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Understanding Sculpture Today


From the beginning, the exhibition philosophy of the University Gallery was guided by a simple purpose - to expose University of Minnesota students to new forms of art in order to further understanding and cultivate appreciation. The exhibit Understanding Sculpture Today, held from November - December 1946, is one example of an application of this philosophy.

Sculpture1.jpgThe University Gallery press books contain various articles, printed by local newspapers, which promoted and reviewed the exhibit. According to these sources, the exhibit was assembled by William Saltzman (acting director), and included 40 works of sculpture loaned by galleries and individual artists throughout the country. According to Saltzman, who was quoted in a November 1, 1946 MN Daily article, "The purpose of the exhibit, as the title implies, is to present various media and methods of interpretation as found in contemporary sculpture."

The exhibit included "Two Bodies," by Alexander Archipenko, "Overture," by Calvin Albert, "Hanging Mobile," by Alexander Calder, and "Biography in Bronze," by Carl Milles. Various local artists were also represented in the exhibit, to include University of Minnesota art professor S. Chatwood Burton, and Evelyn Raymond of the Walker Art Center.

University student Stan Hietala reviewed the exhibit in a November 22, 1946 MN Daily article titled, "From Marble to Plexiglas: Sculpture Shows Versatility." Hietala reported, "The show is an excellent example of the ability of William Salt[z]man, gallery assistant director, and his staff. It answers a need in a field somewhat unknown to the [non-art] student, helping him to understand today's sculpture."

The Minneapolis Daily Times printed a photograph of two University students observing a sculpture titled, "Five That Escaped" (above). The sculpture was popularly mentioned in many of the articles about the exhibit. Hietala's review also mentioned the work:

"Quite often an artist is found who expresses his emotions primarily, ignoring conventional style or contemporary trends. In Randolph W. Johnson's bronze... the sculptor almost achieves pure emotionalism, void of dogmatic style.

The five figures are stumbling along, fatigued, yet in haste. Their whole demeanor reflects horror and fright."

WAM continues to promote the understanding of sculpture in the museum galleries, as well as throughout campus. Archipenko's, "Two Bodies" is currently on display in the Woodhouse Gallery, and is one of many examples of sculpture that can be found within the museum. For the current Target Studio for Creative Collaboration exhibit, contextual flux, artist Jason Hackenwerth worked with University students (to include several studying "non-art" disciplines) to produce new sculptural forms. Throughout the University, over 30 different forms of sculpture can be found in courtyards, building entrances, lounges, garden spaces, and other campus locations as part of the Public Works of Art program.

For current University of Minnesota students - and visitors - who have harbored a latent curiosity in regards to the shapes and forms that they encounter on campus, opportunities abound at WAM for them to start understanding sculpture today...

Put on your party hat...


This upcoming weekend marks the 19th anniversary of a big and important weekend in the history of WAM: the dedication and opening of the Frank Gehry designed Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum building. The building was dedicated on Thursday, November 18, 1993 with a ribbon cutting ceremony. Open Houses were held on the 19th and 21st for the University community and general public, respectively. A grand opening gala - with namesake Frederick R. Weisman and architect Frank Gehry in attendance - was held on Saturday evening, November 20th.

The September/October 1993 issue of Minnesota Magazine, a publication of the University of Minnesota Alumni Association, previewed the then new building in a feature article titled, "Both Sides Now." Author Pamela Lavigne began her article: "Where once stood a sleepy little hill topped by a small parking lot on the Twin Cities campus, now there's this... structure that causes the average viewer to exclaim, What the heck is that?!"

For just shy of 20 years, many visitors to the University of Minnesota have uttered the same question, and it is likely that no two visitors have shared the same reaction. Whether you are an art or architecture enthusiast, University student on assignment, or a community member on a casual weekend walk in search for a bathroom and/or drinking fountain, the building - and the contents within - provide many things to many people, which in itself deserves celebration. Throughout the years, WAM has always found an occasion to celebrate, and the archives contain the evidence of the museum's many commemorations...

Partyhat3.jpgAn invitation to The Weisman Art Museum's 5th birthday party! on Saturday, November 21, 1998 was designed to be multi-functional, and served not only as an announcement, but also as an accessory. The invitation, when opened, revealed the details of the celebratory event: cocktails and appetizers, the opportunity to see the exhibitions The Great American Pop Art Store: Multiples of the Sixties and A Bountiful Beginning: The First Five Years of Gifts to the Weisman Art Museum, music, dinner in the Washington Ave. Bridge, and champagne, dessert, and dancing. It also informed attendees to "Wear your best silver."


