University of Minnesota
Driven to Discover

Higher Ed Redesign Initiative event highlighted in MN Daily

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David WeertsThe Higher Ed Redesign Initiative--a developing collaborative venture of the Midwestern Higher Education Compact (MHEC), the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education, and the College of Design--explores ways to transform higher education to meet the needs of students, the workforce, and society. The project is founded on "design thinking for social innovation," which employs design tools to create new prototypes to address persistent problems in higher education.

A hands-on design thinking workshop was held on October 11, 2012 where participants learned about the design process and applying it to create more equitable, affordable, and high quality higher education. The following article was posted in the MN Daily highlighting this event.

Design thinking re-envisions higher education
Students and faculty collaborate to fix issues in higher education

by Emma Nelson

"There's pretty strong interest in the idea that this old order is ending here in terms of what higher ed looks like," said David Weerts, co-director of the University's Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education

The center -- part of the College of Education and Human Development -- spearheaded the initiative and is partnering with the College of Design and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact.

The initiative is an effort to use design thinking to re-imagine different aspects of higher education that are often taken for granted.

One-hundred people attended the event and more than 50 were on the waiting list, Weerts said. Participants split into 12 groups, and each worked on one of four challenges.

Read full MN Daily article.

Leading Change in Turbulent Times

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Leading Change in Turbulent Times

The higher education landscape is changing rapidly as economic, political, and technological forces reshape purposes, policies, and practices in higher education. University of Minnesota students and alumni reflected upon their past and current experiences in leading change in higher education. The panelist: Geraldine Evans, Lisa Helmin Foss, Thomas Ries, Donovan Schwichtenberg also provided their perspectives on the future of higher education and what leaders can do to guide colleges and universities through these turbulent times.

To listen to the webinar please click here.

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Strengthening the University of Minnesota as an Engaged University: Community Perspectives by Brynja Gudjonsson.

Yesterday the Office for Public Engagement hosted an event focused on bringing together a panel of community experts at the University of Minnesota McNamara Alumni Center to discuss ways that we can encourage and foster stronger partnerships between local community organizations and the University. Present were community specialists from around the city of Minneapolis. The five community experts were Elder Atum Azzahir of Cultural Wellness Center, Dr. Eleanor Coleman, Board Chair of the University YMCA, Ms. Amy Libman Director of Support Services, Minnesota Internship Center Charter High School, Ms. Haila Maze, Principal Planner for the City of Minneapolis, and Ms. Susan Gust, Community Activist and Small Business Owner. All of these women have extensive experience in working collaboratively with the University on projects that have long term benefit to Minneapolis communities. Their projects have encompassed such things as creation of the ReUse Center, developing teaching and tutoring opportunities for college students to work with high school students, developing leadership and coaching programs that strengthen partnerships between parents, students and educators for academic success, and the Cultural Wellness & Community Health. The panel was moderated by Dr. Heidi Barajas the Executive Director for Urban Research and Outreach Engagement Center & Associate Dean for Engagement, Diversity and Undergraduate Programs in the College of Education and Human Development.

One of the most striking topics during the conversations was the distance that the community representatives felt from the University faculty and project managers. Often when the University engages in research partnering with communities it is for a limited time and the needs of the community may be overlooked. The presenters noted that at times they felt overwhelmed and underprepared to advocate and interact with faculty. They further noted that they often had the feeling of being studied without the ability to share input. There was some discussion of the difference between community engagement and outreach, where outreach was provider directed and unidirectional, and engagement points to a collaborative process.

All presenters noted that the successful partnerships brought the communities and the University into mutually rewarding collaborations. The ability to work in the community is a unique and valuable part of the the land grant university mission that helps to strengthen research and teaching at the University. The value added to the undergraduates who enter into the surrounding environment is to not only help the neighborhoods, but also provide experiences for students who may have previously had cloistered cultural and academic experiences.

For more information on public engagement at the University of Minnesota, please go to

David Weerts has spent the past several years examining state and university relationships as well as a belief among many higher education leaders that if colleges and universities are going to gain more legislative support they need to pump up their public relations and marketing efforts.

But Weerts -- a Wisconsin native who is an assistant professor at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities and co-director of the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education -- argues similarly to Mason that institutions would have more success if they became "more productively engaged in state problems."

Read more here.

Leading Change in Turbulent Times


Apr 30 Leading Change in Turbulent Times.jpg

Thursday, April 3rd, 9:00 to 10:30 a.m. This webinar helps participants prepare submission to the MAEOPP Center for Best Education Practices of programs and strategies leading to student success and completion of TRIO students. Hosted by the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education. Register for the free event at

Friday, March 23rd, Noon to 1:30 p.m. This webinar helps participants prepare submissions to the Department of Education for their programs and strategies leading to college completion. Hosted by the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education. Register for the free event at

Organizational culture in the adoption of the Bologna process: a study of academic staff at a Ukrainian university by M.A. Shaw, D. W. Chapman & N.L. Rumyantseva.

The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the
world has raised concerns about the applicability of this set of reforms in diverse
cultural contexts. Ukraine provides an instructive case study highlighting the
dynamics occurring at the convergence of the new framework with a statecentred
model of higher education. The goal of this study was to examine the
professional identity of faculty at one Ukrainian university and their perceptions
regarding the implementation of Bologna at their institution. We found that
instructional and institutional innovations were successfully implemented only to
the extent that they were integrated with the existing pattern of values and
beliefs held by faculty. These findings provide insight for how other countries
may approach Bologna compatibility in the presence of social and cultural forces
divergent from those in which the Bologna process originated.

What is the role of Higher Education in a Flourishing Democracy?

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Jandris Center December hosted its first webinar.

Presenters: Harry Boyte and Mitch Pearlstein.

The Jandris Center hosted its first online event Rethinking the Role of Higher Education in Society: Implications for Higher Education Policy on December 3rd. Panelist included Harry Boyte from the Center for Democracy and Citizenship at Augsburg College and Mitch Pearlstein from the Center of the American Experiment. During this lively discussion, panelists discussed the civic roles of higher education and its implications for teaching and learning in colleges and universities. To learn more or to listen to this talk click here.

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Change the Students OR Change the System, by N. Sorenson.

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The Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education presented a webinar on December 3rd, 2011 featuring Mitch Pearlstein of the American Experiment and Harry Boyte of the Center for Democracy and Citizenship The event was facilitated by Dr. David Weerts of the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education. The webinar addressed the question, "What is the role of higher education in a thriving democracy?" University of Minnesota graduate students in Dr. Weerts' Public Policy and Higher Education class attending in person and participants attending virtually were able to interact with the presenters and pose questions.

The dialogue between the presenters was of particular interest because of the different lenses through which Mitch and Harry approached the topic of higher education and democracy. Mitch spoke of the need for higher education to respond to globalization, family collapse and market forces. Globalization requires every individual to bring some skill to the table, so education should be equipping each student with a skill that is in demand in the marketplace so our democracy can be economically competitive on a global scale. Conversely, Harry talked about the politics of knowledge and detached versus engaged teaching pedagogy. For Harry, both what we teach and the way we teach must be addressed in order to free the powers and talents of everyone and help them develop into engaged citizens.

Toward the close of the conversation, I was thinking about the many different approaches to changing higher education so as to better serve our democracy, which seemed to fall in to two categories. In my notes I wrote in large bold print, "Change the Students OR Change the System." Put that way, it seems obvious which category of solutions should be preferable - change the system to better serve the needs of both the students and the democracy.

Impact of Bologna in Ukraine by M. Shaw, D. Chapman, N. Rumyantseva.

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The impact of the Bologna Process on academic staff in Ukraine by M. Shaw, D. Chapman, N. Rumyantseva.

