February 2010 Archives

positionality paper

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My identity has done much in my life to inform me of the world around me. As a heterosexual, white, upper middle class girl I have had many privileges given to me and obstacles as well. I would say that being upper middle class has probably shaped what the world has informed me of the most. There have been obstacles of course from being a girl, but since my parents had all girls and taught us that we could be anything that we wanted, I think that greatly impacted how much my gender helped in informing me of the world around me. Growing up as a child I was surrounded by a lot of other upper middle class people. As a result of this part of my background and since that is the only lifestyle that I saw around me, my world did very little, if anything, to inform me of things such as poverty. As a child I doubt that I even fully understood that there were many children all around the country and the world who were poor or even what the word poor truly means. Even now, despite all that I have learned through the course of my studies, I don't always fully understand the true meaning of poor unless I am actively thinking about it. For example, one thing that I say and joke about with my friends sometimes is that I am a poor college student. In actuality however, I am certainly not poor and what my friends and myself really mean when we say we are poor is that we don't have money to do whatever we want, whenever we want. We all are going to a good college, have nice homes, enough food and clothes, and enough for a little mad money on the weekends. We are certainly not poor. So despite all that I have learned, growing up in the upper middle class still affects my perception of the world to this day and always will.
In terms of research for my paper, I think that my gender affects what areas I want to focus on most for my project. As a young woman I have faced many obstacles and frustrations in my life, which have brought me to where I am today. I picked this major because of how intensely those common obstacles and frustrations have affected my life. Since my gender plays such a large role in my life, gender is usually the are that I wish to focus on when doing research because it is what intrigues me the most. As a result, I have noticed that when doing research on my project I tend to focus the majority of my time on gender instead of giving the equal attention that race and class deserve on the subject matter of prostituted women. Specifically, I need to do more research on the racial differences within prostitution because of what a large role race plays in prostitution. Furthermore, I volunteer at the aurora center as an advocate for those affected by sexual assault, domestic violence and stalking, (which I got into because it is a problem that faces my gender) and I use to volunteer at Breaking Free, and organization that helps prostituted women get out of prostitution which also affects the way I view the subject. I have been trained to view the subject of prostitution in a certain way which affects how well I am able to place myself outside of that role and take in views that contradict everything that I have been taught. The biggest hurdle that I think I will face is how I will have to word my thoughts in the project since it is a research paper. As an advocate I am suppose to believe everyone that comes in to the aurora center. That is the most important aspect of my job there. However, since I am writing a research paper I will have to force myself out of that role and report only the facts. For example, things that have not been legally proven will have to be referred to as "reported as" or "allegedly" instead of talking about it as something as if it were a legally proven


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My Positionality

I'm going to start by exploring what my identity is. I do find this idea a bit limiting, and feel it forces me to categorize myself in ways I try to avoid categorizing others - because sometimes it's hard to convey the interplay between different aspects of identity. So, who am I? I'm a poor white woman who was born and raised in Minneapolis. I'm half-adopted, still poor, and am a college student right now. To bring in more personal depth, my mother was sixteen, anorexic and in an abusive relationship with an alcoholic when she became pregnant with me. Who is my mom? My mom is badass, and I am a lot like my mom.

Aspects of my identity: gender - female, sexuality - questionable, race/ethnicity - human, adopted (but visibly I am white), class - working poor, nationality - American, politics - hate them, religion - hell no, travel status - been to a few '3rd' world places, view on academia - usually disgusted and frustrated (biggest issue = exclusion of those not privileged enough to like to read and the use of stupidly large words... if you're so smart you should be able to talk or write so others can understand you).

So how does my identity inform my view of the world around me? It gives me context, and perhaps a chip on my shoulder (or it could just be my mood right now). So how can I, this white lady who holds privilege from skin color alone talk or write about police brutality? I have a question for my readers here: how could I not? How else can the bridge between privileged white people in academia and intercity minority residents who have experienced state-sanctioned violence be bridged? How can already marginalized people make academics pay attention or care? I'm not writing to 'save' or 'help,' I'm writing because I'm pissed off and disgusted by what I see happening to other human beings.

You want to know who I am and what I do? I'm a person who has seen a lot of bullshit. And I can write about this because I've seen it, it's effected people close to me, and I can amass a bigger audience than most people who have actually experienced (for no reason other than my skin color and the fact I managed to make it to college). What I'm talking about is violence. It's about someone I know having their eardrum burst and seltzer water poured into it while being called racist words. Or the woman who was raped by police and charged with a felony after the hospital forced her to report the rape to the same officers who raped her. But more than that, it's about all the people who have been brutalized and never say shit because the system that we live in has beat them down mentally first. At minimum I can make you angry with what I write, or angry about what I write, you can call it untrue; I don't care what you think but I do hope you think twice about dismissing what I say.

Maybe to put it overly simply: I write because what else am I supposed to do?
What else can I do to make someone pay attention to something so obvious to me?

Positionality Paper Intro

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I was standing on he corner of Sixth Street and Couch probably smoking, and staring through the perpetual mist for the bus. I waited impatiently even though I had no where to go, and was intentionally averting my eyes from the dingy marquee outside this disreputable bar across the street that always proclaimed NOW HIRING DANCERS followed by the ever appealing phrase NO EXPERIENCE NECESSARY. The sunset felt particularly cold. It had only been six weeks since my estranged born again older sister had kicked my teenage libertine ass out of her house. I moved to Portland with naive dreams of grand adventures, to meet her, and become a feminist superhero, but so far I just lived in some guy's truck under a bridge.
The irony of my homelessness was that my parents who reside in the bowels of the 7th ring of suburban hell sprawl couldn't help me out. Like many families oscillating in the vast sea of hybrid midwestern whiteness, my parents purchased the American Dream on credit. The house, the cars, and the status were all a misguided illusion, we never had any money. I was only homeless for those weeks, and I already knew how to steal, charm, and find all the things I needed; but I had defiantly had enough.
It has been interesting to observe and analyze the power dynamics on the floor of the club, especially with my gender lense and simultaneous exposure to Foucault's writing on the dynamic and fluid nature of the construction of power. Sex work is not a clear exploitation of female sexuality as it is stereotyped to be, nor do dancers always have the upper hand. The binary understanding of sex work as being either empowering, or victimizing is not very useful. Personally I find the contribution to capitalist production and the materialism promoted by sex work to be far more socially damaging than the commodification of the (female) body. The real area of sociological interest for me has been the locker room.
My first night was pathetic; I had the worst cough and had danced barefoot. Even though public nudity was nothing new to me I was terrified. What am I doing I though, I don't have an act or like any cool tricks. The thrill of blatant exhibitionism and the immediate gratification of a dollar for every wiggle and booty pop was thrilling and addicting though. I was far from glam and sexy but I managed to make enough to stay in a hotel room, and maybe even order room service. In the dressing room I was fascinated by the other dancers, they were loud, rude, hilarious, and delightfully unladylike. Though dancers are notoriously stand offish to new girls, these chicks were super chatty, a house girl named Mia reprimanded me for not wearing shoes informing me that it's part of the uniform, and I just needed to get over it. She said it like she was annoyed to be talking to me, but know she was really just looking out. I was beyond embarrassed to tell her that I couldn't afford to buy some,because she was as fabulous as a drag queen. Another girl Adrianna was crouched on the floor shoving her sparkly belongings into her backpack snickering at Mia digs. In a fluid motion she opened her locker and threw a gigantic pair of shoes at me. Without looking up at me she said "Here take these, you can just have em. I hate them." It wasn't long until I had an apartment, a new bike, a respectable record collection, and a work locker full of my own shoes, and spandex. In my first week of dancing I made jokes with my friend Joey-Ariel-Nicole that I was a "lifer." Jokes are only funny when infused with truths. I was infatuated with the industry, and it was the best job I had ever had. That type of comradery that Adrianna and even Mia showed me that first day only grew stronger. Angel-Trish was one of those intimidatingly cool dancers too, the type of person who really never took anybody's shit. She taught me how to give couch dances the first night we meet, she literally held my hand through it. She taught me how to hustle, and she took me into her house that was already full with four kids when I became transitional again later on. I have no idea why she helped me out like that, and when I would ask she would just laugh at me or say something to the effect of, "I like your style, girl." I was blessed with tough, sexy friends with animal, gem, and food and fake girl-next-door names. The friendships I made in the industry, and the strong woman centric community that has given me so much love and support was something I never expected, nor realized that I so desperately needed.
There has already been a lot of writing in the sex positive feminist community about sex work, and the subversive potential of the gender performance of sex work, and about the non-normative sexuality displayed by audacious women, luckily. I really want to explore is the radical organizing potential of this strong community that already holds a cooperative ethic. The community created by dancer's had been invaluable to me personally, but I would like to see us organize and develop our collective power in an even bigger way. I feel we are at an advantageous time to address the our needs, as the labor organizing community is looking for ways to appeal to younger people and sex up their efforts. There is a potential for even greater collaboration.
When my parents found out about my job they sad I was evil, going to hell, ECT. It was everything I had expected them to say when I told them I was half gay. They were very proud of me when I moved back to Minneapolis and got a job wearing pants. I was less impressed, waitressing was just whoring your personality to me, no different. When I jumped back into dancing I jumped directly into the belly of the beast. I had been unfamiliar with the exploitative practices of corporate strip clubs, the funny money, mandatory two-for-one dances, and the managerial pressure to give 110% on the job were almost too much for me to tolerate. I work at Dream girls, which is owned by the De ja Vu Corporation, which is owned by Hustler. People are often surprised to earn that dancer's pay a third to half of what they make every night in house fees in addition to tipping the entire support staff out, that we have to sell drinks, and that we are wrongfully considered independent contractors. I really want to provide a forum for these strong women to address their needs, and build a collective voice so that in the future dancers don't have to tolerate corporate exploitation, and that sex positivism dominates the scene.

#3 Annotated Bibliographies

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In the Oral History Review Wendy Rickard wrote about her experiences collecting oral histories of sex workers for a project done in cooperation with the British Library National Sound Archive. She talked about how important it was in gathering the research to share authority with the respondent, and that the narrative of each individuals history was self defined and self edited. The sex workers who recorded their oral histories for her were often less concerned about being misrepresented in the archive and academic world, than they were about their anonymity. It's interesting to think about this line between many sex worker's desires to be heard, to have their story told, but to be published under their work alias and in some cases restrict public access to their recorded accounts. It's not a conflict to me,as alias are real identities and often a protective necessity; just an interesting particularity to the work. She pushed herself from a sex positive ethic, into a conclusion that oral historians need to take an activist role at ties. An example provided is the publication in 1975 of life story interviews with fourteen British sex workers that initiated the activist organization PUSSI (Prostitutes United for Social and Sexual Integration). She also advocates for unconventional methods of collecting the material, and considerations for the emotional weight of some of the material.

