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Morales, Delgado. The Calderónian Stage. Body and Soul. London: Lewisburg Bucknell University Press, London Associated University Presses. 1997. Print.

This text is a series of essays discussing various aspects of staging Calderon's plays during the Golden Age. The essays are dividing into three categories: Poetry and Performance, Embodying the Sacred, and Spaces for Women's Wit. The sections I focused on were Poetry and Performance and Embodying the Sacred. These essays discuss the theatre conventions that were used in performances of Calderon's work. They go into further detail about how these staging techniques reflected popular themes in Spanish Golden Age society. These themes were based around the discovering the mystical and explaining the unexplainable. One theatre convention involved placing a symbolic tableau behind and curtain and having the curtain slowing drawn back to reveal it to the audience. The tableau itself would have a specific meaning attached to it that the audience would immediately understand. I used this source to further research the themes of Calderon's work and how th

Levy, Kurt, Ara, Jesús, Hughes, Gethin. Calderón and the Baroque Tradition. Canada: Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data. 1985. Print.

This text is a series of essays discussing different aspects of Calderon's theatre from the historical context of his plays to the central themes to staging methods and how they relate to said themes. The essays fall under one of four categories: themes, the musical dimension, visual aspects, and individual plays. All the articles return to the idea that El Mundo, the world, was included in the dramatis persone of his plays. The essay The World Picture in Calderon's Autos sacrementales focuses on how Calderon's theatre responded to a changing world view during the Spanish Golden Age, in which the arts and sciences were beginning to separate. While the world of science was beginning to accept that the Earth was not the center of the universe, and man's new place in this new world, the arts remained very much in the past. Calderon, like Milton in Protestant England, was ahead of his time in that he was exploring these new themes of man's place in a larger, mystical, unexplainable universe. The article The Use of Costume in Some Plays of Calderon discusses how characters were assigned their imaginary roles by El Mundo, in place of a godlike figure. It discusses how costume was used to further the purpose of the spectacle, to reveal something of the mystical and to reflect some of the themes emerging in the new world view.

Calderón de la Barca, Pedro, Kidd, Michael. Life's a Dream: Edited and Translated by Michael Kidd. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. 2004. Print.

This translation is in prose and for an America audience. Some translators left it in verse, but lost some historical dialects over time. The introduction notes discuss the politics of the time, Calderon's life and how he is a contemporary of Shakespeare, and what influence Elizabethan writing had over the Spanish Golden Age. In the translator's notes, Michael Kidd discusses how when translating from Spanish to English, the rhythm is off. Shakespeare wrote in English, mainly in iambic pentameter. Although Calderon may have had a rhythm to his writing, it has disappeared over time because of the original language it was in. The plot has many subplots and can be summarized later.

17th C Spain. Overview: Politics. 2009. Spain Then and Now. 8 November, 2012. <> is a summary of 45 years of travel and research composed by two retired university professors who attain the aliases of 'J.G.' and 'Margaret'. The website contains immensely detailed information on major elements of Spanish culture including Spanish architecture, Spanish art (visual, dramatic, etc.), Spanish culture, Spanish literature, Spanish history, and Spanish travel. Because of my role as political researcher I focused primarily on the Spanish history department of the website. J.G. and Margaret's historical research stretches from the Palaeolithic Age (1.8 million years ago in 2009) to Spain in the 19th Century. There is a tab specifically dedicated to the political attributes of Spain in the 17th Century and has served as a primary source for political information regarding our presentation. What's exponentially helpful about this website is the fact that each section of history that is elaborated on is not just a broad overview that generalizes all of Spanish politics into one but rather, it focuses on each region of Spain and explains what was going on in that area. Now, it is incorrect to say that every single area of Spain is addressed simply because there is too much information. The web site zones in on the major regions such as Madrid and Toledo, and it also focuses on Spanish territories that were not actually connected to Spain literally but were possessed by Spain in the 17th Century such as Latin America, the Philippines, sections of Portugal, Brazil, Both coasts of Africa, India, and the Far East.

Greer, Margaret Rich. Art and Power in the Spectacle Plays of Calderon de la Barca. Modern Language Association. 1989.