Academic staff in Ukraine face a convergence of institutional and professional pressures precipitated by a national economic crisis, projected declines in enrolment and dramatic changes to institutional procedures as institutions implement the Bologna Process. This article examines the extent to which these pressures are reshaping the way academic staff engage in their day-to-day work, their careers and their role in their university. Findings indicate that faculty are caught in a confluence of conflicting demands that elicits adaptive coping strategies and threatens to undermine national efforts to modernise Ukraine's higher education system.


This presentation offers innovative ways that the public university and colleges can better collaborate in the future.

2012_UM and MnSCUcollaborationwebversion.pdf

This presentation looks at the barriers to access for rural communities. Included in the discussion are some solution to increasing access for rural students.

Click on the following link to access full powerpoint.

2012_Rural accesswebversion.pdf

An increasing proportion of Minnesota high school graduates are not ready for college. Remedial courses do not count towards degrees and lengthen time to graduation. This presentation offers some feasible and cost effective solutions.


This slide presentation examines both current issues facing the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities. It then offers some solutions that will increase access for non-traditional students and to minimize duplication across the systems.


Dept. of Education Collecting Promising and Best Practices


A perfect opportunity has been created by the Department of Education to share promising and practical strategies to increase postsecondary success, transfer, and college graduation. The U.S. Department of Education announced at its College Completion Symposium I was attending in DC and posted to the Federal Register on January 30, 2012 a Request for Information (RFI) for any person or organization to share with them strategies for increasing college completion that may then be made available through a special web site created by the Department. Submissions received by April 30, 2012 receive priority consideration for dissemination. Click on the following web link for the complete announcement published in the Federal Register,

It is important in the submission to stress the unique features of your activity or program. For example, while many schools have a tutoring or mentoring program, what is novel about yours? How are your credit-hour courses different than others? These are some of the questions the RFI asks for the submissions to address.

The Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education ( based at the University of Minnesota has volunteered to provide several free hour-long webinars in the near future to share suggestions for completing a submission with examples from others that have already have or in process of completing their document. Announcements about these webinars will be posted to this Jandris Center blog and website. Based on the regulations from the published announcement in the Federal Register, click on the following web link for suggestions by a Jandris Center staff member for the submission:

For more official information and technical assistance with the submission, contact Dr. David Soo at the Department of Education, (202) 502-7742, Information about the Jandris Center is available at

Jandris Center Represented at Symposium on College Completion

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PsTL associate professor David Arendale was invited to D.C. January 30 for a symposium focused on fulfilling President Obama's College Completion Initiative. The Department of Education invited 60 experts on research and best practices how to better prepare incoming students for the rigor of college courses, and how to better support those students as they progress through higher education. Secretary Duncan called on the group to fulfill the President's goal to return the U.S. to number one in world-rankings for college completion by 2020. A final report of the work by the symposium participants will be published as a "Toolkit for College Completion" and made available for postsecondary institutions. Arendale codirects the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education in CEHD.

Treading the halls of the White house

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OLPD associate professor David Weerts went to the White House Jan. 11 for a forum introducing the American Commonwealth Partnership (ACP) as a member of the ACP steering committee. The forum, For Democracy's Future: Education Reclaims Our Civic Mission, was attended by civic education, government, business, and philanthropic leaders. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan called on the group to provide practical civic engagement opportunities for students "from grade school to graduate school." Two reports on students and civic engagement were also released. Weerts codirects the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education in CEHD.

By David Weerts, Jandris Center Co-Director.
The other night I had the President Obama's State of the Union speech in the background as I got our kids ready for bed. The phrase that jumped out and took my attention away from putting pajamas on a two-year old was, "Let me put colleges and universities on notice. If you can't stop tuition from going up, the funding you get from taxpayers will go down." A very bold (some may say refreshing?) and aggressive statement I thought. President Obama's words referenced his points about higher education as an economic imperative, and that college and universities have an important role to play in the future of the country. In short, he argued that colleges and universities must do their part to keep college affordable rather than the government simply "subsidizing skyrocketing tuition."

So what should college and university leaders do with the President's warning?

It seems that the narratives about college costs are set in stone and may change little given the entrenched thinking about higher education among key stakeholders. The basic dilemma is what the former National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education called the "Iron Triangle" (National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2008). In short, college leaders argue that reducing tuition (without increases in appropriations) will diminish quality and access. From this vantage point, legislators are the villains keeping higher education out of reach. But state officials disagree, providing new evidence about institutions that are making gains in cutting costs while improving learning.

On top of these challenges is the issue of demand elasticity. Flagship institutions like the University of Minnesota have enormous demand which makes tackling the cost issue more difficult. If nearly 40,000 applicants apply for 5,000 undergraduate seats, some would say, "Why not charge what the market will bear?" With prestige maximization being the goal for many institutions, being a "bargain college" is not at the top of the list for most college and university presidents.

So what can be done to influence institutional behavior?

It seems that what President Obama might have added is that higher education is in a crisis-- a "lack of imagination crisis." Had Henry Ford thought about transportation like college leaders think about higher education, he likely would have focused on creating faster horses rather than revolutionizing the transportation industry. Higher education could take a lesson from Ford. All higher education stakeholders--state leaders, presidents, faculty, and students--must first disrupt their current mental models about forms and structure of higher education. Instead, attention must be paid to envisioning preferred outcomes for the country (economic, civic etc.) and how higher education can become an instrument to achieving these outcomes. It is through this lens that innovative solutions about financing higher education may emerge.

Here at the Jandris Center we hope to create a community of "Henry Fords"-- an imaginative, dynamic community of problem solvers committed to designing a high quality, affordable, and accessible system of higher education for future generations. In the years to come, the focus of our work will be on challenging participants to think differently about long-standing higher education problems such as college affordability. The emphasis will be on building new prototypes that could be tested in policy and practice. There are plenty of challenges ahead and we hope you will join us in this endeavor. Stay tuned for more updates!

Suggested readings:
Archibald, R. B & Feldman, D., H, (2008). Explaining increases in higher education costs. Journal of Higher Education, 79, 3 268-295.
Ehrenberg, R. G., (2002). Tuition rising: Why college costs so much. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mumper, M. (2001) The paradox of college prices: Five stories with no clear lesson, In Heller, D. E., (ed). The States and Public Higher Education Policy: Affordability, Access, and Accountability. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Winston, G. C., (1999). Subsidies, hierarchy, and peers: The awkward economics of higher education. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 13(1), 13-36.
The Iron Triangle: College presidents talk about costs, access, and quality. (2008) National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education: San Jose, CA

Personal Guide to Apple iPad Apps


There has been an explosion of mobile tablet computers over the past few years. Whether it be the Kindle, Android, or the Apple iPad, never has it been so easy and accessible to read and consume media through such a light-weight and heavy-featured device. Many of the devices will be given during this holiday season. I have compiled my favorite 300 apps for the Apple iPad.

You are welcome to view the short annotated directory by clicking on this link.

They are a mix between ones for personal enjoyment as well as those directly tied to learning technology for the classroom. With the iPad2, everything that can be viewed on the iPad2 can now be seen by the entire class through a video projector.

I am using the iPad not only for personal use, but also as an enhancement for classroom learning with my introductory global history device. During spring term, everyone in my global history course will have an iPad and we will use it in a variety of ways. I will make more reports on its uses and limitations through this blog as well as through reports released through the Jandris Center website section on mobile learning.

Do I belong here? Exploring immigrant college student responses on the SERU sense of belonging/satisfaction factor by M. Stebleton, R. Huesman Jr., & A. Kuzhabekova.

The immigrant college student population will likely continue to increase. This exploratory study addresses the questions:To what extent does sense of belonging/satisfaction of recent immigrant college students differ from non-immigrant college students? Do perceived self-ratings of belonging vary by immigrant generations? This research draws on a new extensive data source, the Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) survey. Survey data from the 2009 SERU is based on the responses from 55,433 undergraduate students from six-large research institutions from across the United States. Findings suggest that immigrant students' perception of their sense of belonging and satisfaction is significantly lower than their non-immigrant peers' perceptions. Immigrant college students -- whether they were a recent immigrant that arrived in the country as a child, or arrived later as a teenager or young adult, or are the children of parents born outside the U.S. (2nd generation) -- consistently reported lower levels of belonging/satisfaction as compared to their 3rd or 4th generation (i.e., nonimmigrant) peers. Responses within the immigrant generation groups were similar. The following implications were highlighted: effective practice and application strategies for student affairs practitioners and faculty members who work directly with immigrant college students; policy development suggestions for both academic and student affairs administrators; future research inquiries for scholars who are interested in this fast growing population of college students.