On the inset, instructions were provided that revealed the second function of the invitation:

Directions for wearing party hat:
  1. Unfold invitation into circular shape (side without words faces out)
  2. Adjust tabs to fit (cross tabs so that ends face inward)
  3. Wear party hat to party November 21!

Partyhat1.jpg Partyhat2.jpg

This year, WAM celebrated a little earlier than it's official birthday date, when it held the first annual fundraiser gala at the end of October: The Big WAM Bash. In case you missed the Bash, the months of November and December are still full of party hat worthy events and programs: Weekends with the Weisguides, WAM Chatter, Be Dazzled. Now that the first snow of the season has fallen, put on your coat and hat (stocking or party), join the celebrations, and discover what the heck is going on at WAM.

Hudson Walker: Curator, Patron, Friend


In a report compiled by long-time gallery director Ruth Lawrence to reflect upon the 25th anniversary of the Little Gallery in 1959, a section titled, "The First Curator," described Hudson D. Walker's background and his brief, though instrumental, role in the foundation of the Weisman Art Museum as The Little Gallery in 1934:


"The University was most fortunate in obtaining Hudson Walker, who in March, 1934, was appointed the Gallery's first curator of art. Mr. Walker was experienced in Gallery operations and management. He was the grandson of Mr. T. B. Walker, founder of the Walker Art Gallery. Hudson Walker was no novice in the functioning of a museum. He had been trained at the Fogg Museum, Harvard University, for work such as this. He knew the practical side, the importance of shipping and care of works of art worth thousands of dollars. He was especially aware of the responsibility of borrowed works. He had developed a small gallery of his own in Minneapolis, dealing in such works as watercolors, woodcuts, etchings, etc."

Walker was officially appointed to the title of "Curator of Art" at the University in March of 1934, and departed at the end of his appointment in June in order to pursue the establishment of a gallery in New York City. However, his role with the University of Minnesota and the Little Gallery did not conclude with the end of his employment. Walker's relationship would inspire additional titles in relation to his contributions to the University and to the museum.

Lawrence's description of the First Curator only briefly touches upon the work done by Walker in those few months he was employed at the U of M. For the very first exhibit that was held at the gallery, he arranged for the loan of 18th and 19th century paintings from regional art museums, and covered the expense to insure the works out of his own pocket. At his departure, Walker imparted some advice to university administration that would shape the formation of the gallery in its formative years. He emphasized to Assistant to the President Malcolm Willey that "There should be some anchorage provided in the way of a permanent collection to insure a permanency of interest" and added that the gallery should emphasize a "workshop character" as opposed to the "traditional notion of a museum as a place for safekeeping of rare objects."

In 1950, Walker placed works from his private collection on loan to the University of Minnesota. The loan included many pieces by the artists Alfred Maurer and Marsden Hartley. He, along with his wife Ione, also made many generous gifts of artwork and additional donations to the gallery in the following years.

WalkerOutstandingService.jpgIn 1965, Walker became an award winner and honoree when he received the Outstanding Achievement Award from the Minnesota Alumni Association. A letter (at left, click for a pop-up to read) from the President of the Minnesota Alumni Association addressed to Gallery curator Betty Maurstad, extended a formal invitation to the ceremony that was held to present Walker with the award.

In conjunction with Walker's receipt of this award, an exhibit titled One Hundred Paintings Drawings and Prints from the Ione and Hudson D. Walker Collection was held from November 4-December 19, 1965 at the University Gallery. A dedication by University of Minnesota President O. Meredith Wilson, printed within the catalogue that was prepared for the exhibition stated, "The collection of Mr. and Mrs. Walker is an important resource in furthering the University of Minnesota objectives of teaching, research and service and has aided immeasurably the University's development of significant programs in the visual arts."