In the essay" Lesbians and Prostitutes: A Historical Sisterhood," Joan Nestle writes about the importance of documenting and reclaiming the histories of marginalized, specifically lesbian people as a direct political act that challenges notions of proper femininity. She challenges lesbian history as being incomplete with out the primary sources of diaries, correspondences, and other narratives of lesbian prostitutes. She concludes that lesbians are more politically represented because of the gay rights movement and that lesbians and prostitutes have a strong shared history beyond intersectionality that has framed their treatment from the legal, medical, and religious communities. The essay is found in the book Sex Work.

"Dancing Here, 'Living' There: Transnational Lives and Working Conditions of Latina Migrant Exotic Dancers" by Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero is a great starting point to think about the mutiplicity of needs of the sex working community, and a stunning exposition of the corporeality of the effects of multiple systems of oppression. The piece aims to understand migrant sex workers not only in the context of labor but the total reality of their lives ad mothers, sisters, community members, and activists. She notes the tendency for dancers to become each others support systems, talking shop, providing legal advice and social support informally. For Latina dancers their legal status is "temporary foreign worker" which makes them vulnerable to dependency on an agent who takes a cut of their money, and to club ownership and management manipulation. All ten of the women Diaz Barrero interviewed reported problems with club owners and managers like violence, sexual abuse, withholding payments, and document retention. The poor working conditions, and "funny money" problems are a scourge to all dancers, but this article does a really good job of outlining the issues associated with the feminization of immigration, and the transnational labor issues highlighted by the Latina migrant dancers' case.

Positionality Intro

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Before anyone reads my intro, please keep in mind that whatever response to or thoughts about it you have would be really helpful to me- Comment please!! I want to take a first-person narrative approach to my paper, but am unsure still. This positionality paper is kind of a trial-run on writing a narrative and it feels really informal to me, maybe too informal?

As I begin this paper, I am overwhelmed. How can I possibly go about explaining the positionality that I inhabit and that will inevitably influence my writing when it is nearly impossible to calculate what exactly this positionality is? I am not sure I can even fully understand my own positionality in relation to any subject I approach, precisely because of that positionality affecting my outlook. I could start by listing the various descriptors that so often get cast against or along side one another to create an intersectionality that designates the cultural space I occupy. If this is the case, then I am: white, female, heterosexual, upper class, educated, midwestern, atheist and the list goes on. But even if I were to extend this list to infinity with everything I think is a qualitative or quantitative aspect of my true and essential self, it would not be me. Who I am, and the positionality from which I approach any topic or theory, is constantly changing. Some changes are big, like realization that I am a feminist after my first Intro to Women's Studies course, and some changes are small, like reading a text that I thought was interesting (or for that matter a text that I hated and any shade of grey in between). I believe that the only way I can approach this mountain of figuring out my place in relation to everything and everyone out there is to figure out the path that led me to where I am*, and trying to decide where that will take me as I go on (and as I work on my project).

*Note: My explanation of "the path that led me to where I am" will seem brief but this is just to keep this paper within the constraints of 2-3 pages. I intend to include this narrative in my final paper and will possibly lengthen it. Here I keep it simply to aspects that I think are relative to my development of character in relation to my field of study.


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this is a recording of a piece i wrote exploring a moment/realization that continues to inform me about my position, especially within the American academy and influences my current research.

the recording volume is pretty low so you'll probably have to turn your computer volume up all the way. sorry!!

Poem in Progress!

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I decided to begin my positionality paper with a poem about my history of working in the restaurant business. I used the restaurants' actual names for this project, but if I were to include this in my project I would use different names. I am still working on it, but this is what I have so far. Also, in the microsoft document I have my thoughts italicized and some words bolded, but you get the idea. Enjoy!

Welcome to Beefs!
Would you like chips, fries, coleslaw or fruit with that?
My high school sex ed teacher sits at a booth in my section
Awkward small talk becomes the art of service
So, how is your weekend Mr. Foley?
Yes, I have been studying the chapter on...
I must escape Land of the Awkward.
The same piece of curled rug trips me as I walk away
Damnit. Alex is sitting at that table.
More Ketchup.
Do you have zucchini fries?
Hell NO! What do you think this place is? It's called BEEFS... "I apologize but we do not have zucchini fries, would you like fruit instead?"
Disorganization, chaos, sinking in the weeds.
Troy Creep. Contact between Trygs and tubs.
Why is he still in my phone?
Chocolate Eruption. HAHAHAHA
So, how old are you? 17.
What do you do for a living? I'm a fireman.
So...want to have a movie night after you get off?
More laughter. "Get off." "Chocolate Eruption." Really? It's a cake. Why am I okay with this?
Goodbye Beefs.
Spag. Welcome to Spag.
Bread. Salad. Bread. Salad. Bread. Salad.
Bread. Salad. Bread. Salad. Bread. Salad.
Dreamy Paul, always untying my apron.
Why do you always wear a tank top under your white shirt?
Hehehe ohhhh Paul. Omg. Does he like me?
Twins Games, Vikings Games, Hell On Spag.
2-top, another 2-top, 8-top, 6-top, 4-top.
What the HELL is going on? I CANNOT take
All of these tables Eddie. Panic. Panic. Panic.
Eddie. Manager. Disrespecter.
R.O. for my mother's birthday?
Ripped to shreds along with my respect for him.
Good evening Spag.
Good afternoon, Welcome to Trygs.
19 year old Brittney. 21 year old Jen. 24 year old Ashley. Tryg. WHY?!!!!
Anger. Hatred. Frustration. Chauvinism. Pervert. Inappropriate. Unprofessional.
Stay. Away.
Katherine, did you do something to your hair?
Yes! Do you like it? (flipping hair)
WHYYYYYYYYY???? Did I just say that?
Customers. Male, female, black, white, yellow, brown, heterosexual, homosexual, old. Money.
Servers. Male, female, white, heterosexual, homosexual, old, young. Money.
Cooks. Male, 1 female, Latino, heterosexual, old, young. Money.
Servers assistants. Male, Latino, heterosexual, old, fathers. Money.
Is this just another scene from the play?
Who are you serving?
Who do you want to serve you?
Take that table. Why? Because tits get tips.
I'll take 'em.
Good eeeevening gentlemen.
Eyes follow like hawks around the bar.
Always watching, drooling, like children at the zoo.
Beauty watched like a caged animal.
Empowerment. Hurtful?
Audre Lorde. Bonnie Berry? Both?
But, what is this beauty?
White, heterosexual, normal body, 21 years old.
Easy positioning? Lucky positioning? Guilt?
Confusion. Questioning. Curiosity
Result: Outsider within the makeup shade of the restaurant.

Positionality Paper

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[I am imagining this section to be towards the end of my paper, after I have described my past research findings, and current theorizing on the topic. It will also be the introduction to my section about feminist ethics.

The longer paper I'll turn in on Wednesday will be longer and generally more awesome. Prepare yourselves!]

The research and the subsequent theorizing I engaged in are rife with dangerous power imbalances and important positionality questions. From the very beginning of my research in Kenya, I was aware of the problematic aspects. Here I was, an upper-middle class American white woman, entering Kenya and after just a few months of residency and internship, expecting to be able to a) identify a question worth asking from my point of view b) identify a question that could be meaningful from the Kenyan perspective c) identify a way of answering my question that might elicit some sort of truth in a completely different cultural landscape d) have an approach to the problem that does not reify colonial relationships. I know this list is incomplete but it gives the reader an idea of the variety of problems inherent to a transnational project with little prior research or training.
While in Kenya, although I remember thinking at length about these issues, here is all I actually wrote on this particular topic:

"One main bias comes from the social status of the researcher as an American white female. This produces a number of pre-conceived notions in the minds of Kenyans, particularly that white people are rich donors who can assist foreigners in traveling to other countries. Often at the beginning of an interview, people would ask for compensation, either in cash or in food. These sorts of expectations may have influenced the reasons that people came for the interview.

It is also very possible that respondents gave a certain answer the interviewer to appear a certain way. Perhaps they would want to appear of a higher status, or to not give any indication of an HIV/AIDS status. Inevitably the presence of an outsider, especially one considered to be of a higher "standing" in the community will affect the type of response that is given."


Interesting Article

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The other day in class we were casually talking about the school to prison pipeline (I think that's the term). Here's a related article I found interesting...

4 Annotated Entries

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Michell Tea's Rent Girl is an engaging autobiographic story of a young lesbian woman who gets involved s sex work with her girlfriend. I love that it is a graphic novel, because the characters are so vivid in her story, and you really feel like your getting a glimpse into a small, typically misrepresented world. She doesn't make prostitution seem more accessible, or glamorous, or horrific. Rather shows the reality of a fairly common occupation, and she devotes a lot of space in the story to her personal relationships, motivations, and history. The work goes a long way to disrupt the binary narrative of sex work being either empowering or victimizing.

Flesh for Fantasy: producing and Consuming Exotic Dance is a collection of essays edited by three people with PhD s who danced at some point. It is such a great example of the power of sharing your story in order to help other people. I have had my face in this book for a week, it speaks so directly to my experiences as a feminist scholar and stripper, and how both aspects of my life have informed one another. The book was created on the premise that people informing the conversation, and asking questions about the exotic dancing should be the dancer's themselves. The book explores through personal narratives, power dynamics, social taboos, and how class, race,and sexuality inform one's experience and role in the marginalized sex trade. The essay entitled How You Got Here resonated we me, Alison Fensterstock reflects her experiences working as a dancer and constantly studying the social dynamics and gender performance in the club setting. A lot of the writers in this collection were strongly influenced by Judith Butler's theorizing on the subversive potential of gender performance, and Micheal Warner's notions of queering.

Annotations (3)

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Hamermesh, DS., & Biddle, JE. "Beauty and the Labor Market." American
Economic Review, 84(5). 1994. pp. 1174-1194.
Hamermesh and Biddle's work is similar to Lynn's article in the sense of gathering data and categorizing factors of beauty. They take a somewhat different perspective in the sense that they look at the impact of looks according to the customers. They describe physical attractiveness according to plainness and good-looking. One of their claims is that "better-looking" people are drawn to occupations where beauty may be more economically productive.

I am interested in this article because of similar reasons I am interested in the Lynn Piece. I plan to use their date while critiquing how they collected and the dialogue they provide regarding physicality. One of my interview question I would like to ask my coworkers is if they think that beauty (as defined in their opinion) is a factor for their customers and what type of factor. I think this piece will assist in how I could go about my questions but also reveal the problematics with this type of research that play into the exclusions of beauty.