Multicultural learning communities: Vehicles for developing self-authorship in first-generation college students by R. Jehangir, R. Williams, & J. Pete.

Research has shown that first-generation, low-income college students experience both isolation and marginalization, especially during their first-year of college, which impacts their long-term persistence in higher education. In this article, I argue that learning community pedagogy designed with attention to multicultural curricula is one vehicle to address the challenges faced by these college students. Organized around the themes of identity, community, and agency, an interdisciplinary Multicultural Learning Voices Community (MLVC) was created at a large, public midwestern research university to provide TRiO students with challenging academic coursework that would connect with their lived experience and help them build bridges of social and academic integration during their critical first-year of college. This article presents qualitative data from a multiple case study of seven cohorts of the MLVC, which captures students' perceptions of their experience.

Building Bridges: Community College Practitioners as Retention Leaders by M. Stebleton, & L. Schmidt.

Community colleges face struggles in helping students meet their academic, career, and personal goals. Student affairs practitioners can be innovators by creating initiatives to engage students. Practitioners can act as a bridge between student and academic affairs. This article explores how a group of counselors redefined their roles by designing a first-year experience effort. A program implemented at Inver Hills Community College focused on student success is highlighted. Features, outcomes, and lessons learned are outlined.

Engaging Diversity in First-Year College Classrooms by A. Lee, R. William, & R. Kilaberia.

The increasing calls for diversity research signal a need to explore strategies through which we attempt to interact with and respond to diversity intentionally in courses and curricula. This case study of a first-year inquiry course in a college of education fills a gap in the literature by documenting and analyzing instances of educators actively working with multiple dimensions of diversity in the classroom so as to support students' development of diversity-related competencies. The guiding research question for this study was to explore what curricular and/or pedagogical activities students in a first-year experience course identified as facilitating their engagement with diversity in an intentional, purposeful manner.

Community Engagement and Boundary Spanning Roles at Public Research Universities by D. Weerts & L. Sandmann.

Over the past decade, community engagement has emerged as an important priority among many colleges and universities. This study employs a multi-case study design to examine boundary spanning practices of research universities that have adopted a community engagement agenda. A model is advanced to conceptualize spanning behaviors and to inform practice and future research.

Internationalization of Higher Education: Performance Assessment and Indicators by R. Michael Paige.

This paper provides a conceptual overview of the internationalization of higher education and presents a set of performance indicators for assessing internationalization. It begins by locating internationalization within the context of globalization and discussing the impact of globalization on tertiary education. The paper continues with overviews of the concepts of performance assessment, performance indicators, and a performance assessment model. It then presents a review of the global literature on internationalization at the higher education level. The centerpiece of the paper is the author's internationalization model, consisting of ten key performance categories, and the related performance indicators. The paper concludes with the observation that the internationalization of higher education is a complex process and represents a major educational reform.

Rethinking the Role of Higher Education in Society: Implications for Higher Education Policy

A Webinar
Saturday, December 3, 2011
9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Link: (No registration is required)

What is the role of higher education in a flourishing democracy? What are the implications for public policy and higher education? Join Mitch Pearlstein, Harry Boyte, and higher education graduate students at the University of Minnesota to address these important questions.

Mitch Pearlstein is founder and president of Center of the American Experiment, a nonpartisan, tax-exempt, public policy and educational institution that brings conservative and free market ideas to bear on problems facing Minnesota and the nation. Pearlstein served in the U.S. Department of Education during the Reagan administration.

Harry Boyte is senior fellow at the U of M Humphrey School of Public Affairs and co-director for the Center for Democracy and Citizenship at Augsburg College. Boyte is founder of Public Achievement, a theory-based practice of citizen organizing to do public work that is used in schools, universities, and communities across the U.S. and in more than a dozen countries.

Contact Brynja Gudjonsson at for more information or if you have questions. This event is sponsored by the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education.

Friday, December 2, 2011
2:00 PM - 4:00 PM
Minnesota State Capitol Room 107

Minnesota policymakers will join University of Minnesota higher education graduate students in a discussion of critical postsecondary education policy issues facing the State of Minnesota. Student presentations will address the following topics:

- College readiness
- Rural student access
- MnSCU/U of M collaboration
- Innovative teaching and learning

Contact Brynja Gudjonsson at for more information or if you have questions. This event is sponsored by the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education.

Forgetting Our Past Can Deny Access to Students in the Future

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There has been considerable conversation on the Internet recently about the decision of Ohio to eliminate most or all developmental-level (they use the outdated term "remedial"). The state hopes students will take the necessary courses at a (hopefully) nearby community college. Listening to the leaders in Ohio and other states talk, you would get the impression that the offering of developmental-level courses is a rather recent invention. Actually, tutorial programs have existed on the college campuses when they began as early as the 1700s. Harvard University was the first institution to offer developmental-level courses in the late 1800s and other colleges -- public and private -- quickly followed suit. While the White students attending college in the 1800s might have been coming from families of wealth and influence, their academic preparation was weak in English, math, reading, or some combination of the three. Colleges had to offer developmental-level courses to provide a chance for success for these students.

Although learning assistance has been a significant and sometimes controversial element in higher education, it is underreported by many historians of postsecondary education. Developmenatl-level courses are just one example of learning assistance. Others would be tutoring, mentoring, drop-in learning centers, study skill workshops, and the like.

A review of the professional literature demonstrates that some higher education historians ignore and others lightly record histor­ical events concerning learning assistance in U.S. postsecondary education. Although the learning assistance community has published numerous articles, dissertations, and monographs (Lundell and Higbee, 2002), those writing broad histories of higher education in the United States have paid little atten­tion to this area and the students involved (Arendale, 2001, 2002a, 2002b; Brubacher and Rudy, 1976; Lucas, 2006; Jeynas, 2007; Rudy, 1996; Stahl and King, 2009).

A review of this component of higher edu­cation documented that many students throughout U.S. history were involved with learning assistance activities such as academic tutoring, enrollment in remedial or developmental courses, and participation in learning assistance cen­ter services. At times, learning assistance programs involved more than half of all college students at an institution (Canfield, 1889; Ignash, 1997; Maxwell, 1997; Shedd, 1932). The lines become blurred as students simultaneously enroll in courses at the developmental and college level in different academic subjects. Academic preparedness is not a characteristic of the student; rather, it is a condition relative to a particular academic course during the same academic term. It is inaccurate to designate students as "remedial" or "developmental," for they may be competent or expert in one academic content area and need­ing learning assistance credit and noncredit services in another.

Kammen (1997) provides an explanation for underreporting the history of learning assistance, identifying "historical amnesia" as a potential cause. Quoting Ralph Ellison, he says, "Perhaps this is why we possess two basic ver­sions of American history: one [that] is written and as neatly stylized as ancient myth, the other unwritten and as chaotic and full of contradictions, changes of pace, and surprises as life itself" (p. 164). Distortions of memory occur for a variety of reasons, not only for cynical or manipulative motives (Kammen, 1997). The researcher engages in a long discussion concerning the similarities and differences between the "heritage syndrome" and true history: "The her­itage syndrome, if I may call it that, almost seems to be a predictable but cer­tainly nonconspiratorial response--an impulse to remember what is attractive or flattering and to ignore all the rest. Heritage is comprised of those aspects of history that we cherish and affirm. As an alternative to history, heritage accen­tuates the positive but sifts away what is problematic. One consequence is that the very pervasiveness of heritage as a phenomenon produces a beguiling sense of serenity about the well being of history" (p. 220).

