The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the
world has raised concerns about the applicability of this set of reforms in diverse
cultural contexts. Ukraine provides an instructive case study highlighting the
dynamics occurring at the convergence of the new framework with a statecentred
model of higher education. The goal of this study was to examine the
professional identity of faculty at one Ukrainian university and their perceptions
regarding the implementation of Bologna at their institution. We found that
instructional and institutional innovations were successfully implemented only to
the extent that they were integrated with the existing pattern of values and
beliefs held by faculty. These findings provide insight for how other countries
may approach Bologna compatibility in the presence of social and cultural forces
divergent from those in which the Bologna process originated.
Recently in scholarship and resources Category
The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the
Jandris Center December hosted its first webinar.
Presenters: Harry Boyte and Mitch Pearlstein.
The Jandris Center hosted its first online event Rethinking the Role of Higher Education in Society: Implications for Higher Education Policy on December 3rd. Panelist included Harry Boyte from the Center for Democracy and Citizenship at Augsburg College and Mitch Pearlstein from the Center of the American Experiment. During this lively discussion, panelists discussed the civic roles of higher education and its implications for teaching and learning in colleges and universities. To learn more or to listen to this talk click here.
The impact of the Bologna Process on academic staff in Ukraine by M. Shaw, D. Chapman, N. Rumyantseva.
Academic staff in Ukraine face a convergence of institutional and professional pressures precipitated by a national economic crisis, projected declines in enrolment and dramatic changes to institutional procedures as institutions implement the Bologna Process. This article examines the extent to which these pressures are reshaping the way academic staff engage in their day-to-day work, their careers and their role in their university. Findings indicate that faculty are caught in a confluence of conflicting demands that elicits adaptive coping strategies and threatens to undermine national efforts to modernise Ukraine's higher education system.
This presentation offers innovative ways that the public university and colleges can better collaborate in the future.
This presentation looks at the barriers to access for rural communities. Included in the discussion are some solution to increasing access for rural students.
Click on the following link to access full powerpoint.
An increasing proportion of Minnesota high school graduates are not ready for college. Remedial courses do not count towards degrees and lengthen time to graduation. This presentation offers some feasible and cost effective solutions.
This slide presentation examines both current issues facing the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities. It then offers some solutions that will increase access for non-traditional students and to minimize duplication across the systems.
A perfect opportunity has been created by the Department of Education to share promising and practical strategies to increase postsecondary success, transfer, and college graduation. The U.S. Department of Education announced at its College Completion Symposium I was attending in DC and posted to the Federal Register on January 30, 2012 a Request for Information (RFI) for any person or organization to share with them strategies for increasing college completion that may then be made available through a special web site created by the Department. Submissions received by April 30, 2012 receive priority consideration for dissemination. Click on the following web link for the complete announcement published in the Federal Register, https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2012/01/30/2012-1963/promising-and-practical-strategies-to-increase-postsecondary-success#p-3
It is important in the submission to stress the unique features of your activity or program. For example, while many schools have a tutoring or mentoring program, what is novel about yours? How are your credit-hour courses different than others? These are some of the questions the RFI asks for the submissions to address.
The Jandris Center for Innovative Higher Education (http://cehd.umn.edu/jandris/) based at the University of Minnesota has volunteered to provide several free hour-long webinars in the near future to share suggestions for completing a submission with examples from others that have already have or in process of completing their document. Announcements about these webinars will be posted to this Jandris Center blog and website. Based on the regulations from the published announcement in the Federal Register, click on the following web link for suggestions by a Jandris Center staff member for the submission: http://www.besteducationpractices.org/storage/pdf-documents/Summarized%20RFI%20Announcement.pdf
For more official information and technical assistance with the submission, contact Dr. David Soo at the Department of Education, (202) 502-7742, firstname.lastname@example.org Information about the Jandris Center is available at http://cehd.umn.edu/jandris/
By David Weerts, Jandris Center Co-Director.