Lynn, Michael. "Determinants and Consequences of Female Attractiveness and
Sexiness: Realistic Tests with Restaurant Waitresses. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2000.
In this article, female servers completed an on-line survey regarding their physical characteristics, self-perceived attractiveness and sexiness, and average tips. Although the survey is limiting in its method and problematically categorizes, I think it is an interested process of research. The results show the social constructs of beauty with the limitations a part of how I can theorize the surveys and the rest of this article.

I plan to use this article to show how socially constructed beauty and how it is connected to serving. The results show that the women's self-rated physical attractiveness increased with their breast sizes and decreased with their ages, waste-to-hip ratios and body sizes. I plan to explore how these factors and results are present in the restaurant business in hiring as well as interpersonal relationships.

Berry, Bonnie. "Beauty Bias: Discrimination and Social Power." Journal of American
Cultures. 2008.
In this book, Berry focuses on how social inequality can be seen as a result of physical appearances and the prejudices and discrimination that result because of it. She looks specifically at how this intersects with sexism, racism, ageism and homophobia. Berry looks at methods of achieving "physical attractiveness" by means of plastic surgery, cosmetics, clothing, etc.

This book will be helpful in analyzing the means of beauty and how this works into economic spaces. Serving becomes means to an economic end which makes the uses of the erotic very complex. Berry will assist in how the marketability of beauty is limited and results in discrimination and prejudices that are a part of social inequalities in our society.

Ochoa, Gilda L. and Pineda, Daniela. "Deconstructing Power, Privilege, and Silence in the Classroom." Radical History Review. 102. (Fall 2008).

In this essay, Ochoa and Pineda discuss practical approaches to talking about race, gender, and class through a critical pedagogy. They draw their focus in to the unequal power dynamics within college/university classrooms and address the ways that space often reproduces dominant ideologies in relation to power, privilege, and exclusion. They envision a classroom that is "student-centered, cooperative, participatory, reflective, and negotiated between teacher and student" (47). Within this framework, they address the politics of assimilation and unequal modes of communication, the difficulties of teaching against years of socialization, and the reality that each student experiences the classroom in a different way. Through experience-based knowledge, they explore ways to break the silence through re-socialization and inclusivity.

Ochoa and Pineda's work on language, the politics of assimilation, and unequal modes of communication within academia is of particular importance to my project. Given the complexities of language and its history of oppression and domination, I am interested in whether the body can be a vessel for alternative forms of communication. Their careful attention to the different ways students experience the classroom environment is a helpful and necessary reminder to be aware of how individual students' social locations may affect their ability, desire, and comfort levels when encountering this different classroom space. While I do not necessarily agree with their desire to re-socialize bodies in these spaces, I recognize the importance of a process-oriented approach, arguably based in the practice of "un-learning."

Torres, Edén. "Wisdom and Weakness: Freire and Education." Chicana Without Apology. Routledge. New York, 2003.

In this chapter, Torres draws our attention to the complex relationship between women of color educators and Freirean pedagogy. She draws on her experience as a Chicana professor at the University of Minnesota and brings questions of power, privilege, and authority to the forefront of her discussion. Throughout these explorations she comes to the conclusion that Freirean pedagogical practices cannot simply be excavated from the time, place, and socio-political moment in which they were developed. Instead, the time, place, and socio-political moment in which we are working today must provide the driving forces in our engagement with Freirean pedagogies.

Torres' discussion of women of color educators engaging with Freirean pedagogy is vital to my work because it asks me to hone my understandings of power, authority, and dialogue in the classroom. Clarifying what I mean by each of these terms can open a space to enter into Freirean pedagogy more effectively. I also see an opportunity to incorporate ideas of embodiment into this critical discussion as one possible framework for a praxis which re-defines power, authority, and dialogue.

Johnson, Julia R. and Bhatt, Archana J. "Gendered and Racialized Identities and Alliances in the Classroom: Formations in/of Resistive Space." Communication Education, Vol. 52, No. 3/4, July/October 2003, pp. 230-244

In this article, Johnson and Bhatt discuss processes of alliance building in the classroom which challenges essentialized, binary notions of difference. They critique a disembodied approach to theorizing about oppression because oppression often manifests as corporeal violence. In order to create transformational classroom spaces through alliance building, they argue identity should be theorized as relational and the "Self" must remain vulnerable to "Others." Their vision for alliances "across racial lines" is not idealistic or simple, but is rooted in struggle, conflict, and occasionally pain. In order for this process to be effective and not destructive, they discuss the necessity of a safe space for interaction which allows those conflicts to be sites of learning.

I am particularly interested in their discussion of relational identities and alternative notions of difference. Maintaining binary logic in classroom explorations of "difficult dialogues" is to maintain dominant structures of interaction and communication, and ultimately, does not contribute to the process of destabilizing systems of power and privilege. I hope to take the framework they have set up and explore in more depth this idea of "safe spaces" in relation to creating and effective site for praxis.

Cerwonka, Allaine. "Traveling Feminist Thought: Difference and Transculturation in Central and Eastern European Feminism." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 33.4 (2008). 809-832.

Allaine Cerwonka's article using the idea of transculturation in the context of perceived clashes between Eastern European feminism and "mainstream" Western feminisms to theorize a more nuanced analysis of difference and the accompanying strict binaries. Transculturation posits that ideas and schools of thought circulate internationally and are adapted to particular contexts and localities.

While her case study is far different from mine, the use of transculturation allows me to understand how supposedly Western ideas are not merely imposed on people, but are shaped and changed to suit the situation at hand. This does not negate the importance of power dynamics in international situations, but merely provides a fuller picture. These ideas give me a firm theoretical background for my application of globalization and its effects of the practice of widow inheritance.

Hattori, Tomohisa. "Reconceptualizing Foreign Aid." Review of International Political Economy 8.4 (2001): 633-60. Print.

"Reconceptualizing Foreign Aid" is an interesting article analyzing the way that aid "euphemizes" greater power imbalances in the global sphere, primarily because the giving is not reciprocal. Additionally, Hattori thoroughly defines and discusses the way that aid operates politically and financially.

The discussion of aid allows me to theorize about the connection between foreign aid that the United States gives to Kenya, Westernization, and their relationship to poverty. These linkages may be particularly important as I begin to think about the role of poverty in the changes in the way widow inheritance was practiced.

Schwarz, Henry, and Sangeeta Ray. A Companion to Postcolonial Studies. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Print.

The chapter "Global Capital and Transnationalism" by Crystal Bartolovich discusses the various theoretical positions on globalization, such as the debate surrounding the current power of the nation-state. The article then discusses more recent post-colonial discussions of globalization, particularly the problematizing of binaries such as colonizer/colonized, and the understanding of how culture shifts and is transported.

It is the review of theories that discuss the intermixing of cultures that is most applicable to my work on changes in widow inheritance. Particularly I want to follow up on a number of citations on theorists who have written on this, including Antonio Gramsci.

Annotated Bibliography 2

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Halperin, David M., et al. "REFLECTIONS: The Normalization of Queer Theory." 45 Vol. Haworth Press, Inc, 2003. 339-343. Print.

In "The Normalization of Queer Theory" David Halperin briefly describes the origins of queer theory, beginning in 1990 and continuing up until where queer theory is situated in academic institutions today. Halperin puts queer theory as a field in context amongst LGBT studies and feminist studies, analyzing their overlapping and evolving relationships to one another. Halperin also questions whether queer theory is living up to its hype and why it was so quickly absorbed into mainstream and largely heterosexual academic institutions when much of queer theory is so radical. This article has already been very helpful for me in trying to trace the short history of queer theory and understand somewhat where queer theory stands at the present moment. Halperin lists many foundational queer theory texts, which is always valuable when researching a topic, and he also raises a lot of questions about queer theory that are embedded in my project of figuring where feminism and queer theory are situated relative to one another. Halperin mentions briefly feminist studies and lesbian and gay male studies participating in creating identity politics, but doesn't elaborate, so this will not help me in that regard.

Heyes, Cressida J. "Feminist Solidarity After Queer Theory: The Case of Transgender." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society 28.4 (2003): 1093. Print.

In this article, Cressida Heyes analyzes the argument in some feminist texts against any association or inclusion of transsexuals into feminist theory. Heyes specifically highlights the stance of two feminist theorists who deem transsexuality inherently outside of the realm of feminist theory or best interest. Heyes asserts that Janice Raymond and Bernice Hausman see transsexuals as reinforcing ideological conceptions of masculinity and femininity by simply mixing the two or choosing one over the other, rather than transcending the gender binary. Heyes uses these two theorists as a jumping off point to iterate why transsexuals are actually involved in "working within an ethics of self-transformation with which all feminists must grapple". In this way, Heyes links not only transsexuals and feminist theory as having connections, but queer theory as well because of the radical emphasis of marginalized subjects, especially transsexuals, within queer theory. This article not only gives a nuanced account of both exclusionary and identity-driven feminist theory, but also a possibility for the reliance of feminism on queer theory and vice versa. This is a perfect article for my project, and also has opened up a new possibility of using transsexual and transgender issues as an example of the conflict in identity politics of feminism with queer theory.

Hammers, Corie, and Alan D. Brown Ill. "Towards a Feminist-Queer Alliance: Paradigmatic Shift in the Research Process." Social Epistemology 18.1 (2004): 85-101. Print.

This text is a thorough investigation of social sciences as they exist today and their reinforcement of gender, patriarchal and heterosexist norms. Hammers and Brown turn first to feminist interpretations of what is wrong with social sciences as they exist and are taught today, and then move to queer interpretations of the same subjects. The feminist and queer critiques of these subjects work well with each other and complement the gaps in one another's theory. This is an example of ways in which feminist theory and queer theory can be combined within the same project for a similar end goal.

Puar, Jasbir K. "Queer Times, Queer Assemblages." Social Text (2005), 23:3-4.

In Queer Times, Queer Assemblages, Puar discusses a lot of unique and interesting ideas about queerness, focusing specifically on the idea of an assemblage versus intersectionality as a way of addressing problems with identity politics. Puar also focuses on ballistic bodies, and naming things that are already queer but are not fully recognized in their queerness. I am referencing this article because of a suggestion, and as I have been mulling over it, I think it may help shape part of my paper. I am considering it an integral part of my paper in opening up a new way of resolving the issue of identity that seems to pull feminism and queer theory away from one another.

Jackman, Mary R. "Violence in Social Life." Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 28 (2002): 387-415. Annual Reviews. Web. Feb. 14 2010.
This article is sociological in nature and discusses violence (its definition and how and why it manifests in societies). While a bit boring, I could use this piece for a background on violence and its purposes in society, and then tie that into an explanation of violence as it is sanctioned by the state (via the police). I haven't decided if I'm going to use this piece for sure because I'm not sure how in-depth to get with definitions of violence and explanations...