Acknowledging the role and importance of learning assistance presents uncomfortable statements about higher education:

  1. Academic bridge programs are necessary for many students to adjust to a college environment for which few are prepared academically or emotionally.

  2. Developmental-level courses were necessary for the White students from priveledged families in the 1800s due to poor academic preparation.

  3. Student subpopulations today other than the most privileged often need academic support systems to increase their chances for success resulting from dis­advantaged and deprived backgrounds. The same reason developmental-level courses were offered to White students of affluence in the 1800s is now denied to underrepresented and first-generation college students.

  4. The need for learning assistance indicts the efficacy and effectiveness of ele­mentary and secondary education, especially in under-funded public schools in rural or urban areas..

Scarce financial resources and personnel are necessary to meet the needs of students who are academically underprepared. Some students who drop out of college could have been retained through an effective learning assistance program.

Lack of knowledge about the history of learning assistance also contributes to current challenges for the field. For example, it is easier to curtail or eliminate learning assistance activities (especially developmental-level courses) if its historic importance for support and access to postsecondary education is not understood. As explored in the next chapter, learning assistance was an essential asset for colleges to support student achieve­ment and persistence. During the current period of financial emergency con­fronting many institutions, nonessential services are subject to reduction or elimination. It is not a surprise what Ohio higher education is doing since half a dozen other states have already enacted similar policies. Access to college just became that much more difficult for the "new" students to higher education.

  • Arendale, D. R. (2002). A memory sometimes ignored: The history of developmental edu­cation. Learning Assistance Review, 7(1), 5-13.
  • Arendale, D. R. (2002). Then and now: The early history of developmental education. Research & Teaching in Developmental Education, 18(2), 3-26.
  • Kammen, M. (1997). In the past lane: Historical perspectives on American culture. New York: Oxford University Press. Keeling, R. P. (Ed.). (2004).

The Hamilton Journal-News reported by 2015 nearly all remedial (also called developmental level) courses would be eliminated at public four-year colleges in Ohio. "The nearly 40 percent of college freshmen in Ohio who are not ready for college-level work will take most of their remedial courses at community colleges under a statewide plan that dramatically changes how four-year schools provide instruction to those needing extra help." The newspaper reporter stated, "Ohio is following a national trend that critics say could limit access to the four-year degrees many need for high-paying jobs. Some fear it may discourage some students from attending college at all." State education leaders, at least those at the four-year institutions, said the long-term solution was for elementary and secondary education to do a better job. "By the end of 2012, university and college presidents must develop standards of what it means for a student to be "remediation free."

Critics of the plan said "A lot of the students who need remediation are the same students who have already been marginalized by the system because they attended the worst high schools and are the least prepared," said Tara L. Parker, a University of Massachusetts professor who studies developmental education. "There is no evidence community colleges do remedial courses any better or cheaper."

The "Ohio Solution" is the same one that has been talked about since the mid 1970s with the "Nation At Risk" report. Elementary and secondary education must do a better job. Better articulation agreements need to be developed between secondary and postsecondary education. An endless number of education commissions made up of leaders from K-12 education, postsecondary education, corporate world, public advocacy groups, and the rest have been talking and experimenting for years to make "this problem" go away.

It appears the intense fiscal pressures facing public four-year colleges due to decreasing financial support from state government has renewed the desire to "save costs" and eliminate remedial or developmental-level courses. State officials claim offering these courses at the four-year public four-year colleges costs $130 million annually. While to the average taxpayer this seems considerable, what is the combined budget for these public colleges? National studies on this issue report the funds devoted to offering these courses is between one and five percent. Most faculty who teach these courses are part-time and paid considerably less than full-time and especially tenured faculty members at the same four-year institution.

The "Ohio Solution" has been implemented previously in many other places. They all share the same problems with achieving their stated goals:

  1. Changing K-12 education curriculum does nothing to meet the needs of returning adults to education. While their exit from high school might have given them adequate skills for immediate entry to college, the long period out of school has led to atrophy of their skills and need for basic level instruction to bring them back to college-readiness.

  2. Even if a school district wanted to change its curriculum, if it has less economic resources and located in a poverty zone, how can it be expected to do the same level of quality as the better-funded suburban schools?

  3. Changing K-12 education curriculum does nothing for the students who are not enrolled in rigorous college-bound curriculum. Some students and their parents have other future plans that initially do not include college. Maybe they plan to begin a family. Maybe attend a trade school or continue in the family business. Do we want to only have one track choice for students in high school?

  4. Changing K-12 education curriculum does nothing for the students who do not fully focus on their classes, read their textbooks with great intensity, and complete all homework to perfection. If everyone earned A's in their classes, achieved to highest level of proficiency with all high risks tests, and in general, were "on task" all the time, they might not need the developmental-level courses. Assuming that they immediately enter postsecondary education immediately after successful completion of high school. With skyrocketing tuition costs, family members out of work or working low-wage jobs, and difficulty for high-school students to earn much at part-time jobs that now are sought by the out-of-work adults, it is not so easy to immediately attend college. Some have to earn some money first.

A wise person once said, "complex problems require complex solutions." The "Ohio Solution" fails on this account.

David Arendale, Associate Professor and Co-Director of the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education, University of Minnesota. Post comments to this blog or contact the author directly at

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM
Location: 227 Burton Hall

Assistant Professor Rashne Jehangir presents
"Narratives and Counter narratives: Using pedagogy and space to tell the stories of first-generation college students."

First-generation, low-income, college students are by no means a homogenous group. Despite their heterogeneity, aspects of their narratives weave together to form a pattern reflective of both the richness they bring to campuses and the obstacles they encounter in college. Jehangir will draw on her longitudinal research study conducted in three phases to describe the experience of first-generation, low-income college students, and to bring attention to the ways in which pedagogy and multicultural curriculum can cultivate place in the academy. Qualitative analysis of students' perceptions of college and their critiques of the academy will invite discussion of how institutions might bridge the gaps and grasp the unique strengths of these students.

PsTL hosts a research presentation once a month. More details on this event can be found here.

September 29th 3:00- 5:00 pm
Burton Hall 227.

Assistant Professor Na'im Madyun presents his research on African American male access to postsecondary education.

Only 16% of the African American men will receive their college degree (Toldson, 2011). The status of African American males in higher education is at a national crises level. Madyun's research over the past six years points to a plausible practical solution that requires a deliberate intersecting of social capital and cultural capital. How do African American male college prep programs strengthen social networks? What are the positive habit forming elements of African American male college prep programs and how do they align with successful college habits for students of color? This presentation addresses why the answers to these two questions will be critical to improving African American male outcomes.

More details on this event can be found here

David Arendale, Associate Professor in Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, orients the new cohort of student paraprofessionals serving in the Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program that provides academic support for historically-difficult courses. Arendale formerly served as Natinoal Director of the Center for Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Arendale led the team that has trained faculty and staff from morre than 1,500 institutions around the globe to implement the SI program to improve student persistence and increase academic achievement. One of Arendale's research projects at the University of Minneosta is to improve the effectiveness of peer learning programs for a more diverse student population.

Dollarnote_hq.jpgA recent blog posting from "College Bound", reported some familiar statistics, while 84 percent of high-income students enroll in college in the fall after high school, just 54 percent of those from low-income families go on to college, according to 2009 National Center for Education Statistics data. Poor students go to college at lower rates than wealthy students did 30 years ago. By age 24, young adults from high-income families are 10 times more likely to earn a bachelor's degree than those from low-income households. The authors asked, "What changes should be made to improve the landscape?"

The logical response, that it is mostly about increasing financial aid (more grants than loans), diverts from the bigger issue of the social capital these low-income students lack. Probing further reveals that a large percentage of these "low-income" students are first-generation college, students of color, attended rural or urban school districts, and a variety of other factors. The answer to the question "what changes should be made...?" leads to a larger critique of higher education beyond just making some more money available. What changes do higher education institutions need to make to become more welcoming learning environments rather than focusing on the "deficits" of money. All institutions need to have a welcoming and supportive environment: trade school, community college, four-year liberal arts, and research-intensive universities.