The other night I had the President Obama's State of the Union speech in the background as I got our kids ready for bed. The phrase that jumped out and took my attention away from putting pajamas on a two-year old was, "Let me put colleges and universities on notice. If you can't stop tuition from going up, the funding you get from taxpayers will go down." A very bold (some may say refreshing?) and aggressive statement I thought. President Obama's words referenced his points about higher education as an economic imperative, and that college and universities have an important role to play in the future of the country. In short, he argued that colleges and universities must do their part to keep college affordable rather than the government simply "subsidizing skyrocketing tuition."
So what should college and university leaders do with the President's warning?
It seems that the narratives about college costs are set in stone and may change little given the entrenched thinking about higher education among key stakeholders. The basic dilemma is what the former National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education called the "Iron Triangle" (National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2008). In short, college leaders argue that reducing tuition (without increases in appropriations) will diminish quality and access. From this vantage point, legislators are the villains keeping higher education out of reach. But state officials disagree, providing new evidence about institutions that are making gains in cutting costs while improving learning.
On top of these challenges is the issue of demand elasticity. Flagship institutions like the University of Minnesota have enormous demand which makes tackling the cost issue more difficult. If nearly 40,000 applicants apply for 5,000 undergraduate seats, some would say, "Why not charge what the market will bear?" With prestige maximization being the goal for many institutions, being a "bargain college" is not at the top of the list for most college and university presidents.
So what can be done to influence institutional behavior?
It seems that what President Obama might have added is that higher education is in a crisis-- a "lack of imagination crisis." Had Henry Ford thought about transportation like college leaders think about higher education, he likely would have focused on creating faster horses rather than revolutionizing the transportation industry. Higher education could take a lesson from Ford. All higher education stakeholders--state leaders, presidents, faculty, and students--must first disrupt their current mental models about forms and structure of higher education. Instead, attention must be paid to envisioning preferred outcomes for the country (economic, civic etc.) and how higher education can become an instrument to achieving these outcomes. It is through this lens that innovative solutions about financing higher education may emerge.
Here at the Jandris Center we hope to create a community of "Henry Fords"-- an imaginative, dynamic community of problem solvers committed to designing a high quality, affordable, and accessible system of higher education for future generations. In the years to come, the focus of our work will be on challenging participants to think differently about long-standing higher education problems such as college affordability. The emphasis will be on building new prototypes that could be tested in policy and practice. There are plenty of challenges ahead and we hope you will join us in this endeavor. Stay tuned for more updates!
Archibald, R. B & Feldman, D., H, (2008). Explaining increases in higher education costs. Journal of Higher Education, 79, 3 268-295.
Ehrenberg, R. G., (2002). Tuition rising: Why college costs so much. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mumper, M. (2001) The paradox of college prices: Five stories with no clear lesson, In Heller, D. E., (ed). The States and Public Higher Education Policy: Affordability, Access, and Accountability. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Winston, G. C., (1999). Subsidies, hierarchy, and peers: The awkward economics of higher education. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 13(1), 13-36.
The Iron Triangle: College presidents talk about costs, access, and quality. (2008) National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education: San Jose, CA http://www.highereducation.org/reports/iron_triangle/IronTriangle.pdf
Do I belong here? Exploring immigrant college student responses on the SERU sense of belonging/satisfaction factor by M. Stebleton, R. Huesman Jr., & A. Kuzhabekova.
The immigrant college student population will likely continue to increase. This exploratory study addresses the questions:To what extent does sense of belonging/satisfaction of recent immigrant college students differ from non-immigrant college students? Do perceived self-ratings of belonging vary by immigrant generations? This research draws on a new extensive data source, the Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) survey. Survey data from the 2009 SERU is based on the responses from 55,433 undergraduate students from six-large research institutions from across the United States. Findings suggest that immigrant students' perception of their sense of belonging and satisfaction is significantly lower than their non-immigrant peers' perceptions. Immigrant college students -- whether they were a recent immigrant that arrived in the country as a child, or arrived later as a teenager or young adult, or are the children of parents born outside the U.S. (2nd generation) -- consistently reported lower levels of belonging/satisfaction as compared to their 3rd or 4th generation (i.e., nonimmigrant) peers. Responses within the immigrant generation groups were similar. The following implications were highlighted: effective practice and application strategies for student affairs practitioners and faculty members who work directly with immigrant college students; policy development suggestions for both academic and student affairs administrators; future research inquiries for scholars who are interested in this fast growing population of college students.
