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Leading Change in Turbulent Times

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Leading Change in Turbulent Times

The higher education landscape is changing rapidly as economic, political, and technological forces reshape purposes, policies, and practices in higher education. University of Minnesota students and alumni reflected upon their past and current experiences in leading change in higher education. The panelist: Geraldine Evans, Lisa Helmin Foss, Thomas Ries, Donovan Schwichtenberg also provided their perspectives on the future of higher education and what leaders can do to guide colleges and universities through these turbulent times.

To listen to the webinar please click here.

Strengthening the University of Minnesota as an Engaged University: Community Perspectives by Brynja Gudjonsson.

Yesterday the Office for Public Engagement hosted an event focused on bringing together a panel of community experts at the University of Minnesota McNamara Alumni Center to discuss ways that we can encourage and foster stronger partnerships between local community organizations and the University. Present were community specialists from around the city of Minneapolis. The five community experts were Elder Atum Azzahir of Cultural Wellness Center, Dr. Eleanor Coleman, Board Chair of the University YMCA, Ms. Amy Libman Director of Support Services, Minnesota Internship Center Charter High School, Ms. Haila Maze, Principal Planner for the City of Minneapolis, and Ms. Susan Gust, Community Activist and Small Business Owner. All of these women have extensive experience in working collaboratively with the University on projects that have long term benefit to Minneapolis communities. Their projects have encompassed such things as creation of the ReUse Center, developing teaching and tutoring opportunities for college students to work with high school students, developing leadership and coaching programs that strengthen partnerships between parents, students and educators for academic success, and the Cultural Wellness & Community Health. The panel was moderated by Dr. Heidi Barajas the Executive Director for Urban Research and Outreach Engagement Center & Associate Dean for Engagement, Diversity and Undergraduate Programs in the College of Education and Human Development.

One of the most striking topics during the conversations was the distance that the community representatives felt from the University faculty and project managers. Often when the University engages in research partnering with communities it is for a limited time and the needs of the community may be overlooked. The presenters noted that at times they felt overwhelmed and underprepared to advocate and interact with faculty. They further noted that they often had the feeling of being studied without the ability to share input. There was some discussion of the difference between community engagement and outreach, where outreach was provider directed and unidirectional, and engagement points to a collaborative process.

All presenters noted that the successful partnerships brought the communities and the University into mutually rewarding collaborations. The ability to work in the community is a unique and valuable part of the the land grant university mission that helps to strengthen research and teaching at the University. The value added to the undergraduates who enter into the surrounding environment is to not only help the neighborhoods, but also provide experiences for students who may have previously had cloistered cultural and academic experiences.

For more information on public engagement at the University of Minnesota, please go to www.engagement.umn.edu

Leading Change in Turbulent Times

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Apr 30 Leading Change in Turbulent Times.jpg

Organizational culture in the adoption of the Bologna process: a study of academic staff at a Ukrainian university by M.A. Shaw, D. W. Chapman & N.L. Rumyantseva.

The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the
world has raised concerns about the applicability of this set of reforms in diverse
cultural contexts. Ukraine provides an instructive case study highlighting the
dynamics occurring at the convergence of the new framework with a statecentred
model of higher education. The goal of this study was to examine the
professional identity of faculty at one Ukrainian university and their perceptions
regarding the implementation of Bologna at their institution. We found that
instructional and institutional innovations were successfully implemented only to
the extent that they were integrated with the existing pattern of values and
beliefs held by faculty. These findings provide insight for how other countries
may approach Bologna compatibility in the presence of social and cultural forces
divergent from those in which the Bologna process originated.
Shaw_2011_Organizational_Culture_and_Bologna.pdf

What is the role of Higher Education in a Flourishing Democracy?

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Jandris Center December hosted its first webinar.

Presenters: Harry Boyte and Mitch Pearlstein.

The Jandris Center hosted its first online event Rethinking the Role of Higher Education in Society: Implications for Higher Education Policy on December 3rd. Panelist included Harry Boyte from the Center for Democracy and Citizenship at Augsburg College and Mitch Pearlstein from the Center of the American Experiment. During this lively discussion, panelists discussed the civic roles of higher education and its implications for teaching and learning in colleges and universities. To learn more or to listen to this talk click here.

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Change the Students OR Change the System, by N. Sorenson.

