delivery context is a given, determined the client. Delivery context includes:
- The instructor/instructional setting context, such as
- location of instruction
- equipment available for training
- time of instruction
- curriculum within which the learning takes place
- The learner context. In a classroom setting, the learner's context is the same as the instructor's context. But in distance or asynchronous activities, learners may have:
- their own hardware, software, and support issues
- schedule constraints
- size of the learner group
- There are delivery options to be considered when designing learning activities
- Synchronous vs Asynchronous
- In synchronous learning, like a classroom setting, the instructor and learners are all present in the same place and time. The major issue to deal with in synchronous learning is that different learners bring different amounts and types of prior learning to the class and are able to learn the material at different paces.
- In asynchronous learning, such as correspondence courses or online courses, learners proceed at their own pace, but more design attention must be paid to helping learners monitor their progress and stay on track
- Distance vs Face-to-Face
- In distance learning, instructors and learners are separated by space. The learning activities need to be designed to deal with the sense of isolation that may develop. The chief advantage of distance learning is eliminating or reducing the amount of travel needed to bring instructors and learners together, as well as reducing the physical infrastructure (classrooms, buildings) needed to deliver the learning activity.
- In face-to-face learning, instructors can expect learners to participate in monitored, group activities such as discussion and role-playing. Social status and personality can play a larger role in determining how face-to-face activities proceed.
- Formal vs Informal
- Formal instruction occurs when specific learning outcomes are of primary importance and may be related to a learner's career path or current occupation. Formal instruction is often scheduled, rigorous, tested and has a tuition cost.
- Informal instruction is often a byproduct of some other activity. A museum exhibit may teach while it entertains. A job aid may offer learning that has both near and far transfer, even though it was used by a learner to quickly solve a problem.
- There are delivery modes to be considered when designing learning activities, such as
- Classroom - the oldest, most popular, best-understood mode of delivering learning activities
- Telecourses and teleconferences - used for distance learning but in synchronous mode, when instructor is in one location and learners are separated by great distances. May want to add learning activities that the local group can participate in
- Live Web - very similar to telecourse, using internet technology to deliver voice, visuals and data, and may involve two-way interactivity with participants manipulating a common visual space, like a whiteboard or computer desktop space
- Print - read a book, do a worksheet, take a written test
- Videos - add sound, visuals from different locations, compression of time, special effects, animations
- Networked (online) - delivery of multimedia modules for learning, as well as group interactivity
- Computer media (CD-ROM, DVD-ROM) - allows high-bandwidth multimedia presentation as well as vast amounts of text and data, enables rapid searching for information, but unless it is part of a networked system, it is a one-way mode of delivery
- Performance Support Systems - just in time learning, help systems, job aids
- Of course, these modes can be blended. A DVD-ROM could hold animations and a large text-base for searching, while being part of a networked learning activity
Chapter 5 also presented the components of a learning package, including:
- Learners materials
- Instructors materials
Many learning activities will include a variety of media assets. Selecting media assets includes the following concerns:
- choosing the right type of media asset to support a learning outcome
- choosing the specific asset to best support a given learning outcome
- making sure the media asset is licensed properly for the given use (and possible re-purpoing uses)
- making sure the learning outcome can still be attained by individuals with a variety of accessibility needs
Finally, chapter 5 gets a little into structuring interactive programs. Although this is a major topic that can fill a book in itself, the main concerns listed in chapter 5 include:
- how the material is organized and presented in menus
- how the navigation system lets the user move around through the material
- how individual screens are design for learning success
In terms of my prior knowledge, Chapter 5 covers things I have had to learn and do in the past. I have designed and taught classroom courses in scriptwriting. I have designed learning materials delivered by video, web and CD-ROM. I have had to be concerned with how interactivity supports learning outcomes. However, I continue to be impressed with how well Cennamo and Kalk cover the details of being a successful instructional designer and I will be keeping my copy of the book to refer to when I prepare to do future projects.
Posted by burt0177 at February 20, 2005 2:25 PM