Questions to ask of all institutions include:

  • What sorts of faculty development programs do they have that provide comprehensive and ongoing efforts to enable them to embed best practices of Universal Instructional Design into their courses? How are they building in academic supports in the class rather than just passing them off to someone else?

  • How high of a priority has the institution placed on raising more funds for grants targeted for students from low SES backgrounds? Are these funds keeping up with the dramatic increases in tuition and other costs associated with college?

  • How comprehensive are learning assistance activities for students? Are these provided through both credit and noncredit venues? Are exit competencies in developmental-level courses articulated with entry level expectations for college-level courses that they take next? What efforts are being made to take academic-term length developmental-level courses and turn them into a series of modules that can be taken independent of one another to quicken time for completion and less use of Pell grant money to pay for the tuition?

This is just scratching the surface of the issue for what are the challenges for "low-income" students. It is not just about the money.

[Click here to read entire entry from the College Bound blog.]

Illinois Begins Performance-Based College Funding

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Governor Pat Quinn of Illinois signed a bill establishing performance-based measures to determine funding for public universities, community colleges and other state education agencies. Metrics such as student success in degree and certificate completion will be developed to influence a portion of state funding for higher education institutions. "This matches our approach this year to budget for results for all appropriations in the Illinois Senate and extends it to Illinois universities," Maloney said. "Officials from WIU and other state institutions have been involved in setting the parameters for our initial measures. This has been a priority for me as Chairman of the Senate Higher Education Committee, and the opportunity to improve academic results and ensure funds are spent most efficiently make it one of the most important bills passed this year." House Bill 1503 will take effect in 2013 and begin with metrics to affect a small percentage of funding that would increase over time. Allocations would be based on academic milestones, retention, and time to completion. Statistics on students who are academically or financially at-risk, first-generation students, low-income students, and those traditionally underrepresented in higher education will also be measured to affect funding. [Click to read the entire press release.]

This provides a great opportunity for leaders in college access and student success programs to highlight their activities, approaches, and services increasing positive outcomes for students. Colleges in Illinois will be redoubling their efforts to increase access and college completion. The answers can come from their own college TRIO, learning assistance, and developmental education programs. They have solutions that could be scaled up for wider implementation.

I just read an announcement about the University of Southern Mississippi was handing out 1,000 slate computers to their "outstanding" students. [Click to read the online article.] The curious thing about the plan was to only share them with "outstanding" students defined as those from the Honors College, McNair Scholars Program, and Southern Style leadership group.

The article states "Tablets are like the Swiss Army Knife to academic excellence. By leveraging this new technology, we are committed to transforming the way students interact, engage and learn in the classrooms," said Homer Coffman, CIO at Southern Miss, in a statement released today. "The iTech department at Southern Miss is continually challenging itself to support emerging technology and find new ways to put information into the students' hands."

With such a great technology, why not the "average" students or targeting those that are facing academic challenges in a class or two? Why not for students who do not have a mobile device, perhaps due to low income? The college I work at provides an iPad for all first-year students enrolled in the College of Education and Human Development. [Click to read the press release.\ Results look promising. We are repeating the distribution this year at no cost to the students. Preliminary from the instructors in more than 30 classes report favorable positive resutls from the students and the faculty members who enhanced their classroom learning enviroinment. It was also good to know that everyone in the classroom had an effective mobile computer and bridged the "digital divide" due to income restrictions and social capital that some students have and others do not.

Congrats to the University of Southern Mississippi for their bold decision to distribute the 1,000 tablet computers. Please consider more inclusion with next year's program to those who are not quite as outstanding as others (yet). Maybe the mobile devices could help propel more students to that category. Outstanding students probably have more social capital than others. Let's see what happens when more resources are provided to those who might need the resource more.

Take care,
David Arendale
Co-director, Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education
Associate Professor, History and Higher Education

The cultural politics of constructivist pedagogies by F. Vavrus.

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The cultural politics of constructivist pedagogies: Teacher education reform in the United Republic of Tanzania by F. Vavrus.

This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected through a year of participant observation, it argues that the cultural, economic, and political dimensions of teachers' practice need to be considered alongside efforts to reform the country's educational system. It offers contingent constructivism as an alternative to the international consensus on a single model of excellent teaching.

12/03/08 ON CAMPUS: Research Seminar, 3:30 to 5:00 pm

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Nearly each month the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning hosts a research seminar on critical topics related to access, policy, and practice with teaching and learning. These seminars are held in Burton Hall, Room 227 unless otherwise noted fromo 3:30 to 5:00 pm. They are free and open to the public. Some will also be simulcast over the internet with opportunity for viewers to pose questions

12/02/09 ON CAMPUS: Research Seminar, 3:30 to 5:00 pm

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Nearly each month the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning hosts a research seminar on critical topics related to access, policy, and practice with teaching and learning. These seminars are held in Burton Hall, Room 227 unless otherwise noted fromo 3:30 to 5:00 pm. They are free and open to the public. Some will also be simulcast over the internet with opportunity for viewers to pose questions

11/12/08 ON CAMPUS: Research Seminar, 3:30 to 5:00 pm

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Nearly each month the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning hosts a research seminar on critical topics related to access, policy, and practice with teaching and learning. These seminars are held in Burton Hall, Room 227 unless otherwise noted fromo 3:30 to 5:00 pm. They are free and open to the public. Some will also be simulcast over the internet with opportunity for viewers to pose questions

PsTL Research Series: An Introduction to Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL)

Nov. 10th, 2011, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM
Location: 227 Burton Hall

Murray Jensen (Associate Professor) and Allison Mattheis (Graduate Research Assistant ) present on their research titled "An Introduction to Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL)". Jensen received a National Science Foundation grant to support efforts to improve undergraduate anatomy and physiology courses through the use of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL). POGIL is a teaching and learning philosophy that emphasizes cooperative group learning, student-centered instruction, and inquiry-based approaches. It is based on a learning cycle through which students explore content, construct understanding, and apply acquired knowledge. This research presentation will provide an overview of the grant with a focus on the evaluation portion of the project, which includes instructor interviews, classroom observations, and student feedback to gauge the impact of the POGIL approach.

11/10/13 ON CAMPUS: Research Seminar, 3:30 to 5:00 pm

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Nearly each month the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning hosts a research seminar on critical topics related to access, policy, and practice with teaching and learning. These seminars are held in Burton Hall, Room 227 unless otherwise noted fromo 3:30 to 5:00 pm. They are free and open to the public. Some will also be simulcast over the internet with opportunity for viewers to pose questions

11/09/08 ON CAMPUS: Research Seminar, 3:30 to 5:00 p.m.

| 1 Comment

Nearly each month the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning hosts a research seminar on critical topics related to access, policy, and practice with teaching and learning. These seminars are held in Burton Hall, Room 227 unless otherwise noted fromo 3:30 to 5:00 pm. They are free and open to the public. Some will also be simulcast over the internet with opportunity for viewers to pose questions.

The Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning holds an orientation session for the new cohort of newly admitted graduate students for the Graduate Certificate or Master's in Innovative Postsecondary Teaching and Learning for Diverse Student Populations. The event is hosted in burton Hall at 6 pm by invitation only.

David Arendale, Associate Professor in the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, is part of the team for the 14th Annual Technology in Developmental Education (TiDE) Workshop hosted at Texas State University-San Marcos July 22-26, 2011. Fifty educators from across the U.S. will participate in workshops on social media, advanced office productivity software, presentation graphics, tablet computer apps, e-publications, and other learning technologies. The workshop is supported by the host University, National Association for Developmental Education, College Reading and Learning Association, and others.