(Art and Power) This article is about Calderon's support for the Spanish monarchy in his work. It discusses the Hapsburg's role in Spain and society and how it controls the Holy Roman Empire and therefore religious figures, like Calderon support them. When public opinion of the Spanish monarchy was going down, Calderon would write plays painting the Spanish royalty as wonderful leaders in excellent light, sometimes using ancient theater staging techniques to parallel them with dieties. He says that a true king 1.) Strength of institutions behind him (i.e. the Hapsburg empire and the catholic church) 2.) history, blood inheritance to the throne but also the glories of his ancestors, and 3.) poetry or theatrical art which have the power to transform a weak being into a figure of public dominance and powerful command essential to an "absolutist" state. This article makes the argument that Calderon dedicated imself to shoring up social values he felt to be threatened and also to express those values through the royal optic to congratulate the ineffective kings.

Kurtz, Barbara E. Illusions of Power: Calderon de la Barca, the Spanish Inquisition, and the Prohibition of Las ordenes militares. Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispanicos. 1994.

(Illusions of Power) This article talks about the religious implications Calderon's work had. Calderon was a priest, official dramatist to the court of the king, knight of the elite religio - military Order of Santiago - and he enjoyed unrivalled prestige and royal favour in Habsburg spain. Therefore, his works held certain religious status just because they were written by him. Whenever Calderon would make religious claims in his works they would be interpreted with higher importance by the people of Spain. If a character spoke against the church, even if it was an evil character, the work would become intensely observed by religious leaders of Spain as they distrusted the audience to distinguish between something the devil says and something an angel says. It was never Calderon's intent to speak against the church and the article makes the claim that Calderon was always in seamless accord with the Holy Office's power.

Malinak, Edward M. "Pedro Calderón De La Barca: Life Is a Dream by Edwin Honig. Review By:Edward M. Malinak." The Modern Language Journal 55.4 (1971): 259-60. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2012.
This article provided us with a criticism for a specific translation. It's interesting to see how one translation can be considered well written and true the original author's writing or not. This particular review states the the translator is "meticulously faithful" to the original in this English translation. Malinak goes onto state that Honig's version gives enough background along with his "proper perspective" to provide a "thorough understanding and appreciation of his (Calderon) dramatic art."Malinek focuses on the "consciousness" theme of the play and evolution of the main character and how Honig brought that theme through. He states that "Calderon's love of symmetry and artistry in creating form...", along with the "Superb symbolism" prevails". Malinak is fond of Honig's translation and gives a very distinct description as to why and the importance of what comes through. Malinak also writes a personal thanks to Honig for providing a worthy translation of Calderon's "prolific and penetrating drama" It was important to see someone approve so highly of a translation, and approve of Calderon's work versus an opinion like Voltaire that isn't fond of Spanish theater. We also get some specific ideas as to what a person looks for in a translation, especially from a reviewer who knows about the original author and his works.

"The Project Gutenberg EBook of Life Is A Dream, by Pedro Calderon De La Barca." Http:// N.p., 31 Mar. 2006. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. .

This site provided us more useful information. There is a simple but detailed description of Calderon's life and important events that happened to him. It is also another translation of Calderon's play, "Life is a Dream". The paragraphs about Calderon's life gives us a good insight into what he wanted to achieve with his work, what events in his life triggered specific writings or ideas, and how his work progressed with time and circumstances. For example, after Calderon joined the priesthood, his plays became much more overtly religious and church oriented. We also learn that most of Calderon's works were commissioned by Philip IV, making the themes of loyalty to the king and church even more comprehensible and clear. Though it is described that Calderon is had these beliefs himself, his support from the king makes Calderon's choices more obvious. This translation was also easily available for all of us to read and to have another comparison to make between different works.

Schier, Donald. "Voltaire's Criticism of Calderón." Comparative Literature 11 (1959): 340-46. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2012.
This article was helpful because it gives us an inside look on another well known author's opinion. We can get a viewpoint other than our own and help us see Calderon's works in a different way. It also helped us understand that Voltaire was not entirely fond of most literature from Spain. Along with these, there is a small comparison between the ideals of French theater vs. Spanish. Voltaire believed that French theater had moved beyond the "crudities" of Gothic theater and thought that Spanish theater was out of date. Voltaire often shortens his translations, and though the overall story comes through, there isn't the same detail or meanings portrayed in Calderon's original writings. Another useful part of this article is to get the author's outside view and opinion on Voltaire's critiques of Spanish theater as well as the author's opinions on the works of Calderon. The author discusses Voltaire's translations, thoughts, and critiques of Spanish theater and specific plays during the time; such as, "Life is a Dream" as well as other Spanish plays and other works by Calderon. We have more than one interpretation to get ideas from through this reviewer's and Voltaire's thoughts.

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This page contains a single entry by porte407 published on November 29, 2012 10:18 AM.

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