OBE #1 Marx Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844

In the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Marx states that the political economy has divided into two different classes: the property owners and the property-less workers. Due to many issues, the property-less workers experience a separation from society, known as estrangement and alienation.
Marx's first explanation of alienation is shown in the alienation from the product of labor. The consequences of objectification; loss of the object and bondage to it. (Calhoun, page 87) is a directly related to the implied statement of alienation from the product. Objectification is when the product is more important than worker, where the labour knows that the product has more power of them, than they have power over it. The alienation that the labour has with society is better understood in the first paragraph on page 88, " The worker puts his life into the object; but now his life no longer belongs to him but to the object...The alienation of the worker in his product means not only that his labour becomes an object, an external existence,.. something alien to him".
Another explanation of estrangement from the property-less workers, is the idea of estrangement from their own activity, or self estrangement. Meaning the separation from man and his work, that whatever it is he produces, none of which belongs to him. The fact that labour is external to the workers, meaning it doesn't belong to him, doesn't affirm himself but denies the worker. As a result, the worker isn't happy, and he's not able to express his creativity through his work. "The worker only feels himself outside his work and in his work feels outside of him(Calhoun, page 89)". The labour is not seen as voluntary, but instead seen as forced labour. It's work that isn't satisfying to the worker, but only to those external forces. The makeup of alienation is explained that since that there soon may be no physical or other objects to exist, the labour is shunned quickly. Meaning that once the work is complete and there is no need for them, they are quickly terminated. As a result, because the worker's activity isn't spontaneous activity, it belongs to someone else, creating the loss of his self.
The third explanation is the estrangement from our human potential or 'species-being'. Marx compares men to that of animals on page 89, " man (the worker) only feels himself freely active in his animal functions-eating, drink, procreationg, ...human functions he no longer feels himself to be anything but an animal". Since the product of man doesn't belong to him, nor does the activity of production belong to him, now man feels estranged from being man. Man is species because he treats himself as a universal and therefore a free being. "The character of species-is contained in the character of life activity; and free, conscious activity is man's species of character. Life itself appears only as a means to life (Calhoun, page 90)". Man forms a life purpose through the work they amount, by transforming nature objects into practical objects. Yet when the work is duplicated from others it starts to take away from the meaning of his work, "It transforms the advantage man has over animals into a disadvantage his nature is taken away from him (Calhoun, page 91)". The degrading transformation of meaning estranges the man from his human potential, or from his species being.

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