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Katie Stedman

  • Commented on Question Submission 13
    This is an interesting comment and I think it gets at a real problem with science education. I think that in most high school (and, unfortunately, some college) science courses, teachers present the current scientific consensus as "the truth," and...
  • Commented on Question Submission 13
    In his essay, "Reductive Explanation: A Functional Account," Wimsatt states that "the opposition between reduction and replacement is appropriate for successional reduction, but *not* for interlevel or explanatory reduction." Why does he claim that replacement cannot occur for explanatory reduction?...
  • Commented on Question Submission 12
    I also had difficulty with the notion of "replacements" in science. It seems to me that most new theoretical frameworks in science incorporate at least some aspects of the frameworks that came before. I doesn't seem to me that wholesale...
  • Commented on Question Submission 12
    In Schaffner's article, "The Watson-Crick Model and Reductionism," he claims that in order to have successful reduction functions, "one needs experiments that show that the entities, independently characterisable in terms of the reduced and reducing theories, and which are to...
  • Commented on Question Submission 10
    When Morange is describing reasons why physicists found biology appealing during the 1940s, he states that "biology appeared as a new field, far from political concerns and sheltered from potential military uses." I found this to be a highly ironic...
  • Commented on Question Submission 9
    I thought this was an interesting suggestion as well, that it is more difficult to form a coherent story about what happened in the more recent past due to an overabundance of source material and many conflicting viewpoints. It seemed...
  • Commented on Question Submission 9
    In Morange's chapter 2, he states that "genetics could only really develop on condition that it separated, albeit arbitrarily, heredity and gene transmission from development and gene action." Likewise, he states earlier, in chapter 1, that the period before the...
  • Commented on Question Submission 8
    I think it may have been that when the term "wild type" was first used, it referred to the type that is prevalent in nature. What is important about the "wild type" genotype is that it is a standard genotype...
  • Commented on Question Submission 8
    In his article "How Practical Know-How Contextualizes Theoretical Knowledge: Exporting Causal Knowledge from Laboratory to Nature," Professor Waters describes the "received view" of scientific theories. On this view, the study of artificially constructed cases in the laboratory identifies underlying universal...
  • Commented on Question Submission 7
    In Prof. Waters' chapter "The Practice of Classical Genetics," he differentiates between "exploratory" experimentation and "theory-driven" experimentation. This struck me as a departure from the conception of science that students are taught from a very young age. A great deal...
  • Commented on Question Submission 6
    It is true that counterexamples to a theory rarely change the mind of the philosopher who put forth that theory. However, if enough counterexamples accumulate against a theory, it certainly changes the reputation of the theory in the philosophical community....
  • Commented on Question Submission 6
    In "Why Genetics Succeeds," Prof. Waters claims that Bridges & Morgan's work in classical genetics explained contrasts in characteristics among an entire population of flies, rather than singular characteristics of individual flies. In other words, it explained why a certain...
  • Commented on Question Submission 5
    It seems to me that intervention in animal reproduction, such as the example of the sheep/goat hybrid, could be seen as simply an extension of artificial selection. Artificial selection leads to reproduction between animals who would have not, in a...
  • Commented on Question Submission 5
    My question comes from Godfrey-Smith's chapter "Reproduction & Individuality." In the discussion of chimeras and mosaics, Godfrey-Smith uses as an example the unusual development of marmosets. He states that marmosets typically give birth to dizygotic twins, whose embryos establish links...
  • Commented on Question Submission 4
    It seems to me that an adaptation which caused an organism to be more likely to reproduce and less likely to survive would always be more advantageous than an adaptation which caused the organism to have a higher survival rate....
  • Commented on Question Submission 4
    In Prof. Griesemer's article, "Tracking Organic Processes: Representation & Research Styles in Classical Embryology and Genetics," he claims that scientists follow "processes" when investigating phenomena. These processes influence how scientific findings are presented and understood, and lead to some aspects...
  • Commented on Question Submission 3
    I would also be curious to hear what Prof. Wimsatt thinks are the similarities and differences between the goals of philosophy and science. Personally, I always understood philosophy as attempting to explain what science cannot. However, this perhaps becomes more...
  • Commented on Question Submission 3
    Moore states that "At the time of [Boveri's] experiment, most cytologists believed that within any single species one chromosome was about the same as another." If this was the case, why did cytologists explain the presence of multiple chromosomes, and...
  • Commented on Question Submission 2
    I interpreted cell theory to mean that, after the origin of life, all cells arise from other cells. However, I don't know what the early cell theorists believed about this, and it would be interesting to find out what their...
  • Commented on Question Submission 2
    Darwin published "On the Origin of Species" in 1859, and Mendel published his "Experiments in Plant Hybridization" in 1865. Mendel was active in the scientific community, and it seems as though he would have likely heard of a paper as...
  • Commented on Question Submission 1
    This is an interesting comment, as it relates Darwin's theory to contemporary concerns. Though technology and, in turn, improved standards of living for many people throughout the world, can increase the demand for natural resources, many advances in technology are...
  • Commented on Question Submission 1
    In Chapter II, Darwin spends a lot of time detailing the difficulties scientists had at the time differentiating between species of organisms and mere "varieties." He uses this difficulty as support for his eventual argument for the common ancestry of...
  • Commented on Trial Run
    Mendel...
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