One of the good things this week was that I met with the University Senate Library Committee to touch base on copyright issues. I was asked to provide a summary of some current hot copyright issues in higher education - so here's that summary (with bonus links to more info!)
Georgia State Case (aka Cambridge University Press et al v. Patton et al)
Individuals at Georgia State University were sued over the use of journal articles in password-protected electronic reserves and course websites. The parties bringing suit include Sage Publications, Oxford University Press, and Cambridge University Press. Legal expenses of the publisher-plaintiffs are being subsidized about 50% by the non-profit and ostensibly neutral Copyright Clearance Center.
Oral arguments were heard in June, and an opinion is expected at any time. Because the case is currently
in District Court (Northern District of Georgia), itis likely any opinion will be appealed. Final
rulings are likely many years away. However, it is worth noting that the publisher-plaintiffs have asked the court
to find that the 1976 "Classroom Copying Guidelines" (which were intended
to outline some minimum standards for fair use) are an appropriate maximum
measure of fair use today. They have also asked that the court hold that no more than 10% of any course-based
uses should be allowed to proceed without payment, regardless of compliance
with the Classroom Copying Guidelines, or use of paid subscription materials or
UCLA Case (aka AIME et al. v. Regents of UCLA et al.)
The Regents of UCLA, as well as some individuals, were sued
over the conversion of video content
owned by the University to online streaming formats. The case was dismissed last week, for a number of
reasons. In addition to technical issues such as sovereign immunity and lack of
standing, the court ruled that the
licenses the University had already purchased for "public performance" covered
the online streaming when restricted to UCLA users. They also ruled that incidental copies made in
pursuit of the legitimate licensed rights were fair use.
Christine Ross - "V is for (small) Victory (and for Video)"
Peggy Hoon - "Copyright, Contract, or Complicated? AIME vs. UCLA Dismissed: Implications for Licensing"
Golan v. Holder
A music professor (and professional conductor) is the named plaintiff in this case, which challenges legislation that removed many older foreign works from the public domain (in compliance with some of our treaty obligations.) Oral arguments were heard before the Supreme Court last week.
Campus licenses (CCC; CPC; Canada)
In recent years, the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) has
been selling "blanket" licenses in which a single payment satisfies copyright
permissions issues across all campus uses. A number of U.S. institutions have
signed on to this sort of license, but it is not a complete solution: the CCC does not have the power to authorize
the use of some of the materials used on campuses. Although their blanket
license has been suggested as a solution to the issues presented in the Georgia
State case, they do not clear rights for
works owned by Cambridge University Press, one of the plaintiffs!
More Information (on licensing in general):
ARL Policy blog/Brandon Butler - "How Many Times Must Libraries Pay for the Same Coffee, er, Content?"
Paul Courant - "Georgia State in Publishers Weekly: Tom Allen of the AAP vs. Moi"
Canadian institutions are currently grappling with the opposite side of blanket licensing; for many years, academic use in Canada has been (largely) covered by a nationalized blanket license to an organization called Access Copyright. Access Copyright recently raised the rates by a large amount, and a number of universities have balked at the cost. Recently, at least one judicial proceeding has determined that Access Copyright can legally refuse to sell universities licenses on a case-by-case basis - a big setback for the Universities. Some of them are working with the CCC on case-by-case or blanket licensing. Others are committing to the use of nothing but public domain and open-licensed materials on their campuses.
Howard Knopf - "Copyright Board Refuses to Require Transactional Licenses from Access Copyright or its Rights Holders"
Michael Geist - "An Unofficial FAQ on Canadian Universities Opting-Out of Access Copyright" and heck, ALL of his posts about this issue.
Google Books settlement
Parties related to the Google book scanning project have been negotiating about terms of a settlement for several years. The presiding judge has denied proposed settlement terms for a number of different reasons, and it is looking increasingly unlikely that a large-scale solution will be found via this process. Google is proceeding with the project, but seems to be pursuing a variety of paths to resolve outstanding legal issues.
Hathi Trust Orphans suit (aka Authors Guild, Inc. et al. v. HathiTrust et al.)
Hathi Trust is a partnership of major research institutions and libraries that hosts a large online library of digitized works, mostly public domain. Recently Hathi announced plans to identify "orphan" works in their collection - currently in-copyright works for which no rightsholder is identifiable or contactable - and make them viewable by individuals on partner campuses. Although discussions had been proceeding between the Authors Guild and Hathi on this issue, the Authors Guild unexpectedly filed suit on September 12. The suit attacks library digitization very broadly - despite the fact that, as yet, Hathi Trust still only provides full-text access to public domain works. A number of international authors' groups have just announced they are joining the suit. It is very unclear exactly how the case will proceed.
Due to concerns about the procedures for reviewing orphan status, the Orphan Works Project has been put on hold at present. However, it is not being shut down; Hathi Trust has expressed a commitment to their plans, and a firm belief in the fair use legal justification for the project.
There are, of course, lots of OTHER issues in higher ed copyright right now, but those are the ones I had time to write about for yesterday's meeting, and update today!