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The Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education presented a webinar on December 3rd, 2011 featuring Mitch Pearlstein of the American Experiment and Harry Boyte of the Center for Democracy and Citizenship The event was facilitated by Dr. David Weerts of the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education. The webinar addressed the question, "What is the role of higher education in a thriving democracy?" University of Minnesota graduate students in Dr. Weerts' Public Policy and Higher Education class attending in person and participants attending virtually were able to interact with the presenters and pose questions.

The dialogue between the presenters was of particular interest because of the different lenses through which Mitch and Harry approached the topic of higher education and democracy. Mitch spoke of the need for higher education to respond to globalization, family collapse and market forces. Globalization requires every individual to bring some skill to the table, so education should be equipping each student with a skill that is in demand in the marketplace so our democracy can be economically competitive on a global scale. Conversely, Harry talked about the politics of knowledge and detached versus engaged teaching pedagogy. For Harry, both what we teach and the way we teach must be addressed in order to free the powers and talents of everyone and help them develop into engaged citizens.

Toward the close of the conversation, I was thinking about the many different approaches to changing higher education so as to better serve our democracy, which seemed to fall in to two categories. In my notes I wrote in large bold print, "Change the Students OR Change the System." Put that way, it seems obvious which category of solutions should be preferable - change the system to better serve the needs of both the students and the democracy.

Impact of Bologna in Ukraine by M. Shaw, D. Chapman, N. Rumyantseva.

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The impact of the Bologna Process on academic staff in Ukraine by M. Shaw, D. Chapman, N. Rumyantseva.

Academic staff in Ukraine face a convergence of institutional and professional pressures precipitated by a national economic crisis, projected declines in enrolment and dramatic changes to institutional procedures as institutions implement the Bologna Process. This article examines the extent to which these pressures are reshaping the way academic staff engage in their day-to-day work, their careers and their role in their university. Findings indicate that faculty are caught in a confluence of conflicting demands that elicits adaptive coping strategies and threatens to undermine national efforts to modernise Ukraine's higher education system.

Shaw_2011_Impact_of_Bologna.pdf

This presentation offers innovative ways that the public university and colleges can better collaborate in the future.

2012_UM and MnSCUcollaborationwebversion.pdf

By David Weerts, Jandris Center Co-Director.
The other night I had the President Obama's State of the Union speech in the background as I got our kids ready for bed. The phrase that jumped out and took my attention away from putting pajamas on a two-year old was, "Let me put colleges and universities on notice. If you can't stop tuition from going up, the funding you get from taxpayers will go down." A very bold (some may say refreshing?) and aggressive statement I thought. President Obama's words referenced his points about higher education as an economic imperative, and that college and universities have an important role to play in the future of the country. In short, he argued that colleges and universities must do their part to keep college affordable rather than the government simply "subsidizing skyrocketing tuition."

So what should college and university leaders do with the President's warning?

It seems that the narratives about college costs are set in stone and may change little given the entrenched thinking about higher education among key stakeholders. The basic dilemma is what the former National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education called the "Iron Triangle" (National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2008). In short, college leaders argue that reducing tuition (without increases in appropriations) will diminish quality and access. From this vantage point, legislators are the villains keeping higher education out of reach. But state officials disagree, providing new evidence about institutions that are making gains in cutting costs while improving learning.

On top of these challenges is the issue of demand elasticity. Flagship institutions like the University of Minnesota have enormous demand which makes tackling the cost issue more difficult. If nearly 40,000 applicants apply for 5,000 undergraduate seats, some would say, "Why not charge what the market will bear?" With prestige maximization being the goal for many institutions, being a "bargain college" is not at the top of the list for most college and university presidents.

So what can be done to influence institutional behavior?

It seems that what President Obama might have added is that higher education is in a crisis-- a "lack of imagination crisis." Had Henry Ford thought about transportation like college leaders think about higher education, he likely would have focused on creating faster horses rather than revolutionizing the transportation industry. Higher education could take a lesson from Ford. All higher education stakeholders--state leaders, presidents, faculty, and students--must first disrupt their current mental models about forms and structure of higher education. Instead, attention must be paid to envisioning preferred outcomes for the country (economic, civic etc.) and how higher education can become an instrument to achieving these outcomes. It is through this lens that innovative solutions about financing higher education may emerge.