Oliver, William. ""The Streets": An Alternative Black Male Socialization Institution." Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 36, No. 6 (Jul., 2006): 918-937. Sage Publications, Inc. Web. Feb. 14 2010.
This article is about black male socialization, and includes tropes of black masculinity. It provides more of a 'how' explanation of socialization than I'm interested in, but the tropes of black masculinity are important because they echo what Patricia Hill Collins lists as tropes of black masculinity. If I do a longer analysis I will use this piece to discuss how tropes of black masculinity were constructed and how they interact with white masculinity to create justification for police violence.

Henry, Matthew. "He Is a "Bad Mother*$%@!#": "Shaft" and Contemporary Black Masculinity." African American Review, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Spring, 2004): 119-126. St. Louis University. Web. Feb. 14 2010.
Similar to the article by Oliver, this article discusses tropes of black masculinity but the author uses an analysis of popular culture and films to discuss the issues these types of masculinities present. I like how the author explains these tropes as reactionary in nature; results of the racialized, gendered, and sexualized experience of black men in the US (I think this piece would perhaps be better than the piece by Oliver to use). The author really delves into the sexualized depiction of black masculinity, which is important for my project because I can relate that to white masculinity.

Ward, Elijah G. "Homophobia, Hypermasculinity and the US Black Church." Culture, Health & Sexuality, Vol. 7, No. 5, Themed Symposium: Female Genital Cutting (Sep. - Oct., 2005): 493-504. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Web. Feb. 14 2010.
This short article is about homophobia and black culture. While most really focuses on homophobia there is a good discussion of hypermasculinity in US culture, which I could use to discuss traits of masculinity and the hypermasculinity of police.

Gray, Herman. "Black Masculinity and Visual Culture." Callaloo, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Spring, 1995): 401-405. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Web. Feb. 14 2010.
This article is about black masculinity as portrayed in pop culture. It's similar to a few of my other sources, but I think it is a good exploration of how black masculinity is shaped as a subversive force. I think this piece could link together a few things regarding production of black masculinity, and it contains relevant info on intersections of race, gender and sexuality in tropes of black masculinity.

Epstein, Debbie. "Marked Men: Whiteness and Masculinity." Agenda, No. 37, The New Man? (1998): 49-59. Agenda Feminist Media. Web. Feb. 14 2010.
This article is about white masculinity in South Africa. I think this piece is really interesting for another way to think about masculinities and the role of the state. This piece touches on colonialism and post-colonialism, which I think may be a relevant way to discuss the experience of black men in the US, but the article doesn't dive very deep into colonial theory (which could be a totally different way to approach my project that I'm trying to avoid). Because the author is discusses South Africa, a good discussion of the role of the state in police/military is explored. I feel looking at the issues of race and masculinity in a country that has really acknowledged its racist past (even though it hasn't repaired the damages done by its past) is a good perspective for me to read more about while I think about my project because it's a bit different in the US, where people don't seem to really understand the importance of history in the conditions of today.

Williams, Patricia J. "Meditations on Masculinity." Callaloo, Vol. 24, No. 2, The Best of Callalo Prose: A Special 25th Anniversary Issue (Spring, 2001): 644-653. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Web. Feb. 14 2010.
This article made me sad. It began with a personal account of racism and fear of black male bodies (the author was writing about her two year old son). This piece focuses on black masculinity and offers positive musings coupled with more negative facts about how the dominant culture views black men. This piece provides a good, short discussion of how black male bodies have come to be read as criminal, and more abstractly through narrative shows how this comes out in different pieces of one's life.

Attached is a copy of the positionality paper assignment that is not outlined in your syllabus. I wanted to make sure you all had plenty of time to think about the assignment before it is due around the end of the month. I will bring hard copies of the assignment to class on Wednesday.

If you have a chance please look over the assignment and come to class with any questions that you might have after looking at it.

Some quick reminders -
The assignment is due Wednesday February 24th. Please bring two hard copies of your 2-3 page paper to class on the day it is due. By 10:00pm on Tuesday February 23rd please post the introduction of your positionality paper to the course blog. By class time on Wednesday try to look over everyone's post. There are more detailed instructions in the attachment.

See you all Wednesday!

GWSS4108 positionality paper assignment.pdf

Round 2 --- 4 Entries

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Harris, Angela P. "Gender, Violence, Race, and Criminal Justice." Stanford Law Review, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Apr., 2000): 777-807. Stanford Law Review. Web. Feb. 9 2010.
This article is about the connection between violence and masculinity. It discusses this connection both in terms of violence within the community and violence with state agents. It's a long article, and I'm hoping it will provide me with a good basis for my paper about violence and masculinity that I can tailor down to gendered and racialized violence. It doesn't quite focus on race, in terms of black/white masculinities in quite the way I want my project to, so I will use other sources to bring in ideas about the racialized nature of violence.

Meijer, Irene Costera and Baukje Prins. "How Bodies Come to Matter: An Interview with Judith Butler." Signs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Winter, 1998): 275-286. The University of Chicago Press. Web. Feb. 12 2010.
This article is an interview with Butler about performativity. Since I couldn't find an original source for her theories of performativity, I will use this article in its place. I think this interview form provides a more readable and understandable version of some of her theories, which is very important for me (I want my paper to hopefully be easy to read and understand - because that's what frustrates me the most about feminist theory).

Wiegman, Robyn. "The Anatomy of Lynching." Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 3, No. 3, Special Issue: African American Culture and Sexuality (Jan., 1993): 445-467. University of Texas Press. Web. Feb. 9 2010.
This piece is really interesting. It describes lynching as a sexualized, racialized, and state sanctioned form of violence on the bodies of black men. There are a couple ways I could use this piece. I could use it for a tie between racism, policing/discipline, and violence. I could use it conceptually for myself, as a sort of framework to analyze police violence. I haven't really decided what to do with it exactly, but it's an incredibly interesting article that I think ties racism, sexism, state control & sanctioned violence, and feminism together for viewing lynching.

Anderson, Kristin L. and Debra Umberson. "Gendering Violence: Masculinity and Power in Men's Accounts of Domestic Violence." Gender and Society, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Jun., 2001): 358-380. Sage Publications, Inc. Web. Feb. 14 2010.
Feminism has focused a lot of gender violence anddomestic violence, which is the topic of this article. It begins with a discussion of domestic violence as a form of patriarchal violence against women's bodies, and examines male batterers' experience of "doing" gender as it relates to them committing violence against their partners. Given the lack of information or study on police that commit acts of violence I think I could use this piece if I wanted to explore how police perpetrators of violence view themselves and their violence. This may go beyond the scope of my project, but I won't know for sure until I start writing it.

Round 1 --- 3 Entries

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(Sorry this is late - I figured out how to hone done my project, and spent time on that and an outline, and wanted my annotated bibliography to reflect the changes)

Working Title:
Gendered, Racialized, and Sexualized Violence: A Feminist Perspective on Police Brutality
Working Goal:
I will argue that violence, as perpetrated by (largely) white police officers on the bodies of low income men of color is an extension of 'performing' ideas of white masculinity that come from the historical legacy of colonialism and slavery in the United States.
Tracing roots of the tropes of black masculinity through history allows us to think about how police brutality comes to be normalized and expected because of notions regarding race and gender. White masculinity, in this context, depends of the physical subordinate and control of the bodies of the 'other' - or men of color.

Bergner, Gwen. "Who Is That Masked Woman? Or, the Role of Gender in Fanon's Black Skin, White Masks." PMLA, Vol. 110, No. 1, Special Topic: Colonialism and the Postcolonial Condition (Jan., 1995): 75-88. Modern Language Association. Web. Feb. 14 2010.
This article is a critique of Fanon's work. The author argues that gender (specifically the gender of black women is erased in Fanon's Black Skin, White Masks.
This piece could be helpful for my project by bringing in colonial theory or for a perspective on gender and race. I'm not quite sure if I will use it, but it could be a good piece for looking at the violence inflicted on bodies of color with a gendered lens added.

Anderson, Amanda. "Debatable Performances: Restaging Contentious Feminisms." Social Text, No. 54 (Spring, 1998): 1-24. Duke University Press. Web. Feb. 12 2010.
This piece is about feminist debates regarding performativity and theory. It has some good info on Butler's theory of performativity (which I couldn't find in my searches and I really wanted to use for my theory piece). This piece has a summary of Butler that would be good to use about gender construction, identity and performance - which I could tie to masculinity.

Connell, R.W. and James W. Messerschmidt. "Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept." Gender and Society, Vol. 19, No. 6 (Dec., 2005): 829-859. Sage Publications, Inc. Web. Feb. 12 2010.
This piece is about hegemonic masculinity, and includes info on subordinated masculinities. It also is a reaction to earlier works on masculinity and addresses some critiques others have brought forward. This would be a good basic theory piece to explain masculinity for my project.

Dublanica, Steve. Waiter Rant: Thanks for the Tip-Confessions of a Cynical Waiter. Harper Collins Publishers. 2008.

When I read the dedication of this book, I knew it was for me. Dublanica dedicated the book to his mother, father and anyone who has ever waited tables. He wrote the book with inspiration from his blog that he had started four years prior. Dublanica provides a server's point of view with issues of race, class, religion, power abuse, sexual orientation, etc. having to do with customers and within the workplace. He also writes about things occurring outside the restaurant which leads him to observations and reflections.

This book will provide additional experiential occurrences that can be theorized. I look forward to sharing some of his pieces in addition to my own for a different source of first hand experiences as a server. I plan to use his reflections in conjunction with mine and/or as a critique of the workplace. In the first chapter, he talks about the kitchen staff-server dynamics. Although he does not directly theorize about the influences race, class, sexual orientation, etc. have on this relationship, he provides a base from which I can theorize further his account. I think this is a great source that will be entertaining and theoretically stimulating.

Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. Henry Holt and Company. 2001.

This book is about a writer that goes undercover and works in the service industry while also attempting to live off of her earnings. She works in Florida, Maine and Minnesota in various low wage jobs. Throughout the book Ehrenreich provides personal experience and a reflection segment that show the true colors of different work settings. She provides a "fly on the wall" perspective that illustrates and legitimates employees of the service industry.

I think this source will be useful because of her strategic and close method of research. She describes issues of race, class, gender and a new one that I had not thought of - employee health. In the fourth chapter, she dedicates its entirety to reflection. She describes the unskilled jobs, which I would argue the term unskilled at this point, as being not only physically and mentally challenging, but a difficult place to work because of the employee politics that go on. I plan to use her personal experience and reflection in relation to my topic whether it be in critique or support of my arguments.

Butler, Judith. "Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and

Feminist Theory." Theatre Journal, Vol. 40, No. 4. 1988. pp. 519-531.
In my paper, I plan to use the feminist theory of gender performance as articulated by Judith Butler. In her article, she argues that gender is an illusion, an object of belief rather than predetermined biologically. She describes the body as a continual and incessant materializing of possibilities of "doing" one's body. Butler explains that we choose the "what" of embodiment, but that choice is conditioned and circumscribed by historical convention.

