Linguistic Relativity is the study of language and the connection that it has with our thought processes. Also known as the Sapir -Whorf hypothesis, after two researchers who proposed it, the idea of linguistic relativity states that language shapes a few aspects of perception, memory, and thought.
This is a less radical perspective opposed to linguistic determinism, or the idea that language and its structures limit human knowledge and thoughts rather than shape them. Speakers conceptualize the world based upon their respective language.
As described in the text, a study was able to show that Russians who had moved to the US and had learned English were able to recall events in Russia better when speaking Russian while they were able to recover memories of the US more so when speaking in English. Another example of differences of thought processes stem from colors. For example, the Dani language only uses words such as "dark" and "bright" rather than the individual color names.
I believe that these theories hold great truths, but there are certainly claims against such ideas including: the brain holding secrets that we have yet to unlock, or perhaps other external influences that would alter thought processes?
Psychology From Inquiry to Understanding