Exhibition catalogue, One Hundred Paintings Drawings and Prints from the Ione and Hudson D. Walker Collection:
100-Walker_1965_Catalogue_Reduced-1.jpg 100-Walker_1965_Catalogue_Reduced-2.jpg

Polaroid photographs taken at the exhibit opening show Walker amongst other attendees in the hallways and stairwell that lead to the gallery in Northrop Auditorium:
(click on the image for a larger version)
WAM004_011_WalkerCollection-18.jpg WAM004_011_WalkerCollection-19.jpg
WAM004_011_WalkerCollection-20.jpg WAM004_011_WalkerCollection-21.jpg

WalkerExhibitOutline.jpgA drawing of a proposed gallery layout for the exhibit was found in the exhibition file in Box 11 of WAM's archived administration records. From the drawing, (at left, click for pop-up to review) one can assume that the exhibit was split into sections-one section of 22 miscellaneous works from Walker's collection, another section that contained 12 works by the artists Alfred Maurer, another room dedicated to 14 large Marsden Hartley paintings, and a final section of Alfred Maurer graphic works, that appear to have been placed in the hallway that lead to the gallery.

More polaroids were found in the exhibition folder that show the works displayed in the gallery space:

Alfred Maurer, "Portrait of a Girl with Gray Background," 1930, oil on composition board

(1) Alfred Maurer, "Two Heads," 1930, oil on composition board
(2) Alfred Maurer, "Two Figures of Girls," 1926, oil on composition board
(3) Alfred Maurer, "Still Life with Cup," 1929, oil on composition board


Artworks by Marsden Hartley, as displayed in the exhibit:

WAM004_011_WalkerCollection-10.jpg WAM004_011_WalkerCollection-13.jpg

An additional item found alongside the polaroids in the exhibition folder is a note from Walker to President Wilson that expressed Walker's appreciation for the acknowledgement he received from the University:
(click on image for larger pop-up version)

Two additional titles were given to Walker on the occasion of a 1977 memorial exhibition titled, Hudson D. Walker: Patron and Friend. The exhibition commemorated Walker and the bequest of his collection to the museum.

Regardless of how one refers to Hudson Walker when recalling the history of the museum - first curator, patron, or friend - it is clear that no appellation can truly capture all of the contributions that he has made to its legacy.

You're Invited: Women in the Weisman Collection

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Each summer at WAM, an exhibit opens with a theme that focuses on the permanent collection. In the summer of 1998, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention--the milestone meeting that signaled the beginning of the women's rights movement, the museum held an exhibit titled Women in the Weisman Collection: The Spirit of Seneca Falls.

An announcement sent out to promote the opening reception, concert, and exhibit was found in the archives:

*Click on the image for a larger pop-up version


Several of the female artists exhibited in the 1998 Women exhibit have works currently on display in WAM's summer show, Tenuous, Though Real. Visit WAM through September 16th to view works by Harriet Bart, Hazel Belvo, Clara Mairs, Laura Migliorino, and Judy Onofrio.

A post on posters...


Planning continues for the WAM Files exhibit that will open at WAM on July 14th... The exhibit will feature, amongst other unique items from the Archives, some of the first items of intrigue that the project processors encountered - University Gallery exhibition posters. A WAM Files blog post from February 27, 2011 profiles processor Areca's initial reaction to her discovery of a set of exhibit posters. As the project continued, we kept finding posters - in the exhibition files, in a separate over-sized materials collection at the Archives, and even more in a box in the back of WAM's work room (which will later be transferred to the Archives).

WAM_004_Posters_1952-1953.jpgOne of the many posters that we encountered was created to promote an actual exhibition of posters. The exhibit, simply titled, "Posters," was held in the Gallery in the fall of 1952.

Correspondence written by Assistant to the Director, Ivan Majdrakof - found within the exhibition record in Box 4 - described the exhibit:

Rather than the artist-designed poster we concentrated on what we thought were good posters encountering a large public. A high standard of design was our basic criteria. Sources of material were: the New York Subway Advertising, the New York Times, Army and Navy Recruiting offices, Foreign Travel agencies, Cancer Society, our own collection of World War I work, and private collectors of early European posters.

Label text from the exhibition stated:


WELL DESIGNED posters rarely reach a large audience and yet nearly every poster in this exhibit has been seen by a huge number of people.

THE PRIMARY reason for choosing one work and disregarding another was its DESIGN BASIS. Did the poster stop you and invite consideration? Was it eye-appealing? How well did it sell its product? How much did it use the DESIGN ELEMENTS easel painting had and is passing on to it?

THE WELL DESIGNED poster is invariably emotionally satisfying. There is no convincing emotion without GOOD DESIGN.

SINCE the criteria of a STRONGLY DESIGNED poster before a large public was used we found that certain categories of the poster-makerʼs art were eliminated. Sentiment, sex, the actual graphic portraying of a product are more often absent.