I plan to use this theory in order to complicate the emotional labor that goes into serving as part of a gender performance in the restaurant business. I feel that serving is a performance that is utilized for an economic end which may occur consciously or unconsciously. The performative techniques may include make-up, accessories, work uniform and body language among others. Butler provides theoretical framework that is very useful when looking at serving.

Brewster, Zachary W., and Christine Mallinson. "Racial Differences in Restaurant Tipping: A Labour Process Perspective." Service Industries Journal. 2009.

In their article, Brewster and Mallison conduct research on restaurant tipping in relation to race. The bulk of research focuses on differences between white and black restaurant patrons in the United States. The authors present two dominant explanations for the disparities that exist: one is discriminatory behavior of restaurant servers and the other is African Americans' lack of familiarity with societal norms for tipping. The authors critique these frameworks and offer an alternative outlook. They look at the disparities as a result of utilitarian processes where the interpersonal relationship with unpredictable customers is explored as a possible reason.

This article provides an interesting source for my explorations with race and serving. Whether it be the racialized customer or the racialized server, Brewster and Mallison's research is an interesting take on race in the workplace. I think their research could be helpful in how I conduct my interviews. I am especially curious to see how white servers experience while serving African American customers. I already have a coworker's story that coincides with these authors' findings. Although there are issues with how their research was conducted, the authors give me a directional approach and an explanation that I can present to my coworkers. It will be interesting to hear how my coworkers react.

Adams, Maurianne, et al. ed. Teaching for Social Justice. Routledge. New York, 1997.

This text is a compilation of writings about the theoretical foundations of social justice education and suggested curriculum designs focusing on various oppressions. They outline learning models for homogenous and heterogeneous groups and general skills for facilitation. Within these models, assessing and addressing comfort zones, developing a common vocabulary, and working within a participatory structure are highlighted as vital tools for creating an environment for addressing social justice issues in education.

This sourcebook will provide a useful framework for navigating "difficult dialogues," specifically race, gender, class, and sexuality. I intend to use it as a springboard for considering different ways the positive tensions present in "difficult dialogues" can be incorporated into curricula. Their focus on lesson modules for topical classes (Racism, Heterosexism, Sexism, etc) is more contained then the work I am exploring but provides a grounded approach to thinking through my shared goal of approaching education with a commitment to social justice.

Berenice, Fisher. No Angel in the Classroom. Rowman and Littlefield Publisher's Inc. Maryland, 2001.

In this book, Fisher explores various elements of feminist educational practices within spaces of higher education. She discusses the possibilities of learning from women's experiences in order to access different forms of knowledge and discusses the creation of safe spaces in the classroom. Additionally, she theorizes how those spaces might translate to the world outside of the academy. Throughout these discussions she highlights complications arising from authority, specifically a misuse of authority, and questions the role of the feminist educator in caring for students.

Fisher's insight provides yet another layer to my thinking about the creation of a feminist learning space. I am particularly drawn to her discussion of care responsibilities since embodied work necessarily demands community building. I am interested in considering how this reduction of barriers might play out in larger conceptions of authority and power relations. Her experience-based approach to structuring the learning environment is also useful when thinking about the ways the development of liberatory pedagogical practices supports the process of self-actualization.

hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. Routledge. New York, 1994.

hooks uses this book to theorize about educational practices through specific experiences during her teaching career. She brings a specific focus on engaged pedagogy, re-thinking and applying the ideas of Paulo Freire within a feminist framework, and explores the position of women of color educators within these pedagogical processes. Throughout these explorations she presents the possibility to transgress against racial, sexual, and class boundaries in order to experience education as a movement towards freedom. hooks approaches these discussion with an intense connection to feelings and emotions, calling for an awareness of the sacred nature of the work of educators.

I am particularly drawn to the work of hooks because she presents a discussion of the role of engaged pedagogy and the construction of a more egalitarian learning space from her position as a woman of color educator. It is possible that the fulcrum on which this construction of a learning space hinges is this particular subject position. hooks offers one possibility to understand how these pedagogical practices can re-conceptualize power structures in a ways that do not promote disrespect or devaluation of women of color educators.

Hanh, Thich Nhat. Peace is Every Step. Bantam Books. New York, 1991.

Thich Nhat Hanh is a Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk who explores the concept of mindfulness in everyday life. He structures this book through a series of simple activities that help us find our way back to ourselves and live in the present moment. He suggests that it is through these practices of mindfulness, peace can be realized. Our struggle for peace does not live outside of ourselves but within, and locating the peace in ourselves is the direct path to recognizing the joy, beauty, and peace in the world "outside."

These practices of mindfulness present an interesting extension of ideas of self-actualization, our vocation to become fully human, and the desire for nurturing community in learning spaces. These concepts of mindfulness in every breath we take, every smile, and every step we plant on the Earth have both a literal and spiritual connection to my explorations of embodiment and social justice. If we can locate within ourselves moments of peace, awareness, and a general pleasure for life, those moments will become the very sites of social transformation.


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Bruckert, Chris. Taking it Off, Putting it on., 2002. Print.

Butler, Judith. Bodies that Matter : On the Discursive Limits of "Sex" /.Print.

I want to use my understanding of Judith Butler's work on gender performance and performativity to explore the potential to subvert hetereonormativity within the context of how gender is performed in sex work, and reveal how queer and radical the sex working community is. Also I want to engage further with Butler by examining how sex workers are pushed out the margins of labor, but also into abjection on the spectrum of socially acceptable sex practices, as sex for money is quite hypocritically stigmatized.

Egan. Flesh for Fantasy : Producing and Consuming Exotic Dance /.Print.

Goldring. Organizing the Transnational : Labour, Politics, and Social Change., 2007. Print.

Hallgrimsdottir, Helga Kristin, Rachel Phillips, and Cecilia Benoit. "Fallen Women and Rescued Girls: Social Stigma and Media Narratives of the Sex Industry in Victoria, B.C., from 1980 to 2005." Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology 43.3 (2006): 265-80. Print.

Hubbard, Phil. "Sexuality, Immorality and the City: Red-Light Districts and the Marginalisation of Female Street Prostitutes." Gender, Place and Culture 5.1 (1998): 55-76. Print.

Kelly, Christina. "Bonding with our Topless Sisters." Sassy August 1992Print.

Lee, Charles Tsung Tang, Alison Renteln, and Marita Sturken. Deviant Cosmopolitanism: Transgressive Globalization and Traveling Citizenship. DAI-A 67 Vol. , 2006. Print.

Majic. "Sex Worker Union Organizing: An International Study - by Gregor Gall." British Journal of Industrial Relations 46.3 (2008): 561. Print.

Ms. Kennedy. "The Kennedy Letter: Seattle." Exotic Jan 2010: 50. Print.

This is a really great primary source. A dancer writes it from Portland about her
experience working in Seattle for a little while. She touches on labor rights, and predatory management practices of a national chain of dance clubs. Though she tears into the club, owned by Hustler, and pledges loving devotion to her hometown scene, she highlights the positive aspects to working I Seattle and maintains an overall positive tone, which is important if our work is going to build community. The Déjà vu Corporation has what I'll call a Walmartization effect in cities that it dominates, like Seattle and sadly possibly Minneapolis. It's funny, insightful, honest, and very relevant and relatable to other dancers. She writes to a very specific audience, other dancers which Is exactly what I want to do with my project. Ms. Kennedy has given me a nice sample piece to show contributors.

Nagle. Whores and Other Feminists /.Print.

In the introduction Jill Nagel argues that Whores "are the dykes of the nineties, the lavender menace whom it's still considered ok to ostracize." Basically that sex workers are unfairly exiled from feminist work, and she has put together a really strong feminist anthology of sex work. Most of the contributors are, or were sex workers, and there are so many compelling, autobiographical and theoretical pieces. The Annie Sprinkle contribution We've Come a Long Way-And We're Exhausted is a piece on how to avoid sex worker burnout. I've seen it published in Spread magazine too, and I think it needs to be circulated more widely to sex workers, because it is exactly the type of knowledge, and support that needs to be shared. It addresses the needs of a sex worker socially, personally, and spiritually in a way that is fun and relatable. In fact I think all people who work hard for a living would take a lot out of it. Eve Pendelton argues that sex workers, like lesbians destabilize heteronormativity, and Carol Leigh, aka Scarlot Harlot urges feminism to align with sex positive activism, as the destigmatization of sex and sexuality benefits feminist goals.

Oakley. Working Sex : Sex Workers Write about a Changing Industry /.Print.

Pheterson. A Vindication of the Rights of Whores /.Print.

Philaretou, Andreas G. "Female Exotic Dancers: Intrapersonal and Interpersonal

Perspectives." Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 13.1 (2006): 41-52. Print.

Rickard, Wendy. "'been there, seen it, done it, I've Got the T-Shirt': British Sex Worker's Reflect on Jobs, Hopes, the Future and Retirement." Feminist Review.67 (2001): 111-32. Print.

Rickard. "Collaborating with Sex Workers in Oral History." The Oral History Review 30.1 (2003): 47. Print.

Sanders, Teela. "Female Sex Workers as Health Educators with Men Who Buy Sex: Utilising Narratives of Rationalisations." Social science & medicine 62.10 (2006): 2434-44. Print.

Tea, Michelle. Rent Girl. San Francisco: Last Gasp, 2004. Print.

Warner. Fear of a Queer Planet : Queer Politics and Social Theory /.Print.

Bordo, Susan. Unbearable weight. Los Angeles, CA: The Regents of the

University of California. 1993
In this book, Bordo discusses the body politic through body image. This includes such issues of weight, weight loss, media images, movies, eating disorder, etc. She looks at the body in various contexts of discourse, feminism, gender performance, the marketability of beauty and many more.
My paper will explore the marketability of beauty and how it plays into the interpersonal customer-server exchange. I would like to conduct interviews that ask questions that are specifically about body image and how it plays into the serving experience. I see serving as a type of performance intertwined and/or closely related to gender performance. I will pull from Bordo's take on why beauty is marketable and how it functions in the restaurant business.

Weichselbaumer, D. (2003). Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring. Labor

Economics, 01-24.
Weichselbaumer discusses the concept of "unobserved heterogeneity" that rewards the masculinity of lesbians and penalizes the femininity of gay men. She suggests that employers discriminate in favor of masculine characteristics which would be in favor of lesbian employees. Weichselbaumer conducts an experiment sending job applications from four different identities: The feminine straight (FS), the masculine straight (MS), the feminine lesbian (FL) and the masculine lesbian (ML). She concludes that indicating a lesbian identity reduces one's second interview invite by 12-13%.
I will pull from the article to further contemplate the marketability of beauty in relation to discrimination in the restaurant business. Who is included and who is excluded as marketable according to beauty? My analysis will include how sexual orientation acts in the hiring process in the restaurant business. Although she uses categories, this article will provide a useful context while also making space for critique and dialogue because of her bold claims.

