• Posted Happiness and My Future to Psych 1001 Section 010 and 011 Fall 2011
    In the next five years or so, I will remember the emotion and motivation chapter. More specifically, the part where it explains what makes us happy. Many people, including me at times, think that money makes us happy, or that the situation and outcomes is what determines our happiness, but I have always believed that it is more than that. This section explains it perfectly. When I am on my own I will need to know what makes me happy in times where I am not. Exercise is proven to increase happiness because it is an antidepressant, so if I am feeling down, my knowledge of this will improve my mood. Also, when applying for jobs in the near future, I will look for something that will make me happy. If the job is not fulfilling or something I enjoy doing, it will not be worth it; therefor, I will only apply for jobs that I will be in the state of "flow" (a state in which we are totally absorbed in an activity and do not notice time passing). This will increase my level of satisfaction with the job and subjective well-being. Recently, I have realized that working with people and doing activity, not sitting for a whole workday at a desk, is what makes me happiest and time passes very quickly while doing this. I will definitely consider this in searching and applying for jobs....
  • Commented on Changing our Perceptions,r:1,s:0 this is where the picture is. it didnt show up again....
  • Posted Changing our Perceptions to Psych 1001 Section 010 and 011 Fall 2011
    Think back. Have you ever done something differently to cope with what is actually going on? Denied it, forgot it, acted like a little kid, or even acted rude? If so, you have used an unconscious maneuver intended to minimize the anxiety of the problem: a defense mechanism. In changing our perception of the problem, it makes it a lot easier to deal with. There are many examples of the different defense mechanisms in movies: Displacement was shown when Jen took out her anger out on a piñata instead of the person or thing that made her angry. She displaced her anger onto something more acceptable. Denial was shown when the girlfriend was motivated to forget the fact her boyfriend was breaking up with her. She denied the fact that the breakup was real. Intellectualization was shown when Elle decided to study and get into Harvard law school rather than the breakup between her and her boyfriend. She is avoiding her real emotions and focusing on something more abstract and impersonal. Rationalization is shown when Jim Carrey rationalized why he did not get his job promotion by saying he didn't want to be tied down anyway. He provided a reasonable-sounding explanation for his failure. Sublimation is shown when Gretchen uses an essay about Caesar and Brutis's relationship to take out her frustration with Regina, instead of taking her anger out on Regina and ruining their friendship. She is transforming a social unacceptable impulse into a social valued (schoolwork) goal. Reaction formation is shown when the Queen is somewhat annoyed with the Principal, she pretends to be very sweet and gives her to Joseph to give her a job elsewhere. Regression is shown when Jenna acts like a child when Matt tells her that they are not friends anymore. Jenna is returning psychologically to a younger and safer time to deal with her anxiety about not having Matt as a friend anymore. Repression is shown when Sam stumbles on his words when he is trying to talk to an attractive woman, showing his desire for her. He is blocking unacceptable impulses from consciousness. Projection is shown when Cecilia makes Claire look like she wants attention, when really she is the one who craves it. She is unconsciously putting her negative quality of wanting attention onto another girl so she does not look bad. However, they did not add Identification with the aggressor. This boy is adopting ways of the army because he does not want to be hurt or threatened. He is adopting the psychological characteristics of them to stay safe. People need to be careful of this because children who grow up around hurt and violence will take on the characteristics of this and grow up this way too. Then it will become a chain and personality formation will be harmed for all of their ancestry. Defense mechanisms are just a way for people to transfer negative feelings from their anxiety and hurt into different ways that don't harm...
  • Commented on Violence in the Media and Children I dont think the picture worked! So it can be found here!...
  • Posted Violence in the Media and Children to Psych 1001 Section 010 and 011 Fall 2011
    Imagine yourself when you were 4, watching your favorite television show, Power Rangers. It made you feel powerful, aggressive, and invincible. When you and your friends would play, you reenacted the moves you saw in the show: kicking, punching, and shoving. One of your friends gets hurt, but it was only playing; you didn't mean to hurt anyone! After the wound is all bandaged up, you just keep playing like nothing happened. This is a common occurrence with children after watching violent media. This also occurs in children playing violent video games. Findings from University of Missouri say that "brains of violent video game players become less responsive to violence, and this diminished brain response predicts an increase in aggression" (ScienceDaily). In their studies, after the participants played the violent video games, they were shown a picture of violence. The participants had reduced brain response to the photos. This reduced response to the photos predicted aggression levels, where the smaller the brain response to the violent photos, the more aggressive the participants were. The video games that are popular now are mostly violent video games, and surveys show that an elementary school child spends more than 40 hours a week playing these violent games (ScienceDaily). Most of these popular violent video games encourage the participation in the violence, therefore, desensitizing the children's brains to the sight of violent behavior. In another article, researchers suggest "performing violent acts in video games may be more contributing to children's aggression than passively watching violent acts on television" (Tomkins). There are games that promote prostitution, theft, and violent behavior, such as Grand Theft Auto. The fact that, in video games, you have to act out the violence, makes violent actions are more familiar to the children and there are no consequences for it, leading to the wrong idea. From these findings, we can conclude that violence in media cause children to be more desensitized to violence and more familiar with how to act out violent actions without the consequences there are in real life.