THE GREATEST successes DESIGN-WISE seem to be in the realm of ideas. The CAREFULLY DESIGNED poster seems to stress emotional attitudes. Subtler, non-visible ideas lend themselves to CONTEMPORARY DESIGN. Yet the same challenge is there for all poster or visual communication. Only through more "extreme" successful solutions as those on display here will the level of this art be generally raised.

THESE POSTERS divide into three approximate periods. The earliest displayed here are from about the thirties when European poster art was quite advanced from a DESIGN STANDPOINT. The typographic layout of these early German posters still influence the works of VISUAL DESIGNING today.

When the WAM Files exhibit opens in July, we hope that museum visitors find a few eye-appealing posters that will invite their consideration...

Art imitates... history?


The following image, titled, "Still Life" was found on a University Gallery Press book page along with newspaper clippings related to the opening of the Fine Arts Room at the University Gallery in February of 1936:

The Fine Arts Room, established by Ruth Lawrence and Malcolm Willey, was created with the intent of stimulating interest in fine arts amongst the University student population. As Willey indicated in a January 29, 1936 article in the MN Daily, "This new art room, distinctly American and modern in its conception, is being specially decorated in simple but excellent taste. Here will be placed a few well selected books and magazines in fine art, but nothing for formal study, which will be prohibited."

Woodhouse.jpgArt imitates history... as on the last few days of February 2012, WAM staff set up some furnishings in one of their new galleries - the Woodhouse Family Gallery. Incidentally, this gallery is "distinctly American and modern in its conception," as it prominently features the museum's collection of the works of artists Alfred Maurer and Marsden Hartley. Next to the furnishings, staff also "placed a few well selected books in fine art," for visitors to read at their leisure.

While formal study in the Woodhouse Gallery is not prohibited per say - the intent of the new furnishings is to create a simple - but excellent - atmosphere in which to look at... and learn about... art.

Love Doors


LoveDoor.jpg The Love Doors Contest

Sponsored by the Weisman Art Museum and Comstock Hall

"The Weisman Art Museum and Comstock Hall are sponsoring a door decorating contest to coincide with Valentine's Day in conjunction with the museum's exhibition, Deck the Halls. Personalize your door with designs, images, and objects that convey some of your ideas about LOVE. Feel free to express yourself about more than just romantic love.

Gift certificates to the Weisman Museum Store of $100, $75, and $50 will be awarded to the top three LOVE Doors.

Doors will be judged on Monday, February 12 by a team of experts: Colleen Sheehy, Director of Education at the Weisman, Michael Baynes, Comstock Hall Director, and Kim Grocholski, Comstock Hall President. Winners will be announced Tuesday, February 13.

You must follow the resident halls regulations about door decorations (e.g., only 2/3s of the door can be covered; no electricity can be used; nothing can be affixed permanently to the door.) Please check your residence hall handbook or consult your resident assistant. Doors that do not adhere to the regulations will have to be disqualified from the competition.

The Files do not provide insight into the winning Door design from this 1996 contest... I wonder who created the best "Love Door"?

Guest Post: Paul H. Winchell, research by Deborah Shatin

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Although the WAM Files contain the administrative records of the Weisman Art Museum, it is important to make the distinction that an archival collection may not contain all of the records related to the museum, the exhibits held there, or the artworks in the collection. As we have often referred to other records within the Digital Conservancy and outside collections to provide context to items found within the Files, we must also refer to other records in order to learn more about museum works that are not contained within the archival records.

Such is the case with the work "The Fruit Tree" by Paul Winchell, currently on display in the Davis Gallery at WAM. My eyes have seen thousands of files over the course of the past year and a half and not once have I encountered reference to this work.

Thankfully, WAM tour guide Deborah Shatin, followed the paper trail to other museums and libraries in the Twin Cities to learn more about this work.

In the first of a new series of guest posts on the WAM Files, where we will feature other researchers' findings on subjects related to WAM, Deborah Shatin shares her investigation of the artist Paul Winchell, and his work "The Fruit Tree."