Lorde, Audre. "The Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power." Sister Outsider. Crossing Press.

In this essay, Lorde explains the erotic as an empowering, feminine entity that all women have but which has been oppressed into submission because of "the male world." She describes the erotic as revolutionary for women in the workplace. With the erotic in the workplace, according to Lorde, the use goes beyond economic benefit and into how we feel doing what we are doing. She claims that women should utilize their feminine erotic as a way to apply their suppressed power.
I will explore her concept of the erotic in order to challenge the critiques of the marketability of beauty. I think that Lorde implies that the privileges in the marketability of beauty be accepted, by women using it, as a use of the erotic. This is problematic because of many reasons including the exclusionary factors of the word "beauty" itself. What is defined as beautiful? I will argue that the term "beauty" is hegemonically, socially constructed as white, thin women. Although it is not limited to this, my workplace is exemplary in showing this prototype as visually privileged.

Lynn, Michael. "Determinants and Consequences of Female Attractiveness and
Sexiness: Realistic Tests with Restaurant Waitresses. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2000.

Berry, Bonnie. "Beauty Bias: Discrimination and Social Power." Journal of American
Cultures. 2008.

Chernin, K. The Obsession: reflections on the tyranny of slenderness. New York,
NY: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. 1994.

Dublanica, Steve. Waiter Rant: Thanks for the Tip-Confessions of a Cynical Waiter. Harper
Collins Publishers. 2008.

Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed. Henry Holt and Company. 2001.

Hamermesh, DS., & Biddle, JE. "Beauty and the Labor Market." American
Economic Review, 84(5). 1994. pp. 1174-1194.

Mobius, MM, & Rosenblat, TS. "Why Beauty Matters." American Economic
Review, 01-25. 2006.

Butler, Judith. "Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and
Feminist Theory." Theatre Journal, Vol. 40, No. 4. 1988. pp. 519-531.

Bordo, Susan. "Reconstructing Feminist Discourse on the Body." The Body and the
Reproduction of Femininity. 309-326.

Quinby, Lee and Irene Diamond. "Foucault, Femininity and the Modernization of Patriarchal
Power," in Feminism and Foucault: Paths of Resistance. Northeastern Univ. Press. 1988.
pp. 61-86

Bartky, Sandra Lee. Femininity and Domination: Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression
(Thinking Gender). New York City, New York: Routledge. 1990. pp. 161.

LeMoncheck, Linda. "Sex Objectification as Taking the Part for the Whole."
Dehumanizing Women: Treating Persons as Sex Objects. Rowman & Littlefield. (1985).
165 pp.

Blake E. Ashforth and Ronald H. Humphrey. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18,
No. 1. 1993. pp. 88-115

Butler, Judith. "Imitation and Gender Insubordination." The Second Wave: Feminist Theory.
Ed. Linda Nicholson. New York: Routledge. 1997.

West, Candace and Don Zimmerman. "Doing Gender." Gender and Society. Sage Publications
Inc. 1987.

Brewster, Zachary W., and Christine Mallinson. "Racial Differences in Restaurant Tipping: A Labour Process Perspective." Service Industries Journal. 2009.

Erickson, Karla Anne. "Paid to Care: Selling Service, Smiles and Community in American Restaurants." Dissertation Abstracts International.Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 2004.

Lynn, Michael. "Determinants and Consequences of Female Attractiveness and Sexiness: Realistic Tests with Restaurant Waitresses." Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2009.

In his article, "Interactive and Intersectional: Analytics of Globalization," Peterson attempts to introduce new heuriristic tools to help academics theorize and understand globalization in its many forms, directions, and complexities. He develops the "RPV framing" device, which reminds us to examine the reproductive, productive, and virtual economies in order to "politicize neoliberal globalization" (33). His second idea is the "triad analytics," which places emphasis on identities, meaning systems, and social practices/institutions (in other words, he says, "who we are, how we think, what we do). This particular tool is designed to help us understand how these three elements maintain one another. The third theory engages how the feminine is devalorized, which is less applicable to my project.
This is one of a few articles that I intend to use as background knowledge for my section on globalization. Globalization is in many cases an over-used and under-defined word, therefore I intend to spend time specifying what I mean when I use it, as well as complicated traditional top-down/one-way understandings of globalization. Peterson provides an important insight when he notes that "globalization and its effects are extremely uneven, variously manifested in hierarchies of ethnicity/race, class, gender/sexuality, and nation." This idea will guide my theorizing of how widow inheritance is influenced by and is influencing globalization.

Vertovec, Steven. Transnationalism. London ; New York: Routledge, 2009. Print.

The article by Steven Vertovec presents various "takes" on transnational theories and the ways they can be conceptualized. He theorizes the transnational through diverse lenses such as transnational theory such as through transnational corporations, social morphology, global diasporas, and sites of political engagements, such as NGOs.
Vertovec's perspectives on transnational theory will allow me to begin considering the positionalities of Kenyan theorists now living in "first world" spaces as well as my own positionality in an interconnected world. Additionally, it will give me the lenses through which to understand the transnational relationships of governments and aid organizations. I will use this article similarly to how I use the Peterson article as it provides a theoretical background and various transnational points of view.

Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. "'Under Western Eyes' Revisited: Feminist Solidarity through Anticapitalist Stuggles." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. Vol 28. No 2. 2002.
(For some reason my citation list got screwed up... So this one is missing from my list. I'll reformat and repost later.)

This article by Chandra Talpade Mohanty, written in 2002, is an addendum to her previous seminal article, "Under Western Eyes." She analyzes her current positionality as a "third-world feminist" operating in a Western context. While acknowledging that instead of under Western eyes she can be considered inside western eyes, she strongly critiques the current capitalist system that promotes many global, neo-colonial relationships. She continues to critique Euro-centric, universalizing methodologies that limit our understanding of current transnational relationships.

Mohanty's analysis provides an example of transnational feminist activism. Most importantly, Mohanty draws attention to the particularities of cross-cultural feminist work by stressing focus on "micro-politics of context, subjectivity, and struggle, as well as to the macro-politics of global economic and political systems and processes" (501). This idea illuminates the many levels of widow inheritance and globalization that I intend to analyze.

Annotated Bibliography 1

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Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York:
Routledge, 2006. Print.

In Gender Trouble, Judith Butler analyzes issues of gender and identity as asserted by feminism and feminist movements. Butler questions the conception of gender as a basis for creating a group identity in feminism. Butler also questions how the conception of gender is understood and proposes that gender is in fact an effect of performativity. Performativity is Butler's own theory of how gender is constructed, enacted and performed by any given member of society. Gender Trouble addresses the conflicts between queer theory and feminist theory created by identity construction through gender. Butler has been categorized as a queer theorist and as a feminist theorist, but in truth, belongs in the area linking the two. Identity and gender construction are the most essential areas in which feminism and queer theory collide, and they are the areas that Butler focuses on in Gender Trouble. This will be a key text for laying the groundwork of my paper in helping to analyze gender and identity. I will engage mostly with Butler's argument against the group identity of "women" as asserted with feminist theory, and focus less on her theory of performativity, and then only as it fits into queer theory as a whole.

Warner, Michael. "Introduction: Fear of a Queer Planet." Social Text (1991), 29.

In Fear of a Queer Planet, Michael Warner outlines the present obstacles queer theory is reaching as it advances and expands. These problems include queer theory's relative marginality in academic studies, reproduction ideology's opposition to queer theory and queerness in general, heteronormative tendencies in social theory, and ultimately the problem of finding a way to categorize or organize a group titled "queer". Warner argues for an analysis of queer theory by queer theorists, specifically questioning whether sexuality must or should be the defining characteristic of queerness.Warner's work will be essential to me in understanding what the defining characteristics of queer theory are, and if those characteristics rely on specific definitions or notions of sexuality.

Jagose, Annamarie. "Feminism's Queer Theory." Feminism & Psychology 19.2 (2009): 157-74. Print.

Feminism's Queer Theory, written by Annamarie Jagose, is a critique of the attitude that queer theory and feminism are two separate, disconnected and conflicting entities. Jagose argues that feminism paved the way for queer theory's founding and that feminism itself has a history of anti-identitarian thought. Jagose analyzes what feminism's conception of 'woman' has represented historically and what the assertion of 'women' as a group identity in feminism means. Jagose argues that this term has held meaning for feminism in its relation to other gendered, patriarchal and heteronormative terms and does not designate a specific unique quality which assigns one to the category of 'woman'. This essay will be crucial for my project, which aims at understanding and questioning feminism's use of 'woman' as a gender identity. This text offers a more nuanced and radical understanding of the term 'woman' and what it has meant historically in feminist movements and feminist theory.

3. List of References

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Atkins, Dawn. Looking Queer: Body Image and Identity in Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay and
Transgender Communities. New York: Haworth Press, 1998. Print.

Boone, Joseph Allen, et al. Queer Frontiers: Millennial Geographies, Genders and
Generations. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000. Print.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York:
Routledge, 2006. Print.

Galewski, Elizabeth. "Figuring the Feminist Femme." Women's Studies in Communication 28.2 (2005): 183-206. Print.

Garber, Linda. Identity Poetics: Race, Class and the Lesbian-Feminist Roots of Queer
Theory. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Print.

Halperin, David M., et al. "REFLECTIONS: The Normalization of Queer Theory." 45 Vol. Haworth Press, Inc, 2003. 339-343. Print.

Hammers, Corie, and Alan D. Brown Ill. "Towards a Feminist-Queer Alliance: Paradigmatic Shift in the Research Process." Social Epistemology 18.1 (2004): 85-101. Print.

Heyes, Cressida J. "Feminist Solidarity After Queer Theory: The Case of Transgender." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society 28.4 (2003): 1093. Print.

Jagose, Annamarie. "Feminism's Queer Theory." Feminism & Psychology 19.2 (2009): 157-74. Print.

Lane, Riki. "Trans as Bodily Becoming: Rethinking the Biological as Diversity, Not Dichotomy." Hypatia 24.3 (2009): 136-57. Print.

Orr, Deborah, et al. Feminist Politics: Identity, Difference and Agency. Maryland:
Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.

Rudy, Kathy. "Queer Theory and Feminism." Women's Studies 29.2 (2000): 195. Print.

Thompson, Denise. Radical Feminism Today. London : SAGE, 2001. Print.

Warner, Michael. "Introduction: Fear of a Queer Planet." Social Text (1991), 29.

Weir, Allison. Sacrificial Logics: Feminist Theory and the Critique of Identity. New
York: Routledge, 1996. Print.