August 2nd: TRIO McNair Scholars Annual Poster Presentation

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Tuesday, August 2, 2011, 2:00 PM - 4:00 PM, Coffman Union, Mississippi Room

The University of Minnesota TRIO Ronald E. McNair Scholars Program cordially invites you to attend their Nineteenth Annual Poster Presentation and Reception for student participants and their faculty mentors. This summer 20 students from the University of Minnesota Twin Cities and Carleton College will be conducting research under the direction of distinguished faculty research mentors at the University of Minnesota. Students' research poster presentations will be displayed and the McNair Scholars will be present to explain their research.

Hodne receives CCE's Distinguished Educator Award

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Barb Hodne, senior teaching specialist in Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, has been chosen as the 2011 recipient of the College of Continuing Education's Distinguished Educator Award. This award recognizes outstanding impact on education that honors CCE's mission of extending access and providing excellent educational opportunities across a range of domains including the classroom, workshops, and programming designed to provide professional development for educators.

Jill Trites from PsTL on education trip to Africa

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Jill Trites, senior teaching specialist in the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, recently left for a month-long trip to Africa (Mozambique, South Africa, and Senegal). If you would like to learn more about her work, check out her learning abroad blog.

The problem of plagiarism by M. Anderson and N. Steneck.

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The problem of plagiarism by M. Anderson and N. Steneck.

Plagiarism is a form of research misconduct and a serious violation of the norms of science. It is the misrepresentation of another's ideas or words as one's own, without proper acknowledgement of the original source. Certain aspects of plagiarism make it less straightforward than this definition suggests. Over the past 30 years, the U.S. Federal Government has developed and refined its policies on misconduct, and Federal agencies, as well as research institutions, have established approaches to responding to allegations and instances of plagiarism. At present, efforts to avert plagiarism focus on plagiarism-detection software and instructional strategies.

Higher Education on a Stick

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Thai education expert Fry delivers strong message on reforms

Gerald Fry, professor in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development (OLPD), spoke about educational reforms at Thailand's Chulalongkorn University recently. His speech, covered in an article in The Nation, focused on the need to improve quality in Thailand's educational system, which he said has overemphasized infrastructure and underemphasized activities in the classroom.

Fry has traveled to Thailand more than 50 times, sometimes living there for years at a time, and has written several books and articles about Thailand. His 2005 book, Thailand and its neighbors: Interdisciplinary perspectives, is one of several he has written about Southeast Asia. He also has written articles about Thailand for the Harvard International Review and other publications. Fry was selected with OLPD professor David Chapman as a recipient of the University of Minnesota Award for Global Engagement in 2009.

OLPD well represented at International Conference on HRD Research and Practice Across Europe. Several members of the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development (OLPD) presented at the 12th International Conference on HRD Research and Practice Across Europe hosted by the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). The conference was held May 25-27, 2011 at the University of Gloucestershire in Cheltenham, England and focused on Sustaining Growth Through Human Resource Development.

Attendees included: Alexandre Ardichvili (Professor); Kenneth Bartlett (Associate dean for graduate, professional, and international programs; Associate professor); Rosemarie Park (Associate professor); Louis Quast (Associate department chair; Hellervik/PDI Endowed Chair in Leadership & Adult Career Development); Daniel Woldeab (WHRE Ph.D. graduate student)
along with Thomas Jandris (Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education)

Topics presented included: Minding the Gap: Exploring Differences in Perceptions of Organizational Ethics Between Executive, Mid-Level Managers and Non-Managers; Innovation in Higher Education and the Role of HRD Given the Rise of the Academic Uses of Technology: Is the Technological Knowledge of Students Outstripping their HRD Professors?

Rashné Jehangir, assistant professor in the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, has been invited to serve as an expert resource faculty member at the 2011 National Summer Institute on Learning Communities at the Washington Center for Improving Undergraduate Education at Evergreen State College. Teams from around the country apply to earn a spot at this institute, which provides focused time for campus teams of faculty, student affairs professionals, and administrators to develop action plans for launching or strengthening learning community programs, for developing a proven strategy for increasing student engagement, for helping academically under-prepared students succeed, and for invigorating undergraduate education.

The University's Global Program and Strategy Alliance awarded Linda Buturian (Senior Teaching Specialist, Postsecondary Teaching and Learning) and colleague Catherine Solheim (Associate Professor, Family Social Science) travel grants to fund their Mekong Initiative. Linda and Cathy will travel to northern Thailand in August and interview villagers and NGOs along the Mekong River to create digital stories about the impact of development of the Mekong on the villagers' culture and daily living. Buturian and Solheim will also develop contacts for and plan a new integrated course and a future Learning Abroad program centered on northern Thailand. They also received CEHD International Engagement grants for the Mekong Initiative.

The University of Minnesota had a strong showing at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society in Montreal (May 1-5, 2011). With more than 40 presentations by alumni, faculty, and students in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development (OLPD), Minnesota had one of the largest university contingents at the conference.

Highlights of the conference include CIDE alumna Rhiannon Williams coordinated the New Scholars events throughout the conference, and many current students presented their master's and doctoral research (for the entire listing of University of Minnesota presentations see

OLPD faculty were also highly visible at the conference: David Chapman, Birkmaier Professor of Educational Leadership, was honored for the best book of the year in international higher education; Joan DeJaeghere, Ph.D., assistant professor, chaired a high-profile session entitled "Capabilities, Social Justice and Education: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice"; Peter Demerath, Ed.D., associate professor, convened a session during the Gender Workshop on neoliberalism and ethnography; and Frances Vavrus, Ph.D., associate professor, presented papers on teacher education and globalization during two highlighted panels.

Dr. Moravec publishes book on invisible learning

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John Moravec, Ph.D., coordinator of Leapfrog Institutes and senior lecturer in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development (OLPD), has had the Spanish edition of his new book (written together with Cristóbal Cobo, Oxford Internet Institute), Invisible Learning (Aprendizaje Invisible) released by the University of Barcelona (Col·lecció Transmedia XXI. Laboratori de Mitjans Interactius / Publicacions i Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona). The e-book is available at the University of Barcelona website. The print edition will arrive in the coming months and an English edition is forthcoming.

Dr. Kampsen honored with undergraduate advising award

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Amy Kampsen, who holds a doctoral degree in educational policy and administration from the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development, has been awarded the prestigious John Tate Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Advising at the University for 2010-11. The award is named in honor of John Tate, professor of physics and first dean of University College (1930-41). The Tate Awards serve to recognize and reward high-quality academic advising and to identify professional models and celebrate the role that academic advising plays in the University's educational mission. Kampsen will be honored with this year's other Tate winners at a ceremony on April 22.

Jandris Center Video Clips

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Jandris Center Video Clips

Short clips of presentations and talks given in OLPD and PSTL

Dr. Yeh publishes book on raising student achievement


Stuart Yeh, associate professor in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development, has had his book, The Cost-Effectiveness of 22 Approaches for Raising Student Achievement, published by Information Age Publishing.

In his book, Yeh suggests that student achievement may be increased in a way that is not only cost-effective in dollar terms, but efficient in the sense that it does not rely on unusual investments of time. He draws on a wealth of cost-effectiveness data to dispel common notions about "what works" in addressing the achievement gap: increased expenditure per pupil, charter schools, voucher programs, increased educational accountability, class size reduction, comprehensive school reform, increased teacher salaries, more selective teacher recruitment, the use of "value-added" methods to measure and reward teacher performance, the use of National Board teacher certification to identify high-performing teachers, and a host of other approaches.

David Chapman, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development (OLPD) was the guest of the Sheikh Saud Bin Saqr Al Qasimi Foundation for Policy Research to be a featured speaker at the annual meeting of the Gulf Comparative Education Society held in the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE March 16-17. He reported on a research study being conducted with Elizabeth Wilson (OLPD) and colleagues at Michigan State University and the Dubai School of Government. Their study explores the dynamics of how relying on an instructional staff composed of over 90% expatriate instructors on short-term contracts affects higher education quality in the UAE.