Here at the Jandris Center we hope to create a community of "Henry Fords"-- an imaginative, dynamic community of problem solvers committed to designing a high quality, affordable, and accessible system of higher education for future generations. In the years to come, the focus of our work will be on challenging participants to think differently about long-standing higher education problems such as college affordability. The emphasis will be on building new prototypes that could be tested in policy and practice. There are plenty of challenges ahead and we hope you will join us in this endeavor. Stay tuned for more updates!

Suggested readings:
Archibald, R. B & Feldman, D., H, (2008). Explaining increases in higher education costs. Journal of Higher Education, 79, 3 268-295.
Ehrenberg, R. G., (2002). Tuition rising: Why college costs so much. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mumper, M. (2001) The paradox of college prices: Five stories with no clear lesson, In Heller, D. E., (ed). The States and Public Higher Education Policy: Affordability, Access, and Accountability. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Winston, G. C., (1999). Subsidies, hierarchy, and peers: The awkward economics of higher education. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 13(1), 13-36.
The Iron Triangle: College presidents talk about costs, access, and quality. (2008) National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education: San Jose, CA http://www.highereducation.org/reports/iron_triangle/IronTriangle.pdf

Building Bridges: Community College Practitioners as Retention Leaders by M. Stebleton, & L. Schmidt.

Community colleges face struggles in helping students meet their academic, career, and personal goals. Student affairs practitioners can be innovators by creating initiatives to engage students. Practitioners can act as a bridge between student and academic affairs. This article explores how a group of counselors redefined their roles by designing a first-year experience effort. A program implemented at Inver Hills Community College focused on student success is highlighted. Features, outcomes, and lessons learned are outlined.

Internationalization of Higher Education: Performance Assessment and Indicators by R. Michael Paige.

This paper provides a conceptual overview of the internationalization of higher education and presents a set of performance indicators for assessing internationalization. It begins by locating internationalization within the context of globalization and discussing the impact of globalization on tertiary education. The paper continues with overviews of the concepts of performance assessment, performance indicators, and a performance assessment model. It then presents a review of the global literature on internationalization at the higher education level. The centerpiece of the paper is the author's internationalization model, consisting of ten key performance categories, and the related performance indicators. The paper concludes with the observation that the internationalization of higher education is a complex process and represents a major educational reform.

Rethinking the Role of Higher Education in Society: Implications for Higher Education Policy

A Webinar
Saturday, December 3, 2011
9:00 AM - 10:30 AM


Link: https://umconnect.umn.edu/jcdec3event/ (No registration is required)

What is the role of higher education in a flourishing democracy? What are the implications for public policy and higher education? Join Mitch Pearlstein, Harry Boyte, and higher education graduate students at the University of Minnesota to address these important questions.

Mitch Pearlstein is founder and president of Center of the American Experiment, a nonpartisan, tax-exempt, public policy and educational institution that brings conservative and free market ideas to bear on problems facing Minnesota and the nation. Pearlstein served in the U.S. Department of Education during the Reagan administration.

Harry Boyte is senior fellow at the U of M Humphrey School of Public Affairs and co-director for the Center for Democracy and Citizenship at Augsburg College. Boyte is founder of Public Achievement, a theory-based practice of citizen organizing to do public work that is used in schools, universities, and communities across the U.S. and in more than a dozen countries.

Contact Brynja Gudjonsson at gudjo002@umn.edu for more information or if you have questions. This event is sponsored by the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education.

Friday, December 2, 2011
2:00 PM - 4:00 PM
Minnesota State Capitol Room 107

Minnesota policymakers will join University of Minnesota higher education graduate students in a discussion of critical postsecondary education policy issues facing the State of Minnesota. Student presentations will address the following topics:

- College readiness
- Rural student access
- MnSCU/U of M collaboration
- Innovative teaching and learning

Contact Brynja Gudjonsson at gudjo002@umn.edu for more information or if you have questions. This event is sponsored by the Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education.

Dollarnote_hq.jpgA recent blog posting from "College Bound", reported some familiar statistics, while 84 percent of high-income students enroll in college in the fall after high school, just 54 percent of those from low-income families go on to college, according to 2009 National Center for Education Statistics data. Poor students go to college at lower rates than wealthy students did 30 years ago. By age 24, young adults from high-income families are 10 times more likely to earn a bachelor's degree than those from low-income households. The authors asked, "What changes should be made to improve the landscape?"