3. List of References

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Hattori, Tomohisa. "The Moral Politics of Foreign Aid." Review of International Studies 29.2 (2003): 229-47. Print.

Hattori, Tomohisa. "Reconceptualizing Foreign Aid." Review of International Political Economy 8.4 (2001): 633-60. Print.

Hearn, Julie. "The 'NGO-Isation' of Kenyan Society: USAID & the Restructuring of Health Care." Review of African Political Economy 25.75, The Machinery of External Control (1998): 89-100. Print.

"Is tradition to blame for spreading HIV?" BBC News Online. 18 November 2003.

Kirkscey, Russell. "Accommodating Traditional African Values and Globalization: Narrative as Argument in Wangari Maathai's Nobel Prize Lecture." 30 Vol. , 2007. 12-17. Print.

Loomba, Ania. Postcolonial Studies and Beyond. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005. Print.

Luibhéid, Eithne. Entry Denied : Controlling Sexuality at the Border. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002. Print.

Masoga, M. A., H. O. Kaya, and P. O. Abioje. Globalisation and African Cultural Heritage Erosion: Implications for Policy. 7; 72 Vol. New Dawn Publishers [Pty] Ltd, Pietermaritzburg, SA, 2007. Print.

Nagar, Richa, and Saṅgatina. Playing with Fire : Feminist Thought and Activism through Seven Lives in India. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2006. Print.

Ngũgĩ wa Thiongo. Decolonising the Mind : The Politics of Language in African Literature. London; Portsmouth, N.H.: J. Currey; Heinemann, 1986. Print.

OCHIENG, PHILIP. "Alien influences: A thing's value lies in the thing itself." Daily Nation Online. 6 November 2009.

Schwarz, Henry, and Sangeeta Ray. A Companion to Postcolonial Studies. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Print.

Shohat, Ella. Taboo Memories, Diasporic Voices. Durham N.C.: Duke University Press, 2006. Print.

Somerville, Keith. "Africa: Globalisation or marginalisation?" BBC News Online. 4 December 2002.

Vertovec, Steven. Transnationalism. London ; New York: Routledge, 2009. Print.

Boal, Augusto. Theatre of the Oppressed. Theatre Communications Group. New York, 1985.

Theatre of the Oppressed is an ongoing project, originating in South America, which uses theatre exercises to encourage a participatory environment in a community and seeks to reveal the social and political realities of life. This book explores many of Boal's projects conducted around the world and articulates the necessary revolution of Western theatre. He argues for equal and active spectator engagement, unlike the usual, passive spectators seeking catharsis. A reconsideration of these roles in the theatre can be equally applicable to an analysis of the dichotomy of teacher and student. His work is more focused on transformations in the theatre in order to bring social relevance to the art form, but many of his theories are relevant when considering the need for social relevance in education.
This work serves broadly as a foundation for the applied component of my project. I am interested in exploring how Boal's liberating framework of the theatre can be in conversation with Freire's ideas of liberatory education. The games and workshops explored in this book offer one entry point into difficult dialogues, through the facilitation of communal, embodied learning. I am interested in engaging these ideas in practice and expanding on them to conceptualize their application within the creation of a feminist classroom.

Bresler, Liora, ed. Knowing Bodies, Moving Minds: Towards Embodied Teaching and Learning. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. 2004.

This collection of essays explores a wide spectrum of embodied education. Various art forms, educational levels, curricula, theories and cultures are analyzed to understand the link between the mind and the body in education. Each essay investigates the different access points to knowledge and discusses both the knowledge of the body and the knowledge acquired through cognition. They seek to understand the performative nature of our bodies in order to articulate the consequences of isolating mind and body in education. The various articles offer a diverse analysis of embodiment in education, but ultimately support the approach of simultaneous inclusion because the negative consequences of this current approach are inhibiting the development of educational reform which can truly transform the future.
This work is a crucial contribution to my thinking because it approaches embodiment through various artistic, athletic, and communal practices and offers multiple, intersecting discussions about "alternative knowledges." I will engage these ideas when thinking about ways to access and nurture embodied knowledges and will structure my workshops within a framework of the mutually constitutive powers of mind and body. My process will maintain simultaneous acknowledgement and interaction between mind and body and will attempt to highlight the necessity of transcending the imposed hierarchy when considering the knowledges produced by each.

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Continuum. New York, 2007.

This book focuses on the nature of oppression and the quest for liberation through a radical evaluation and transformation of education. Freire first focuses on the relationship between the oppressed and their oppressors in order to articulate the role of liberation in the lives of both. Once this dialogue on oppression is established, he explores the challenges and flaws in mainstream educational practices--specifically the pedagogical techniques which maintain practices of domination and hinder true liberation through education. As a solution, he argues for the inclusion of people in their own process of education and thus development through the creation of "pedagogy of the oppressed." This approach to education is organic, coming from within the community, and challenges the relationship between teacher and student, oppressor and oppressed, in order to re-envision education, liberation, and development.
I am particularly interested in Freire's discussion of the "banking model of education" and seek to explore ways the creation of a feminist classroom space can challenge such a model. I also intend to focus on his discussion of our "vocation to become fully human," which is grounded in educational practices. In doing so I hope to begin the process of recognizing and naming the educational practices which stifle this process of becoming in order to consider how transformations of these practices can nurture us towards our ultimate goal of becoming fully human.

List of References

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Adams, Maurianne, et al. ed. Teaching for Social Justice. Routledge. New York, 1997.

Berenice, Fisher. No Angel in the Classroom. Rowman and Littlefield Publisher's Inc. Maryland, 2001.

Boal, Augusto. Games for Actors and Non-Actors, Second Edition. Routledge. New York, 2002.

Boal, Augusto. Theatre of the Oppressed. Theatre Communications Group. New York, 1985.

Bresler, Liora, ed. Knowing Bodies, Moving Minds: Towards Embodied Teaching and Learning. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. 2004.

Buttaro, Lucia. "Decolonizing Pedagogy in the American Classroom: Social Justice and Democracy in Marginalized Urban Settings." New York, 2007.

Flannery, James L. "Teacher as Co-Conspirator: Knowledge and Authority in Collaborative Learning." New Directions for Teaching and Learning.59 (1994): 15-23.

Foucault, Michel. "The Subject and Power." The Essential Foucault. ed. Rabinow, Paul and Rose, Nikolas. New York, NY: New Press, 2003.

Freire, Paulo. Education for Critical Consciousness. Continuum. New York, 1974.

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Continuum. New York, 2007.

Grosz, Elizabeth. Space, Time, and Perversion: Essays on the Politics of Bodies. Routledge. New York, 1995.

Hanh, Thich Nhat. Peace is Every Step. Bantam Books. New York, 1991.

hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. Routledge. New York, 1994.

hooks, bell. Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope. Routledge. New York, 2003.

Kazan, Tina S. "Dancing Bodies in the Classroom: Moving toward an Embodied Pedagogy." Pedagogy: Critical Approaches to Teaching Literature, Language, Composition, and Culture. Volume 4, Number 3. Duke University Press. 2005

Ng, Roxana. "Embodied Pedagogy as Transformative Learning: A Critical Reflection." University of Toronto. 2005.

Ryan, Caitlin L., and Adrienne D. Dixson. "Rethinking Pedagogy to Re-Center Race: Some Reflections." Language Arts 84.2 (2006): 175-83.

Su, Celina. "Cracking Silent Codes: Critical Race Theory and Education Organizing." Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 28.4 (2007): 531-48.

Tai, Bonnie Hao Kuo. "Power Dynamics in the Classroom." Harvard Educational Review 68.3 (1998): 426.

Wallace, Miriam L. "Beyond Love and Battle: Practicing Feminist Pedagogy." Feminist Teacher 12.3 (1999): 184-97.

Wallace, Priscilla. "Authority and Egalitarianism: What can they Mean in the Feminist Classroom?" Action in Teacher Education 15.4 (1994): 14-9.

Wiebe Berry, Ruth A. "Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom." American Educational Research Journal 43.3 (2006): 489-529.


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(I had to take out the links in my references so my post would not be classified as spam)

References to Explore

Agozino, Biko, et al. Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason., 2003.

Arbon, Chyleen A. How a Theoretical Feminist Perspective and a Practical Legislator Perspective can Inform Each Other and Improve Criminal Justice Policy., 2004.

Balfour, Gillian. "Re-Imagining a Feminist Criminology." Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice 48.5 (2006): 735-52.

Belknap, Joanne. "Meda Chesney-Lind: The Mother of Feminist Criminology." Women & Criminal Justice 15.2 (2004): 1-23.

Boyd, Susan C., et al. From Witches to Crack Moms: Women, Drug Law, and Policy., 2004.

Brewster, Dennis Ray. "Legal and Extra-Legal Variables in Sentencing Outcomes: The Effect of Race and Gender." Dissertation Abstracts International. Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 63.09 (2003): 3365-.

Chesney-Lind, Meda. "Patriarchy, Crime, and Justice: Feminist Criminology in an Era of Backlash." Feminist Criminology 1.1 (2006): 6-26.

Cooper, Kenneth J. "Scholars: Slavery's Legacy Present in Current Policies, Social Customs." Diverse: Issues in Higher Education 23.20 (2006): 18-.

Deegan, Mary Jo. "Katharine Bement Davis (1860-1935): Her Theory and Praxis of Feminist Pragmatism in Criminology." Women & Criminal Justice 14.2 (2003): 15-40.

Friedman, Samuel R., et al. "Social Capital Or Networks, Negotiations, and Norms? A Neighborhood Case Study." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32 (2007): S160-70. .

Heidensohn, Frances, Carol Hedderman, and Andrea Quinlan. Gender and Justice: New Concepts and Approaches., 2006.

Huey, Laura. "The Abolition of Capital Punishment as a Feminist Issue." Feminist Review.78 (2004): 175-80.

Joseph, Peniel E. "The New Black Power History: A 'Souls' Special Issue." Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture & Society 9.4 (2007): 277-80.

Labelle, Deborah, and Sheryl Pimlott Kubiak. "Balancing Gender Equity for Women Prisoners." Feminist Studies 30.2 (2004): 416-26.

Lane, Jodi. "Joan Petersilia: A Life of Policy-Relevant Corrections Research." Women & Criminal Justice 17.4 (2006): 1-17.

Love, Sharon RedHawk. "Keeping it Real." Feminist Criminology 3.4 (2008): 303-18.

Love, Sharon Redhawk. "Keeping it Real: Connecting Feminist Criminology and Activism through Service Learning." FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY 3.4 (2008): 303-18.

Marchetti, Elena. "Intersectional Race and Gender Analyses: Why Legal Processes just Don't Get it." Social & Legal Studies 17.2 (2008): 155-74.