Jeanne Higbee, professor in the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, has been awarded the Horace T. Morse - University of Minnesota Alumni Association Award for Outstanding Contributions to Undergraduate Education. She will be honored for her exemplary teaching, research, and service as an undergraduate educator at the Distinguished Teaching Awards Ceremony on campus April 25.

"Dr. H is the Michael Jordan of teaching," said one student in Higbee's nomination materials. She also received enthusiastic support from many others inside and outside the University, including James Banks, director of the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington, and John N. Gardner, executive director of the Policy Center on the First Year of College.

This statement from her nomination letter sums up the respect Higbee has earned: "Jeanne's legacy, evident in her teaching, research, and educational leadership, is to demonstrate to faculty that their obligation extends beyond access to success, to ensuring that the environments students enter enable them to achieve their full potential. She provides leadership and a vision for equity and access in higher education."

Expanding Research Practices in Education by P Demerath.


The science of context: Modes of response for qualitative researchers in education by P Demerath.

How might qualitative researchers meaningfully operate in a contemporary research climate that holds to such limited conceptions of what constitutes 'scientific' research in education? This article discusses implications of scientifically based research (SBR) and identifies several pathways along which researchers may productively work in such a context. These include: (1) Conducting critical inquiry into the socio-intellectual frameworks and institutional networks driving such policy development; (2) Educating peers and policy-makers about key precepts of cultural practice and qualitative research; (3) Achieving greater transparency in research designs, inference and theory development, and quality criteria; (4) Adopting mixed-methods research designs; and (5) Undertaking public access or public-interest education research. The central aim is to orient qualitative researchers to those modes of scholarship that can most powerfully impact the projects to which they are committed, and thereby extend the notion and application of SBR.

Access article here.

Toward Multicultural Community Engagement by Grier-Reed et al.

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Toward Multicultural Community Engagement by T. Grier-Reed; D. Detzner; R. Poch & S. Staats

An integrative approach to undergraduate curriculum development that we call multicultural community engagement can prepare students to participate in a diverse democracy and the more complex world of tomorrow. Courses, programs, and undergraduate majors can be strengthened through curricula that develop multicultural competency and that position students to work in full collaboration with diverse communities. Curricular examples suggest ways to incorporate multicultural community engagement into a variety of courses and disciplines.

Access at the Crossroads: Learning Assistance in Higher Education by D. Arendale.

In higher education institutions, learning assistance frequently operates at the junction where academic affairs, student affairs, and enrollment management converge. Although it has a presence in most third-level institutions, the expression of learning assistance is relatively diverse through credit and noncredit activities. This issue of the ASHE Higher Education Report examines the effectiveness of learning assistance for supporting academic affairs through better student preparation, working with student affairs to improve student development, and supporting enrollment management programs to boost persistence rates.

Power of Language to Define Practice by D. Arendale.


A glossary of developmental education and learning assistance terms by D. Arendale.

It is critical to periodically reexamine the basic language used within a profession. Language not only reflects past and current practice, it also guides the future. As the practice advances and changes, so must the language to describe it. This reexamination of basic terms used in developmental education and learning assistance provides an opportunity to transform its work, expand borders, and redefine its essential role within postsecondary education. The glossary is grounded in the previous version of it as well as extensive review by practitioners and leaders in the field. The complexity of the language has increased as well as its connection with other fields within education. This glossary is offered to help guide practices to better meet institutional and student needs.

Access article here.

Integrated Multicultural Instructional Design by J. Higbee.

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The pedagogy of inclusion: Integrated multicultural instructional design by J. Higbee.

This article presents integrated multicultural instructional design (IMID), a new pedagogical model that is responsive to the growing student diversity in postsecondary institutions in the U.S. and throughout the world. This work builds on previous research articles in the Journal of College Reading and Learning related to assessing our commitment to multiculturalism. Course evaluation results from a pilot implementation project involving 5 faculty members are also discussed, and the PIRIMID course evaluation template is provided.

The Engaged Campus by A. Furco.

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The Engaged Campus: Toward a Comprehensive Approach to Public Engagement by A. Furco.

Although civic purposes are implicit in the mission statements of higher education institutions, American colleges and universities have not always embraced public engagement initiatives. This paper explores how the recent emergence of the engaged campus movement has helped move public engagement initiatives from the margins to the mainstream by integrating community engagement into the research, teaching and public service functions of the academy.

An outcome study of career decision self-efficacy and indecision in an undergraduate constructivist career course by T. Grier-Reed and N. Skaar.

This study explored outcomes in a constructivist career course. Using a pretest/posttest design, the authors assessed the empowerment (operationalized as career decision self-efficacy) and career indecision of 82 culturally diverse college students at a large, midwestern university. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicated that students reported significant increases in empowerment with no commensurate decreases in career indecision. In addition to shedding light on the nuanced relationship between empowerment or career decision self-efficacy and indecision, results indicate the potential constructivist career development has to empower culturally diverse college students.

Volunteerism in Higher Education by D. Weerts.

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Beyond giving: Political advocacy and volunteer roles of college alumni by D. Weerts.

College and university leaders have paid an enormous level of attention to one domain of alumni involvement: charitable giving. In light of the decline of state support for higher education and the shrinking ability of families to pay for college, such emphasis is understandable. However, this emphasis has blinded scholars and practitioners to understanding the important non-monetary support roles played by college alumni. Drawing on data from a research extensive university, this study employs a sequential mixed method design (focus groups and confirmatory factor analysis) to demonstrate that non-monetary support behaviors are best understood through the distinct, but interrelated domains of political advocacy and volunteerism. Political advocacy behaviors include contacting legislators, the governor's office, local politicians and serving on a political action team, while volunteer behaviors include mentoring new alumni, recruiting students, and participating in special events. The study breaks ground for future research on alumni support for higher education, including strategies to recruit alumni volunteers and advocates.

Race Related Stressors on White College Campuses by T. Grier-Reed.

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The African American Student Network: Creating sanctuaries and counter spaces for coping with racial microaggressions in higher education settings by T. Grier-Reed.

African American college students face a number of race-related stressors on predominantly White campuses. The African American Student Network is described as a potential humanistic counterspace to provide a sanctuary for these students when coping with racial microaggressions. The development and study of future humanistic interventions in this area is recommended.

Creating a New Professional Association by D. Arendale.

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Creating a new professional association by D. Arendale.

This position paper investigates the merits and potential benefits of creating a new, more comprehensive professional association for members of the learning assistance and developmental education profession. This was the task assigned to the College Reading and Learning Association/National Association for Developmental Education (CRLA/NADE) Working Group by the CRLA and NADE national executive boards. This Working Group considered not only the issue of effectiveness of the current professional associations but also the merits of expanding the mission and vision of a new professional association. Building upon the success of CRLA and NADE, the Working Group identified many ways a new association could better serve members and have a greater influence on student success and in society (CRLA/NADE Taskforce, 2007).

Improving education system management by D. Chapman.

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Options for improving the management of education systems by D. Chapman.

Over the last half century, many countries have made remarkable progress in extending and improving the educational opportunities available to their citizens. Governments are rightfully proud of their success in building appropriate infrastructure, extending education access, improving instructional quality, and increasing student learning. But not all countries have shared in this success. Even in successful countries more remains to be done. This chapter examines the changing nature of education management and emerging opportunities for improving the management of education systems. An understanding of these shifts provides a basis for examining options for improving the management of education systems.

Using music to enhance the human resource education of the iPod® generation by K. Bartlett.

This paper examines student reactions to the use of music in the classroom to enhance education. Students in an undergraduate course selected songs and related them to class topics. First, an overview of the use of media in education is provided. Next, human resource development and andragogy are discussed as frameworks for this study. A description of the song related assignment is given, and quantitative and qualitative results of student reactions to the assignment are presented. Results found that the music related assignment made class more interesting for students, and that it caused students to think more about class topics.