Paul H. Winchell

Information to Date: December 3, 2011

Researched by Deborah Shatin for the WAM

FruitTree.pngThe Weisman Art Museum (WAM) recently installed a painting by Paul H. Winchell with the expansion of the museum space and grand reopening in October 2011. Dated from 1932 it is located in a gallery with the theme of New Deal Gallery with other art works from that time period in our history. Given the varied and unusual figures in this painting, titled "The Fruit Tree," curiosity arose about the background of the artist and this painting. In culling various sources in the Twin Cities, including the Minneapolis College of Art and Design (MCAD, formerly known as the Minneapolis School of Art), catalogues from the Minneapolis Institute of Arts (MIA), the Minneapolis Central Public Library, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the Hennepin History Museum, the following information was gleaned.

Paul H. Winchell (1903 - 1971) was a printmaker, illustrator, teacher, and gilder according to Crump, 2009 (Minnesota Prints and Printmakers, 1900- 1945, Minnesota Historical Society Press). He was the son of Mrs. Looman Winchell of Shepherd Rd as noted in a 1937 newspaper article (Painsville, O. Telegraph). Winchell grew up in North Perry, Ohio and then studied and worked as an instructor at the Art Institute of Chicago. He studied with Leon Kroll (1884 - 1974), Boris Anisfeld (1878-1973), Daniel Garber (1880 - 1958), Charles Woodbury (1864 - 1940), George Oberteuffer, (1878 - 1940) and Elmer A. Forsberg (1883 - 1950), although it was not stated whether each of these teachers was in Chicago or elsewhere. According to the Minneapolis School of Art Faculty Summer 1930 brochure he was an instructor at the Art Institute of Chicago for three years. According to the 1940 - 1941 catalogue, which provided a short biography and a photograph of the artist, he traveled and studied in Spain, Africa, Italy, England, Germany, and France. According to Crump, Winchell did not receive support from either the Public Works of Art Project or the Minnesota WPA Federal Art Project.

In Minneapolis, where he was an instructor at the Minneapolis School of Art, he first appeared in 1930 in the Minneapolis Institute of Arts' Sixteenth Annual Exhibition of the Work of Minneapolis and St. Paul Artists, where he exhibited three oil paintings. He received second honorable mention in oil painting for #69 Old Family. In 1931 he received third honorable mention in oil painting for #64, his Portrait of Miss C. Winchell exhibited his work subsequently in other Minneapolis Institute of Arts (MIA) exhibitions in 1933 and 1935 - 1938. According to Crump he also received first prize in the prints category at the Minnesota State Fair in 1940. Other exhibitions included the St. Paul Gallery and School of Art, the Midwestern Artists Association, and the Kansas City Art Institute. His bio at the Minneapolis School of Art also noted he exhibited at the Chicago Art Institute. According to Crump's summary, based on information from Who Was Who in American Art, 1564-1975 (by Peter Falk), Winchell's knowledge of gilding as a craft for framing may have provided income supplemental to his teaching.

At the Minneapolis School of Art Winchell taught figure sketching, figure study, elementary illustration, and drawing. His Figure Sketching class in the summer of 1930 is described as follows:

"Rapid sketching from the nude develops a clearness of vision, a quick grasp of essential facts, and a sureness of expression. This class affords an opportunity for study of the figure in action poses which vary in length from one minute to fifty minutes. By making dozens of studies in pencil, crayon, and brush, the student quickly learns to make spirited, rhythmic drawings, based upon a clear understanding. In this class some drawing is done from cast in support o the other work, but the method of approach is the same, and preserves a spontaneity in the results."

Winchell's Elementary Illustration course description from the same catalogue states:

"This class work consists of simple illustration problems which require the representation of various objects, such as furniture, simple room interiors, buildings, sometimes in combination with the costumed figure. The theory and practice of perspective and the employment of many decorative treatments in pencil, wash, opaques, and ink, make this a very practical course for those who desire instruction in the elements of drawing as applied to a great variety of subjects. The class work takes the student to the museum galleries and occasionally out of doors for research in connection with the problems assigned."

The above two course descriptions provide insight into the varied mediums explored by Winchell as well as his emphasis on rapid sketching and the importance of perspective.

According to the Hennepin History Museum (September 22, 2011), Winchell lived at 2416 Dupont Ave So. in 1932 and 4 West 26th St. from 1936 - 1956. In 1946, according to the same source, he was hired as an artist for Brown & Bigelow in St. Paul who typically hired local artists to illustrate calendars with representational art such as hunting scenes. Contacts with Brown & Bigelow were never returned, and a local photographer said that they were not helpful for a different project concerning earlier artistic endeavors at the company. Crump notes that in 1948 Winchell worked at the Cedar Advertising Agency in St. Paul.