The logical response, that it is mostly about increasing financial aid (more grants than loans), diverts from the bigger issue of the social capital these low-income students lack. Probing further reveals that a large percentage of these "low-income" students are first-generation college, students of color, attended rural or urban school districts, and a variety of other factors. The answer to the question "what changes should be made...?" leads to a larger critique of higher education beyond just making some more money available. What changes do higher education institutions need to make to become more welcoming learning environments rather than focusing on the "deficits" of money. All institutions need to have a welcoming and supportive environment: trade school, community college, four-year liberal arts, and research-intensive universities.

Questions to ask of all institutions include:


  • What sorts of faculty development programs do they have that provide comprehensive and ongoing efforts to enable them to embed best practices of Universal Instructional Design into their courses? How are they building in academic supports in the class rather than just passing them off to someone else?

  • How high of a priority has the institution placed on raising more funds for grants targeted for students from low SES backgrounds? Are these funds keeping up with the dramatic increases in tuition and other costs associated with college?

  • How comprehensive are learning assistance activities for students? Are these provided through both credit and noncredit venues? Are exit competencies in developmental-level courses articulated with entry level expectations for college-level courses that they take next? What efforts are being made to take academic-term length developmental-level courses and turn them into a series of modules that can be taken independent of one another to quicken time for completion and less use of Pell grant money to pay for the tuition?

This is just scratching the surface of the issue for what are the challenges for "low-income" students. It is not just about the money.

[Click here to read entire entry from the College Bound blog.]

Illinois Begins Performance-Based College Funding

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Governor Pat Quinn of Illinois signed a bill establishing performance-based measures to determine funding for public universities, community colleges and other state education agencies. Metrics such as student success in degree and certificate completion will be developed to influence a portion of state funding for higher education institutions. "This matches our approach this year to budget for results for all appropriations in the Illinois Senate and extends it to Illinois universities," Maloney said. "Officials from WIU and other state institutions have been involved in setting the parameters for our initial measures. This has been a priority for me as Chairman of the Senate Higher Education Committee, and the opportunity to improve academic results and ensure funds are spent most efficiently make it one of the most important bills passed this year." House Bill 1503 will take effect in 2013 and begin with metrics to affect a small percentage of funding that would increase over time. Allocations would be based on academic milestones, retention, and time to completion. Statistics on students who are academically or financially at-risk, first-generation students, low-income students, and those traditionally underrepresented in higher education will also be measured to affect funding. [Click to read the entire press release.]

This provides a great opportunity for leaders in college access and student success programs to highlight their activities, approaches, and services increasing positive outcomes for students. Colleges in Illinois will be redoubling their efforts to increase access and college completion. The answers can come from their own college TRIO, learning assistance, and developmental education programs. They have solutions that could be scaled up for wider implementation.

Higher Education on a Stick

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Thai education expert Fry delivers strong message on reforms

Gerald Fry, professor in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development (OLPD), spoke about educational reforms at Thailand's Chulalongkorn University recently. His speech, covered in an article in The Nation, focused on the need to improve quality in Thailand's educational system, which he said has overemphasized infrastructure and underemphasized activities in the classroom.

Fry has traveled to Thailand more than 50 times, sometimes living there for years at a time, and has written several books and articles about Thailand. His 2005 book, Thailand and its neighbors: Interdisciplinary perspectives, is one of several he has written about Southeast Asia. He also has written articles about Thailand for the Harvard International Review and other publications. Fry was selected with OLPD professor David Chapman as a recipient of the University of Minnesota Award for Global Engagement in 2009.

OLPD well represented at International Conference on HRD Research and Practice Across Europe. Several members of the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development (OLPD) presented at the 12th International Conference on HRD Research and Practice Across Europe hosted by the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). The conference was held May 25-27, 2011 at the University of Gloucestershire in Cheltenham, England and focused on Sustaining Growth Through Human Resource Development.