Multicultural learning communities: Vehicles for developing self-authorship in first-generation college students by R. Jehangir, R. Williams, & J. Pete.
Research has shown that first-generation, low-income college students experience both isolation and marginalization, especially during their first-year of college, which impacts their long-term persistence in higher education. In this article, I argue that learning community pedagogy designed with attention to multicultural curricula is one vehicle to address the challenges faced by these college students. Organized around the themes of identity, community, and agency, an interdisciplinary Multicultural Learning Voices Community (MLVC) was created at a large, public midwestern research university to provide TRiO students with challenging academic coursework that would connect with their lived experience and help them build bridges of social and academic integration during their critical first-year of college. This article presents qualitative data from a multiple case study of seven cohorts of the MLVC, which captures students' perceptions of their experience.
Building Bridges: Community College Practitioners as Retention Leaders by M. Stebleton, & L. Schmidt.
Community colleges face struggles in helping students meet their academic, career, and personal goals. Student affairs practitioners can be innovators by creating initiatives to engage students. Practitioners can act as a bridge between student and academic affairs. This article explores how a group of counselors redefined their roles by designing a first-year experience effort. A program implemented at Inver Hills Community College focused on student success is highlighted. Features, outcomes, and lessons learned are outlined.
Engaging Diversity in First-Year College Classrooms by A. Lee, R. William, & R. Kilaberia.
The increasing calls for diversity research signal a need to explore strategies through which we attempt to interact with and respond to diversity intentionally in courses and curricula. This case study of a first-year inquiry course in a college of education fills a gap in the literature by documenting and analyzing instances of educators actively working with multiple dimensions of diversity in the classroom so as to support students' development of diversity-related competencies. The guiding research question for this study was to explore what curricular and/or pedagogical activities students in a first-year experience course identified as facilitating their engagement with diversity in an intentional, purposeful manner.
Community Engagement and Boundary Spanning Roles at Public Research Universities by D. Weerts & L. Sandmann.
Over the past decade, community engagement has emerged as an important priority among many colleges and universities. This study employs a multi-case study design to examine boundary spanning practices of research universities that have adopted a community engagement agenda. A model is advanced to conceptualize spanning behaviors and to inform practice and future research.
Internationalization of Higher Education: Performance Assessment and Indicators by R. Michael Paige.
This paper provides a conceptual overview of the internationalization of higher education and presents a set of performance indicators for assessing internationalization. It begins by locating internationalization within the context of globalization and discussing the impact of globalization on tertiary education. The paper continues with overviews of the concepts of performance assessment, performance indicators, and a performance assessment model. It then presents a review of the global literature on internationalization at the higher education level. The centerpiece of the paper is the author's internationalization model, consisting of ten key performance categories, and the related performance indicators. The paper concludes with the observation that the internationalization of higher education is a complex process and represents a major educational reform.
This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected through a year of participant observation, it argues that the cultural, economic, and political dimensions of teachers' practice need to be considered alongside efforts to reform the country's educational system. It offers contingent constructivism as an alternative to the international consensus on a single model of excellent teaching.
The problem of plagiarism by M. Anderson and N. Steneck.
Plagiarism is a form of research misconduct and a serious violation of the norms of science. It is the misrepresentation of another's ideas or words as one's own, without proper acknowledgement of the original source. Certain aspects of plagiarism make it less straightforward than this definition suggests. Over the past 30 years, the U.S. Federal Government has developed and refined its policies on misconduct, and Federal agencies, as well as research institutions, have established approaches to responding to allegations and instances of plagiarism. At present, efforts to avert plagiarism focus on plagiarism-detection software and instructional strategies.
How might qualitative researchers meaningfully operate in a contemporary research climate that holds to such limited conceptions of what constitutes 'scientific' research in education? This article discusses implications of scientifically based research (SBR) and identifies several pathways along which researchers may productively work in such a context. These include: (1) Conducting critical inquiry into the socio-intellectual frameworks and institutional networks driving such policy development; (2) Educating peers and policy-makers about key precepts of cultural practice and qualitative research; (3) Achieving greater transparency in research designs, inference and theory development, and quality criteria; (4) Adopting mixed-methods research designs; and (5) Undertaking public access or public-interest education research. The central aim is to orient qualitative researchers to those modes of scholarship that can most powerfully impact the projects to which they are committed, and thereby extend the notion and application of SBR.