Characteristics of ethical business cultures by A. Ardichivili.

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Characteristics of ethical business cultures by A. Ardichivili.

The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: Mission and Values-Driven, Stakeholder Balance, Leadership
Effectiveness, Process Integrity, and Long-term Perspective. We propose that these characteristics be used as a foundation of a comprehensive model that can be
engaged to influence operational practices in creating and sustaining an ethical business culture.

">Civic and feminist education: Bridging parallel approaches to teaching and learning by B. Ropers-Huilman.

Scholarship related to both civic education and feminist education and feminist education has made substantial contributions to educator's understandings about teaching and learning relations both within and outside higher education instituions. However, only rarely do these two bodies of knowledge explicitly draw on each other's examinations to inform the terms of their research and practice. This chapter represents one effort to posit the main themes and complexities of feminist and civic education (including learning through engagement, power/empowerment, and community), as well as key strategies that are advocated in each of these scholarly literatures to enact those values.

Bringing Evaluative Learning to Life by J. King.

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Bringing Evaluative Learning to Life by J. King.

This excerpt from the opening plenary asks evaluators to consider two questions regarding learning and evaluation: (a) How do evaluators know if, how, when, and what people are learning during an evaluation? and (b) In what ways can evaluation be a learning experience? To answer the first question, evaluators can apply the common-places of evaluative learning, where, in a given evaluative context, the evaluator is a teacher, the clients/participants are students, and the process and results of the evaluation are the curriculum. To answer the second question, evaluators can consider two ideas for understanding evaluative learning: (a) evaluation for accountability and control and (b) evaluation for program development.

Education 3.0 and 4.0 by A. Harkins.

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Leapfrog Principles and Practices: Core Components of Education 3.0 AND 4.0. by A. Harkins.

This paper describes the paradigm and practices of educational "Leapfrogging." Leapfrog Principles and Practices are introduced and explained as components of
"Education 3.0," or knowledge-producing education, and "Education 4.0," or innovation producing education. Examples are provided of human capital enhancements relevant to
knowledge production and innovation applications of knowledge. The author contends that the first nations to Leapfrog into local expressions of Education 3.0 and 4.0, support them with advanced technologies, and apply them in early childhood through tertiary and adult education, will become bellwether human capital development leaders among 21st creative economies of the 21st century.

Key Levers or Inhibitors of Community Engagement by D. Weerts.

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Building a two-way street: Challenges and opportunities for community engagement at research universities by D. Weerts.

Recent reforms in the Carnegie Foundation classification system and regional accreditation standards have fueled momentum for community engagement in higher education. This study employs a knowledge-flow conceptual framework to identify barriers and facilitators that influence the adoption of an engagement agenda at land-grant and urban research universities. With data drawn from six cases, broad themes related to institutional setting, history, epistemologies, leadership, structures, and boundary-spanning roles of faculty and staff emerged as key levers or inhibitors of community engagement at research universities. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Internet vs. Classroom Access in a Hybrid Psychology Course for Developmental Students by T. Brothen and C. Wambach.

A new method in higher education is the hybrid course--one that uses both web based
and face to face teaching methods. This study provides data to help developmental educators decide what a good balance between online and in-class activities might be. We explored whether making outside class access to online practice quizzes contingent on course performance helps students be successful. Our data suggests that instructors should give students options but that having contingencies for accessing practice quizzes is effective. We recommend ways that developmental educators can structure their hybrid courses to help students succeed.

Stand your Ground by K. Miksch.

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Stand your Ground: Legal and policy justifications for race-conscious programming by K. Miksch.

A study of legal challenges to race-conscious programs in higher education reveals that
institutions appear to be responding to negative publicity and the threat of litigation without fully considering how current social science research and case law support their efforts. Indeed, the threat of litigation is based on arguments that contradict official policy and misinterpret U.S. Supreme Court holdings. Institutions that seek to increase diversity in their student body should continue to defend their efforts, and additional research can be conducted to assist them.

Becoming a scientist: The effects of workgroup size and climate by K. Seashore, J. Holdsworth, M. Anderson, E. Campbell.

The future of the scientific enterprise is vested in the next generation of scientists who are currently enrolled in doctoral programs and fellowships in the nation's universities. Because scientific education occurs in the scientific milieu, graduate students and postdoctoral fellows are directly influenced by the organizational and contextual forces driving the conduct of scientific research.

The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of industrial research support, work-group size, and organizational climate on the productivity of graduate students and postdocs and their subsequent willingness to share their research with the scientific community. In order to address this issue, we conducted a national survey of a random sample of 2,000 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in the life sciences, chemical engineering, and computer science.

The results of this survey show that organizational climate (as measured by multi item scales reflecting the amount of collaboration, competition, individualism, and openness) and work-group size are significantly related to the productivity of students as well as to their willingness to share their research results with others. In addition, we found significant differences and similarities between scientific fields and between doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows. Finally, our data suggest that the presence of industrial funding enhances productivity and does not detract from willingness to share.

Process pedagogy in a first-year learning community by I. Duranczyk.

A process-orientated pedagogy was used in a learning community to engage first-year college students as writers and mathematicians. Students were involved in exploring and experiencing how writers and mathematicians work. Emphasis was on the processes used by professionals to achieve their end products--a final manuscript or solved problem. This article presents examples of mathematics activities modeling a process-orientated pedagogy.

Efficacy of participating in a first-year seminar on student satisfaction and retention by D. Hendel.

Improving the first-year experience has been part of a broader set of initiatives to respond to concerns about undergraduate education (Astin, Keup, & Lindholm, 2002). This research examined the efficacy of a first-year seminar on student satisfaction and retention at a Research Extensive, urban and public land-grant university. This study used survey data to compare satisfaction levels from a random sample of first-year students with those of students who had enrolled in a first-year seminar. A logistic regression model (e.g., Xiao & House, 2000) was used to determine if seminar participation affected retention. Results indicated statistically significant differences at p less than or equal to 0.05 for 15 of the 92 satisfaction items; more positive responses came from students enrolled in a first-year seminar. Results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that participation did not increase the probability of retention; only high school rank was a significant contributor to the prediction of freshman-to-sophomore retention.

Leapfrogging toward the "singularity:" Innovative knowledge production on market-driven campuses by A. Harkins and G. Kubik.

Purpose - This paper aims to focus on the production and application of seven knowledge production Modes in support of continuous innovation societies (CIS).
Design/methodology/approach - Seven tertiary educational archetypes are constructed as engines for creating and supporting CIS, with attention to the modal types of knowledge that each produces together with markets for this knowledge.
Findings - The most important ''on the horizon'' type of knowledge identified for the future of tertiary education is Mode III, or knowledge produced by and for the individual. The division of knowledge production is projected within tertiary education through leadership or lagging indicator choices, and the associated roles of faculty, students, and stakeholders.
Originality/value- Special emphasis is placed on the future of leapfrog campus, or the campus capable of, or aspiring to, new leadership status in support of CIS.

Refocusing developmental education by T. Brothen and C. Wambach.

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Refocusing developmental education by T. Brothen and C. Wambach.

Dissatisfaction with stu­dent success has caused a crisis in develop­mental education. Critics from both inside and outside the field question whether re­medial courses really prepare students for future college work or even if they are properly part of the college mission. In this article, we review research and present information that suggests developmental educa­tors should redefine core principles and key concepts to reinvigorate theory and practice in the field.

Working the system: Student activists' characterizations of and desired communication with higher education administrators by R. Ropers-Huilman.

This study investigated student activists' characterizations of administrators at a southern university in the United States. Findings from interviews with 26 activists indicate that they perceive administrators as gatekeepers, antagonists, supporters, and absentee leaders. Activists had limited understandings of the roles and responsibilities of administrators as leaders in higher education. They expressed a desire to develop stronger relationships with administrators, both to enhance their ability to participate in the campus community and to be an integral part of shaping the university and, through the university, society.

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