Attendees included: Alexandre Ardichvili (Professor); Kenneth Bartlett (Associate dean for graduate, professional, and international programs; Associate professor); Rosemarie Park (Associate professor); Louis Quast (Associate department chair; Hellervik/PDI Endowed Chair in Leadership & Adult Career Development); Daniel Woldeab (WHRE Ph.D. graduate student)
along with Thomas Jandris (Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education)

Topics presented included: Minding the Gap: Exploring Differences in Perceptions of Organizational Ethics Between Executive, Mid-Level Managers and Non-Managers; Innovation in Higher Education and the Role of HRD Given the Rise of the Academic Uses of Technology: Is the Technological Knowledge of Students Outstripping their HRD Professors?

The University of Minnesota had a strong showing at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society in Montreal (May 1-5, 2011). With more than 40 presentations by alumni, faculty, and students in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development (OLPD), Minnesota had one of the largest university contingents at the conference.

Highlights of the conference include CIDE alumna Rhiannon Williams coordinated the New Scholars events throughout the conference, and many current students presented their master's and doctoral research (for the entire listing of University of Minnesota presentations see http://www.cehd.umn.edu/olpd/events/CIES/CIES2011.pdf).

OLPD faculty were also highly visible at the conference: David Chapman, Birkmaier Professor of Educational Leadership, was honored for the best book of the year in international higher education; Joan DeJaeghere, Ph.D., assistant professor, chaired a high-profile session entitled "Capabilities, Social Justice and Education: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice"; Peter Demerath, Ed.D., associate professor, convened a session during the Gender Workshop on neoliberalism and ethnography; and Frances Vavrus, Ph.D., associate professor, presented papers on teacher education and globalization during two highlighted panels.

Dr. Kampsen honored with undergraduate advising award

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Amy Kampsen, who holds a doctoral degree in educational policy and administration from the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development, has been awarded the prestigious John Tate Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Advising at the University for 2010-11. The award is named in honor of John Tate, professor of physics and first dean of University College (1930-41). The Tate Awards serve to recognize and reward high-quality academic advising and to identify professional models and celebrate the role that academic advising plays in the University's educational mission. Kampsen will be honored with this year's other Tate winners at a ceremony on April 22.

Dr. Yeh publishes book on raising student achievement

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Stuart Yeh, associate professor in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development, has had his book, The Cost-Effectiveness of 22 Approaches for Raising Student Achievement, published by Information Age Publishing.

In his book, Yeh suggests that student achievement may be increased in a way that is not only cost-effective in dollar terms, but efficient in the sense that it does not rely on unusual investments of time. He draws on a wealth of cost-effectiveness data to dispel common notions about "what works" in addressing the achievement gap: increased expenditure per pupil, charter schools, voucher programs, increased educational accountability, class size reduction, comprehensive school reform, increased teacher salaries, more selective teacher recruitment, the use of "value-added" methods to measure and reward teacher performance, the use of National Board teacher certification to identify high-performing teachers, and a host of other approaches.

David Chapman, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development (OLPD) was the guest of the Sheikh Saud Bin Saqr Al Qasimi Foundation for Policy Research to be a featured speaker at the annual meeting of the Gulf Comparative Education Society held in the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE March 16-17. He reported on a research study being conducted with Elizabeth Wilson (OLPD) and colleagues at Michigan State University and the Dubai School of Government. Their study explores the dynamics of how relying on an instructional staff composed of over 90% expatriate instructors on short-term contracts affects higher education quality in the UAE.

Expanding Research Practices in Education by P Demerath.

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The science of context: Modes of response for qualitative researchers in education by P Demerath.

How might qualitative researchers meaningfully operate in a contemporary research climate that holds to such limited conceptions of what constitutes 'scientific' research in education? This article discusses implications of scientifically based research (SBR) and identifies several pathways along which researchers may productively work in such a context. These include: (1) Conducting critical inquiry into the socio-intellectual frameworks and institutional networks driving such policy development; (2) Educating peers and policy-makers about key precepts of cultural practice and qualitative research; (3) Achieving greater transparency in research designs, inference and theory development, and quality criteria; (4) Adopting mixed-methods research designs; and (5) Undertaking public access or public-interest education research. The central aim is to orient qualitative researchers to those modes of scholarship that can most powerfully impact the projects to which they are committed, and thereby extend the notion and application of SBR.

Access article here.

Race Related Stressors on White College Campuses by T. Grier-Reed.

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The African American Student Network: Creating sanctuaries and counter spaces for coping with racial microaggressions in higher education settings by T. Grier-Reed.