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Toward Multicultural Community Engagement by T. Grier-Reed; D. Detzner; R. Poch & S. Staats
An integrative approach to undergraduate curriculum development that we call multicultural community engagement can prepare students to participate in a diverse democracy and the more complex world of tomorrow. Courses, programs, and undergraduate majors can be strengthened through curricula that develop multicultural competency and that position students to work in full collaboration with diverse communities. Curricular examples suggest ways to incorporate multicultural community engagement into a variety of courses and disciplines.
In higher education institutions, learning assistance frequently operates at the junction where academic affairs, student affairs, and enrollment management converge. Although it has a presence in most third-level institutions, the expression of learning assistance is relatively diverse through credit and noncredit activities. This issue of the ASHE Higher Education Report examines the effectiveness of learning assistance for supporting academic affairs through better student preparation, working with student affairs to improve student development, and supporting enrollment management programs to boost persistence rates.
It is critical to periodically reexamine the basic language used within a profession. Language not only reflects past and current practice, it also guides the future. As the practice advances and changes, so must the language to describe it. This reexamination of basic terms used in developmental education and learning assistance provides an opportunity to transform its work, expand borders, and redefine its essential role within postsecondary education. The glossary is grounded in the previous version of it as well as extensive review by practitioners and leaders in the field. The complexity of the language has increased as well as its connection with other fields within education. This glossary is offered to help guide practices to better meet institutional and student needs.
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This article presents integrated multicultural instructional design (IMID), a new pedagogical model that is responsive to the growing student diversity in postsecondary institutions in the U.S. and throughout the world. This work builds on previous research articles in the Journal of College Reading and Learning related to assessing our commitment to multiculturalism. Course evaluation results from a pilot implementation project involving 5 faculty members are also discussed, and the PIRIMID course evaluation template is provided.
Although civic purposes are implicit in the mission statements of higher education institutions, American colleges and universities have not always embraced public engagement initiatives. This paper explores how the recent emergence of the engaged campus movement has helped move public engagement initiatives from the margins to the mainstream by integrating community engagement into the research, teaching and public service functions of the academy.
An outcome study of career decision self-efficacy and indecision in an undergraduate constructivist career course by T. Grier-Reed and N. Skaar.
This study explored outcomes in a constructivist career course. Using a pretest/posttest design, the authors assessed the empowerment (operationalized as career decision self-efficacy) and career indecision of 82 culturally diverse college students at a large, midwestern university. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicated that students reported significant increases in empowerment with no commensurate decreases in career indecision. In addition to shedding light on the nuanced relationship between empowerment or career decision self-efficacy and indecision, results indicate the potential constructivist career development has to empower culturally diverse college students.
College and university leaders have paid an enormous level of attention to one domain of alumni involvement: charitable giving. In light of the decline of state support for higher education and the shrinking ability of families to pay for college, such emphasis is understandable. However, this emphasis has blinded scholars and practitioners to understanding the important non-monetary support roles played by college alumni. Drawing on data from a research extensive university, this study employs a sequential mixed method design (focus groups and confirmatory factor analysis) to demonstrate that non-monetary support behaviors are best understood through the distinct, but interrelated domains of political advocacy and volunteerism. Political advocacy behaviors include contacting legislators, the governor's office, local politicians and serving on a political action team, while volunteer behaviors include mentoring new alumni, recruiting students, and participating in special events. The study breaks ground for future research on alumni support for higher education, including strategies to recruit alumni volunteers and advocates.
African American college students face a number of race-related stressors on predominantly White campuses. The African American Student Network is described as a potential humanistic counterspace to provide a sanctuary for these students when coping with racial microaggressions. The development and study of future humanistic interventions in this area is recommended.
Creating a new professional association by D. Arendale.
