Chapter 2 is all about research methods. In a science as uncertain as psychology, it is very important to make sure that the results you get from experiments are actually correct. Throughout the chapter, the authors illustrate how good research methods have been developed by analyzing past failures, such as the prefrontal lobotomy, and facilitated communication with autistic children. This is an integral part in showing us that anyone can be fooled or misled by the outcomes of an experiment, and we must consider all possible reasons that we could have achieved a certain outcome. It is because of something called heuristics that we can be fooled. Heuristics are mental shortcuts that people use to help streamline thinking, but in doing so, it is possible that crucial details can be ignored. The authors go on to discuss the best ways to gather data for different situations, such as naturalistic observation or case studies, and how to analyze our observations. One of the best ways to do this is to analyze the extent to which 2 different variables are related, and why this might occur. Overall, this chapter is useful in making sure that the hypotheses that you come up with based on your observations is what is actually occurring.