  • Posted That Was Easy to Psych 1001 Section 010 and 011 Fall 2011
    Russian scientist, Ivan Pavlov, researched digestion in dogs. In measuring the salivary response to meat powder, he observed that the dogs salivated to the neutral stimuli that was previously associated with it. They began salivating at the sound of the assistants' footsteps coming into the lab. We call the association of the meat power to the footsteps classical conditioning. Pavlov's classical conditioning is defined as a form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response. This finding is very important in researching relationships between unconditional stimulus and unconditioned response, and the relationships between conditioned response and conditioned stimulus. A boy at BGSU did a test on his roommate of this study. After hitting the button saying, "that was easy", he would shoot his roommate with an airsoft gun. The roommate soon associated the easy button noise with being shot with the gun. After the boy shot his roommate a couple times, he did a test where he pressed the easy button but did not shoot him. When the easy button was played, the roommate cringed as if he was going to get shot, however, he wasn't actually shot. The easy button was the conditioned stimulus, while the shooting of the gun was the unconditioned stimulus. The unconditioned response was the pain or flinching of the roommate, while the conditioned response was the flinching from hearing the easy button sound.
  • Posted Cortex of Consciousness to Psych 1001 Section 010 and 011 Fall 2011
    Where does consciousness reside in our brains? Well, our brain has over 100 billion nerve cells in the brain. But are all of those cells or just some of the cells used in consciousness? (With consciousness being our subjective experience to the world and ourselves, our thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations, events, and actions). In a BBC video, "A Secret You", Oxford mathematician Marcus de Sautoy becomes a human guinea pig and subjects himself to a series of experiences to seek when we become aware of ourselves as unique individuals. When de Sautoy went to visit Dr. Stephen Gentleman from Imperial College London, Gentleman explained that consciousness resides in the cortex. The cortex is the outside of the brain and is highly developed. In order for your consciousness to be activated, the feelings need to be put through a relay system. The reticular activating system in the brain begins in the brainstem with reticular activating cells: a group of diffused nerve cells that project into the thalamus and are then spread out into all areas of the cortex. This system activates the cortex and creates consciousness. Consciousness is all about constant activation of the cortex. This is only the anatomy of consciousness. It is valuable, yet, it doesn't tell how or what consciousness is. Although we have the definition of what consciousness is, it is hard to think about. Since it is our thoughts and emotions and everything we do, it is hard to think that it only resides in the cortex. If something happened where our brain got injured our bruised, would our consciousness change? Technically, it would because of what happened to Phineas Gage, when the tamping rod passed through his frontal lobes. His personality completely changed, but does that mean his consciousness changed? Are they the same thing?! 12:30 - 15:50 minutes...
  • Posted "Hope in a Jar" to Psych 1001 Section 010 and 011 Fall 2011
    "Hope in a Jar" Looking younger is a high priority for many women, so it is no surprise that women will believe that a crème can do such a thing. Anti-aging crèmes are all over the market. For example, Olay's Pro X wrinkle smoothing crème is a product that claims to create younger looking, younger acting skin in 28 days: The six principles of scientific thinking are there to save you from believing claims such as this: Ruling out rival hypothesis: Is just using this crème going to help the skin? Or are other factors contributing to the skin's change? Tests have shown, according to ABC news, that some consumers, when given sugar-watered crème, still report a positive change in their skin. Also, according to the article, it states that they seem effective at first, but are actually harming the skin. Correlation vs. causation: Just because the wrinkles on the skin are less apparent, this does not mean that the crème caused it. The article also states that with putting so many products onto your face, "you're going to gain some degree of inflammation and irritation which makes the skin swell slightly, plumping it up and making your wrinkles look temporarily less visible." So yes, the crème did cause the wrinkles to be less apparent, but not because of what they said would happen. The inflammation that the crème causes will go down in time, causing more wrinkles in the end anyway. Falsifiability: It is not as much being disproved, but this product can be tested against other products that seem to work more and be more productive over a longer period of time. Sunblock is one example that seems so simple but is so effective. This prevents the sun's harmful rays from drying out your skin and is the "number one thing for anti-aging... as well as not smoking" (Cheung). Replicability: The studies that were mentioned before, about giving the sugar crème to the consumers and they would still report a difference, were experiments that were replicated to prove that this product would "work" all the time. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence: As the article clearly states, and basic biology clearly taught us, skin is meant to keep things out, not take things in. So the fact that the products are trying to have your skin absorb vitamins and minerals is something very extraordinary and harmful to your skin. Pro X claims to, "Pro-X re-signals skin to repair the moisture barrier and boost surface-cell turnover rate." According to ABC news, if it were able to do this, it would be considered a drug by the FDA. Occam's razor: If the product can change the cells in the skin, does it sound very simple? Anti-aging crème could work for a short-term skin care, but in the long run is just "hope in a bottle".
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