This position paper investigates the merits and potential benefits of creating a new, more comprehensive professional association for members of the learning assistance and developmental education profession. This was the task assigned to the College Reading and Learning Association/National Association for Developmental Education (CRLA/NADE) Working Group by the CRLA and NADE national executive boards. This Working Group considered not only the issue of effectiveness of the current professional associations but also the merits of expanding the mission and vision of a new professional association. Building upon the success of CRLA and NADE, the Working Group identified many ways a new association could better serve members and have a greater influence on student success and in society (CRLA/NADE Taskforce, 2007).
Options for improving the management of education systems by D. Chapman.
Over the last half century, many countries have made remarkable progress in extending and improving the educational opportunities available to their citizens. Governments are rightfully proud of their success in building appropriate infrastructure, extending education access, improving instructional quality, and increasing student learning. But not all countries have shared in this success. Even in successful countries more remains to be done. This chapter examines the changing nature of education management and emerging opportunities for improving the management of education systems. An understanding of these shifts provides a basis for examining options for improving the management of education systems.
This paper examines student reactions to the use of music in the classroom to enhance education. Students in an undergraduate course selected songs and related them to class topics. First, an overview of the use of media in education is provided. Next, human resource development and andragogy are discussed as frameworks for this study. A description of the song related assignment is given, and quantitative and qualitative results of student reactions to the assignment are presented. Results found that the music related assignment made class more interesting for students, and that it caused students to think more about class topics.
Characteristics of ethical business cultures by A. Ardichivili.
The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: Mission and Values-Driven, Stakeholder Balance, Leadership
Effectiveness, Process Integrity, and Long-term Perspective. We propose that these characteristics be used as a foundation of a comprehensive model that can be
engaged to influence operational practices in creating and sustaining an ethical business culture.
">Civic and feminist education: Bridging parallel approaches to teaching and learning by B. Ropers-Huilman.
Scholarship related to both civic education and feminist education and feminist education has made substantial contributions to educator's understandings about teaching and learning relations both within and outside higher education instituions. However, only rarely do these two bodies of knowledge explicitly draw on each other's examinations to inform the terms of their research and practice. This chapter represents one effort to posit the main themes and complexities of feminist and civic education (including learning through engagement, power/empowerment, and community), as well as key strategies that are advocated in each of these scholarly literatures to enact those values.
Bringing Evaluative Learning to Life by J. King.
This excerpt from the opening plenary asks evaluators to consider two questions regarding learning and evaluation: (a) How do evaluators know if, how, when, and what people are learning during an evaluation? and (b) In what ways can evaluation be a learning experience? To answer the first question, evaluators can apply the common-places of evaluative learning, where, in a given evaluative context, the evaluator is a teacher, the clients/participants are students, and the process and results of the evaluation are the curriculum. To answer the second question, evaluators can consider two ideas for understanding evaluative learning: (a) evaluation for accountability and control and (b) evaluation for program development.
This paper describes the paradigm and practices of educational "Leapfrogging." Leapfrog Principles and Practices are introduced and explained as components of
"Education 3.0," or knowledge-producing education, and "Education 4.0," or innovation producing education. Examples are provided of human capital enhancements relevant to
knowledge production and innovation applications of knowledge. The author contends that the first nations to Leapfrog into local expressions of Education 3.0 and 4.0, support them with advanced technologies, and apply them in early childhood through tertiary and adult education, will become bellwether human capital development leaders among 21st creative economies of the 21st century.
Recent reforms in the Carnegie Foundation classification system and regional accreditation standards have fueled momentum for community engagement in higher education. This study employs a knowledge-flow conceptual framework to identify barriers and facilitators that influence the adoption of an engagement agenda at land-grant and urban research universities. With data drawn from six cases, broad themes related to institutional setting, history, epistemologies, leadership, structures, and boundary-spanning roles of faculty and staff emerged as key levers or inhibitors of community engagement at research universities. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Internet vs. Classroom Access in a Hybrid Psychology Course for Developmental Students by T. Brothen and C. Wambach.
A new method in higher education is the hybrid course--one that uses both web based
and face to face teaching methods. This study provides data to help developmental educators decide what a good balance between online and in-class activities might be. We explored whether making outside class access to online practice quizzes contingent on course performance helps students be successful. Our data suggests that instructors should give students options but that having contingencies for accessing practice quizzes is effective. We recommend ways that developmental educators can structure their hybrid courses to help students succeed.
