A major portion of chapter 2 refers to experimental designs and the use of placebos for the control group. According to the medical dictionary a placebo is "An inactive substance with no pharmacological action that is administered to some patients in clinical trials to determine the relative effectiveness of another drug administered to a second group of patients." When one thinks of a placebo, they simply think of a sugar pill however the concept has been applied to almost all types of medications IV's for chemotherapy placebos, creams for skin care placebos, and even more elaborate methods which are all pharmaceutically inactive. The power of placebos is that when administered properly the patients begin to emotionally and sometimes even physiologically expect the desired outcome (ie pain reduction for morphine, or hair loss for chemotherapy). A simple example would be to give a friend a cup of decaf coffee in the morning when they are tired and tell them it has a double shot of espresso. More likely than not they will begin to "feel" more awake. In drug studies the use of placebos has been a vital source of comparison with dramatic effects - 54% effectiveness against aspirin (9 double blind studies), and 56% effectiveness against morphine (6 double blind studies). While these figures are incredible it brings about the question of whether or not placebos should be used outside of clinical studies (as they are now). On one side you can eliminate pain problems and identify addictions for patients without using active drugs, while on the other side you are withholding beneficial medicine from patients as well as making them less effective in the long run if patients begin to think that their doctors are giving them placebos instead of the regular medication.