From research to date the following institutions in the Twin Cities have at least one art work by Winchell in their collections:

The Special Collections of the Downtown Library has the above etching in their collection, with the librarian stating that this temporary market location was due to a concurrent teamster's strike. There also is documentation of gifts of this etching in a letter dated December 21, 1935 from the President of Northwestern National Life Insurance Company to the Minneapolis Public Library noting that etchings were being sent as a Christmas greeting. Framed copies of three of the artist's proofs, printed by the artist, were enclosed. The letter identifies the public library and Baptist Church in the background.

In searching the internet for art work by Paul H. Winchell, a number of items were discovered. These include two nude female images from Ask Art, "Street Mills" dated 1930 and a second landscape/townscape from Heritage Auction Galleries, and a male nude on a blog website (academic painting). As noted earlier, Appendix 1 provides a photograph of the WAM painting by Winchell, apparently listed in the 1933 MIA Exhibition Catalogue as "The Fruit Tree" and dated 1932 by the Minnesota Historical Society.

Robert Crump, Minnesota Prints and Printmakes: 1900 - 1945, Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2009; p175-176.

Peter Falk, Who Was Who in American Art, 1564 - 1975 (cited by Crump)

Who Was Who in American Art, 1903 - 1972, pg 702

Baltzley Binder Bounty


According to Wikipedia, in 1910, Louis Baltzley invented the binder clip, Patent # 1,139,627, so that his father Edwin no longer had to bind his manuscripts by sewing the pages together through holes punched in the pages (which was the standard method in the day).

Web_LastClips.jpgIn more recent times, the binder clip is commonly used in offices of all types to bind large volumes of paper together. In the case of the WAM Files - the working administrative records kept and contained by Gallery/Museum/WAM employees - binder clips were used to organize and contain such items as lengthy grant applications, full sets of label text for exhibits, duplicate copies of press releases, sets of photographs, etc...

In our pursuit of minimal-level processing, binder clips were removed from the files, resulting in a growing bounty of fasteners.

As I began to encounter CDs, DVDs, and disks of all shapes and sizes during processing, I pondered over the fate of binder clips as offices adopt digital processes and searched for possible additional uses for the clips. To my surprise, some very ingenious do-it-yourselfers have recorded videos on how to make an iPhone Binder Clip Dock to fasten-bind-clip their digital devices in place.

If only I had an iPhone... imagine what I could do with all of these binder clips!

Deck the Halls


WAM_DecktheHalls_Cat.jpgFrom November 19, 1995-March 3, 1996, WAM exhibited, "Deck the Halls: Holiday Photography by Roger Mertin and Christina Patoski." As, "the most... wonderful time.... Of the year..." has again approached and passed us, it is an apt time to look back at this exhibit which brings into focus the celebrations and pastimes that surround the holiday season.

In the exhibit catalogue, former WAM curator Patricia McDonnell described,

"Christmas in late twentieth-century America is a pervasive cultural phenomenon, and for many it entails a round of rituals that are removed from a specific religious context. Given the importance in our culture of this winter observance, it represents prime territory for the artist interested in cultural meaning, its development, and ways of representation."

Through the exhibition of the holiday-focused photographs of Roger Mertin and Christina Patoski, we can look at seasonal cultural offerings in different contexts.

An invitation to the exhibition opening and a listing of related programs provides further insight into the discussion of cultural considerations of the winter season:

WAM_DecktheHalls_Invite_Web.jpg WAM2_DecktheHalls_Invite_Web.jpg

Former WAM Director of Education Colleen Sheehy described the exhibit,

"The artists' accumulation of images, taken in far-flung locales over a number of years, builds a composite picture of the country's holiday folk customs. That larger picture reveals how Americans use objects in an artfulness of everyday life, creating domestic spaces in which ornament, architecture, and landscape are carefully designed and then enhanced through the use of lighting."

As I returned home for a holiday celebration with family this past weekend I thought of this exhibit. I gave special attention to how my mother used objects in "the artfulness of everyday life" to design our home with holiday décor.

After participating in a secular family viewing of "Home Alone" whilst enjoying a piece of lefsa lightly dusted with brown sugar, I realized just how, "Fast away the old year passes..."

"Hail the new, ye lads and lasses!"

Fa la la la la, la la la la.

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