A study of legal challenges to race-conscious programs in higher education reveals that
institutions appear to be responding to negative publicity and the threat of litigation without fully considering how current social science research and case law support their efforts. Indeed, the threat of litigation is based on arguments that contradict official policy and misinterpret U.S. Supreme Court holdings. Institutions that seek to increase diversity in their student body should continue to defend their efforts, and additional research can be conducted to assist them.
Becoming a scientist: The effects of workgroup size and climate by K. Seashore, J. Holdsworth, M. Anderson, E. Campbell.
The future of the scientific enterprise is vested in the next generation of scientists who are currently enrolled in doctoral programs and fellowships in the nation's universities. Because scientific education occurs in the scientific milieu, graduate students and postdoctoral fellows are directly influenced by the organizational and contextual forces driving the conduct of scientific research.
The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of industrial research support, work-group size, and organizational climate on the productivity of graduate students and postdocs and their subsequent willingness to share their research with the scientific community. In order to address this issue, we conducted a national survey of a random sample of 2,000 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in the life sciences, chemical engineering, and computer science.
The results of this survey show that organizational climate (as measured by multi item scales reflecting the amount of collaboration, competition, individualism, and openness) and work-group size are significantly related to the productivity of students as well as to their willingness to share their research results with others. In addition, we found significant differences and similarities between scientific fields and between doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows. Finally, our data suggest that the presence of industrial funding enhances productivity and does not detract from willingness to share.
Process pedagogy in a first-year learning community by I. Duranczyk.
A process-orientated pedagogy was used in a learning community to engage first-year college students as writers and mathematicians. Students were involved in exploring and experiencing how writers and mathematicians work. Emphasis was on the processes used by professionals to achieve their end products--a final manuscript or solved problem. This article presents examples of mathematics activities modeling a process-orientated pedagogy.
Improving the first-year experience has been part of a broader set of initiatives to respond to concerns about undergraduate education (Astin, Keup, & Lindholm, 2002). This research examined the efficacy of a first-year seminar on student satisfaction and retention at a Research Extensive, urban and public land-grant university. This study used survey data to compare satisfaction levels from a random sample of first-year students with those of students who had enrolled in a first-year seminar. A logistic regression model (e.g., Xiao & House, 2000) was used to determine if seminar participation affected retention. Results indicated statistically significant differences at p less than or equal to 0.05 for 15 of the 92 satisfaction items; more positive responses came from students enrolled in a first-year seminar. Results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that participation did not increase the probability of retention; only high school rank was a significant contributor to the prediction of freshman-to-sophomore retention.
Leapfrogging toward the "singularity:" Innovative knowledge production on market-driven campuses by A. Harkins and G. Kubik.
Purpose - This paper aims to focus on the production and application of seven knowledge production Modes in support of continuous innovation societies (CIS).
Design/methodology/approach - Seven tertiary educational archetypes are constructed as engines for creating and supporting CIS, with attention to the modal types of knowledge that each produces together with markets for this knowledge.
Findings - The most important ''on the horizon'' type of knowledge identified for the future of tertiary education is Mode III, or knowledge produced by and for the individual. The division of knowledge production is projected within tertiary education through leadership or lagging indicator choices, and the associated roles of faculty, students, and stakeholders.
Originality/value- Special emphasis is placed on the future of leapfrog campus, or the campus capable of, or aspiring to, new leadership status in support of CIS.
Refocusing developmental education by T. Brothen and C. Wambach.
Dissatisfaction with student success has caused a crisis in developmental education. Critics from both inside and outside the field question whether remedial courses really prepare students for future college work or even if they are properly part of the college mission. In this article, we review research and present information that suggests developmental educators should redefine core principles and key concepts to reinvigorate theory and practice in the field.
This study investigated student activists' characterizations of administrators at a southern university in the United States. Findings from interviews with 26 activists indicate that they perceive administrators as gatekeepers, antagonists, supporters, and absentee leaders. Activists had limited understandings of the roles and responsibilities of administrators as leaders in higher education. They expressed a desire to develop stronger relationships with administrators, both to enhance their ability to participate in the campus community and to be an integral part of shaping the university and, through the university, society.
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