African American college students face a number of race-related stressors on predominantly White campuses. The African American Student Network is described as a potential humanistic counterspace to provide a sanctuary for these students when coping with racial microaggressions. The development and study of future humanistic interventions in this area is recommended.

Creating a New Professional Association by D. Arendale.

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Creating a new professional association by D. Arendale.

This position paper investigates the merits and potential benefits of creating a new, more comprehensive professional association for members of the learning assistance and developmental education profession. This was the task assigned to the College Reading and Learning Association/National Association for Developmental Education (CRLA/NADE) Working Group by the CRLA and NADE national executive boards. This Working Group considered not only the issue of effectiveness of the current professional associations but also the merits of expanding the mission and vision of a new professional association. Building upon the success of CRLA and NADE, the Working Group identified many ways a new association could better serve members and have a greater influence on student success and in society (CRLA/NADE Taskforce, 2007).

Improving education system management by D. Chapman.

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Options for improving the management of education systems by D. Chapman.

Over the last half century, many countries have made remarkable progress in extending and improving the educational opportunities available to their citizens. Governments are rightfully proud of their success in building appropriate infrastructure, extending education access, improving instructional quality, and increasing student learning. But not all countries have shared in this success. Even in successful countries more remains to be done. This chapter examines the changing nature of education management and emerging opportunities for improving the management of education systems. An understanding of these shifts provides a basis for examining options for improving the management of education systems.

Characteristics of ethical business cultures by A. Ardichivili.

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Characteristics of ethical business cultures by A. Ardichivili.

The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: Mission and Values-Driven, Stakeholder Balance, Leadership
Effectiveness, Process Integrity, and Long-term Perspective. We propose that these characteristics be used as a foundation of a comprehensive model that can be
engaged to influence operational practices in creating and sustaining an ethical business culture.

Education 3.0 and 4.0 by A. Harkins.

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Leapfrog Principles and Practices: Core Components of Education 3.0 AND 4.0. by A. Harkins.

This paper describes the paradigm and practices of educational "Leapfrogging." Leapfrog Principles and Practices are introduced and explained as components of
"Education 3.0," or knowledge-producing education, and "Education 4.0," or innovation producing education. Examples are provided of human capital enhancements relevant to
knowledge production and innovation applications of knowledge. The author contends that the first nations to Leapfrog into local expressions of Education 3.0 and 4.0, support them with advanced technologies, and apply them in early childhood through tertiary and adult education, will become bellwether human capital development leaders among 21st creative economies of the 21st century.

Stand your Ground by K. Miksch.

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Stand your Ground: Legal and policy justifications for race-conscious programming by K. Miksch.

A study of legal challenges to race-conscious programs in higher education reveals that
institutions appear to be responding to negative publicity and the threat of litigation without fully considering how current social science research and case law support their efforts. Indeed, the threat of litigation is based on arguments that contradict official policy and misinterpret U.S. Supreme Court holdings. Institutions that seek to increase diversity in their student body should continue to defend their efforts, and additional research can be conducted to assist them.

Leapfrogging toward the "singularity:" Innovative knowledge production on market-driven campuses by A. Harkins and G. Kubik.

Purpose - This paper aims to focus on the production and application of seven knowledge production Modes in support of continuous innovation societies (CIS).
Design/methodology/approach - Seven tertiary educational archetypes are constructed as engines for creating and supporting CIS, with attention to the modal types of knowledge that each produces together with markets for this knowledge.
Findings - The most important ''on the horizon'' type of knowledge identified for the future of tertiary education is Mode III, or knowledge produced by and for the individual. The division of knowledge production is projected within tertiary education through leadership or lagging indicator choices, and the associated roles of faculty, students, and stakeholders.
Originality/value- Special emphasis is placed on the future of leapfrog campus, or the campus capable of, or aspiring to, new leadership status in support of CIS.

Working the system: Student activists' characterizations of and desired communication with higher education administrators by R. Ropers-Huilman.

This study investigated student activists' characterizations of administrators at a southern university in the United States. Findings from interviews with 26 activists indicate that they perceive administrators as gatekeepers, antagonists, supporters, and absentee leaders. Activists had limited understandings of the roles and responsibilities of administrators as leaders in higher education. They expressed a desire to develop stronger relationships with administrators, both to enhance their ability to participate in the campus community and to be an integral part of shaping the university and, through the university, society.

Access article here.

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