McCorkel, Jill. "Criminally Dependent? Gender, Punishment, and the Rhetoric of Welfare Reform." Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 11.3 (2004): 386-410.

Pinder, Sherrow O. Institutionalized Violence and the Issue of Race in America's History., 2004.

Pounder, Sadie. "Prison Theology: A Theology of Liberation, Hope and Justice." Dialog: A Journal of Theology 47.3 (2008): 278-91.

Rubin, Gerry. "Anne Logan: Feminism and Criminal Justice: A Historical Perspective." Feminist Legal Studies 17.3 (2009): 353-4.

Simpson, Sally S., Jennifer L. Yahner, and Laura Dugan. "Understanding Women's Pathways to Jail: Analysing the Lives of Incarcerated Women." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 41.1 (2008): 84-108.

Snider, Laureen. "Constituting the Punishable Woman." British Journal of Criminology 43.2 (2003): 354.

Wing, Adrien K. "Violence and State Accountability: Critical Race Feminism." The Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law (1999): 95-114.

Wing, Adrien Katherine. Critical Race Feminism: A Reader., 2003.

Wyatt, Jean. "Patricia Hill Collins's Black Sexual Politics and the Genealogy of the Strong Black Woman." Studies in Gender and Sexuality 9.1 (2008): 52-67.

Zgoba, Kristen M. "Crime Control and Women: Feminist Implications of Criminal Justice Policy (Book)." Journal of Psychiatry & Law 31.4 (2003): 485-6.

Below is an example of how I would like to see the format of your annotated bibliography. This is what I would say if I were just starting out on my project about one of the sources that is integral to my project.

Anzaldúa, G. (1999). Borderlands/La Frontera: The new mestiza (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Aunt Lute Press.

Anzaldúa's text traces the many experiences she, as a 51R4qQ2VECL._SL160_AA115_.jpgChicana in South Texas, has endured in the borderlands - the space of the U.S./Mexico border. Originally published in 1987, she interrogates the space of the borderlands (la frontera) as a space of conflict but also a space of opportunity and transition, which affords alternative identities. In her chapter entitled "La conciencia de la mestiza" she traces how "mestiza consciousness" means being able to live within the many ambiguities around oneself and the type of consciousness that is created from this scenario. The new mestiza then, is an empowered, critical thinker about the world around her. Ultimately, Anzaldúa provides a vision of the borderlands as not simply a site of struggle, pain, and oppression but as a site of opportunity. An important aspect of this text is how she links the new mestiza as a queer project, which is something I want to explore more.
This work relates to the third chapter of my dissertation in which I am trying to move Anzaldúa's work on the "metaphorical" understandings of the U.S./Mexico border to the Midwest. I want to argue that while the Midwest is far from the actual physical border the ways that the border (in oppressive and empowered contexts) is reconstituted in the Midwest allows space for the field of Chicana/o Studies to explore Chicana identities in the Midwest as an important endeavor and provides alternative narratives for exploring and expanding upon Anzaldúa's theoretical concepts.

After scanning through your list of 15 references you will need to pick ten that are of the most interest to you or you feel will have the most relevancy for your project. For each of your 10 sources write one paragraph after the citation as a summary of each source. Each paragraph should focus on describing the source's key arguments. Try to focus on their arguments, not just the key points (so, how they make their case). Thinking about the author's own motivations might be helpful here, as well as the context. [Remember our discussion of context and content and speak to that if you can.]

Following your official summary of the text (which, should be in your own words) take a couple of sentences to describe how you see the source fits in to your project. In what specific ways will it be useful to you? What does it provide? Does it offer new and important insights, or will it become an object of your critique? Does it offer background information, or a new theory that strikes you as important? How do you anticipate using this source in your project is a great place to start.

For examples of what the format of your entry should be check out my example on our blog. Please categorize ALL of your annotated bibliography entries under #4. Also, may I suggest working in a word (or other word processing document) so that you don't risk losing your work in case something doesn't upload correctly on the blog! It might serve useful to have your summaries in a word file for writing later as well.

3 Entries due Wednesday February 10th
4 Entries due Friday February 12th
3 Entries due Wednesday February 17th

After our meeting with Kim, the GWSS Subject Librarian, last week you should have a wide array of sources that you've gathered since you started working on your project.

For this entry I would like to see your generated list of 15 references that you are interested in exploring for your final project. Remember, these sources should be a variety, meaning I want you to have different types of resources you will be investigating further (i.e. journal articles, anthologies, scholarly books, blogs, movies, newspaper, literature, or anything that might be relevant for you to explore with a scholarly lens). You should think about the differences between primary and secondary sources, as your project will need to be a combination of these. Please label your entry with category #3 "List of References"

Please upload your list of references to the course blog by class time Wednesday February 10th in the proper citation style. You may use APA or MLA and please feel free to use that handy dandy citation manager Refworks or any of the other tricks that Kim showed you to make this easier on yourself!

Jackie Kellett
GWSS 4108W
February 3, 2010
Project Description

A Feminist Perspective on the Criminal Justice System (working on the title)

I plan to write a research paper. The main question I am interested in answering is why it is problematic that we, as a culture, often code and view African American men as criminal, the impact this has, how it fits into a historical narrative about African Americans, and why this is problematic.

My project is important because while there is a lot of information on the racial disparities of the criminal justice system relatively few incorporate a feminist perspective or analysis. While I haven't decided which aspect to focus on in the criminal justice system, I want to focus on African American men, gendered constructions regarding them, how that plays into people coding them as 'criminal,' the impact the criminal justice system has on African American men and their families/communities. I do have to focus my paper down - and I'm still figuring out what to focus on specifically and how to make it flow together well.

I will use information from the U.S. Department of Justice, Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and the Sentencing Project for my current facts on the criminal justice system regarding racial disparities. I plan to draw on Alice Walker, Patricia Hill Collins, and other black feminist writers for the theoretical frameworks. The rest of my sources/theories will be determined when I come up with a more concrete outline.

For my project I am going to be investigating a topic that is very relevant to me and has been a question of mine since deciding to declare Women's Studies (here, adding the categories of Gender and Sexuality as well, since all seem to be intertwined) as my additional major. What place do men have in feminism/Feminism? Are men just "allies" to a movement or is the male feminist, the male activist feminist, and the Male Feminist equal players in their own right. How do these men, in particular white males of privilege, recognize their privilege power and do they attempt to rid themselves of this power, or "use it to an advantage" to try to "establish equality through the use of their privilege." If it is the latter, is such support even wanted?

Looking at the the history of male involvement in feminism in the early period (1920-1960s), then male involvement from the 1970s-1990s will be the start of my paper, trying to answer some of the questions outlined above. I'll then move into the male counter-feminism movements and also female feminists "against male involvement." I'd like to then conclude by looking at male feminist groups formed from 1990-2009, including campus groups, such as those formed by my friends in Duluth and end by tying everything together by "looking into the future" of the role of men in feminism, and determining in the future how gender roles will change. Somehow I'd like to tie the GLBTQ movement into this, but am unsure at this point how to go about doing so.

I intend to read about 5 books, by various female and male feminists who analyze quite thoroughly the roles men play in feminism overall. My goal is also to find early journals, diaries, or feminist publications and to search through them for references to men, and to power. I'm also going to reference active blogs and journals, interview two men in Duluth: one who formed a campus group and another who is the director of the Safe Haven Women's Shelter, and also try to interview Women's Studies and GWSS professors and ask about what role they think men have, and what they think of the field of "Men's Studies." The final product will be a 25-page research paper, but perhaps a 20 page paper with a 5-10 minute video.

2. Project Description

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-This is adapted from a project description/proposal I wrote last semester as I began to work on this topic.-

Broadly, this paper seeks to understand post-colonial relationships as well as globalization in the context of Kenya. The case study or example to be used from Kenya is that of widow inheritance. In a previous paper, I discussed how the cultural practice of widow inheritance has significantly changed in recent years. In that paper, I identified the causes of changes to widow inheritance to be HIV/AIDS, Westernization, and economic issues. This paper then seeks to further examine the changes of widow inheritance and associated processes on a more critical level by investigating the following questions:

1. How can we debunk the myth that globalization is a top-down, outside-in process? What is a bottom-up view of globalization in Kenya's case?

2. How can we look deeper into the discourse surrounding widow inheritance - beyond the façade of HIV/AIDS to underlying discourses of neocolonialism and paternalism? What does this then tell us about how certain issues are considered important?

3. Lastly, what can this imply for us about a feminist code of ethics?

I plan to use a number of sources, including my own past research and writing on widow inheritance and transnational feminist ethics; theoretical feminist writings on globalization and post-colonial thought; and Kenyan newspaper articles discussing globalization and western influences.

For my project, I plan to explore discrimination as well as the interpersonal exchange that occurs in the restaurant business. I will look at how these operate in relation to one another. Although it is not limited to these factors, I will begin to explore this idea by closely examining sexism, ageism and racism in the hiring process. I am interested in this because I see these discriminations occurring and judgments being made with every applicant and new employee even after they are hired in my workplace. The lens I plan to look through is one the functions on the notion that beauty is marketable. My questions will contain: Who is included and who is excluded from hiring considerations? What are the implications in visual prerequisites for a job in the restaurant business? I would like to use personal experience to show how complicated and real the marketability of beauty is, how interpersonal exchanges between the server and the customer get manipulated and according to what factors. I will look at how these exchanges play into the marketability of beauty and how it may influence the hiring process according to, but not limited to, sex, age and race. I think this approach could intervene in a way that looks to feminist studies to examine the possibilities and implications of the marketability of beauty. A question to intervene with includes: Is it wrong to feel empowered if under the exclusionary, socially influenced, heteronormative definition of beauty?

In Audre Lorde's article, "Uses of the Erotic (1984) The Erotic as Power," she explains the erotic as something that is revolutionary for women in the workplace. I want to examine this notion because I have personally struggled with the feelings of empowerment I feel while "using my erotic" along with my questioning the implications that are involved with that feeling. In a deeper inspection, "women" as a universal term can be deconstructed and is exclusionary. Because of this, the erotic as described by Lorde applies to a certain realm of women and therefore relates to discrimination in the workplace. Some questions I plan to explore include: Can men be included in the uses and empowerments of their erotic? What kind of privilege occurs here involving sex, age and race? These two questions are among the many I plan to explore in order to contemplate my experiences in the workplace. I envision the final project as a research paper with different modes of research, but mainly literature. I am interested in exploring possible research strategies that I could conduct in my workplace. I am not sure how I would go about this, but I am interested! Any ideas?

Project Description: Sin.dicate

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I want to create a magazine or journal written by and for sex workers in Minneapolis. I see an opportunity to publish important narratives of female and queer people's lives as marginalized labor, as unique individuals, and as a community. I envision the magazine as a platform to strengthen and radicalize our community. The valuation and interpretation of our experiences can help us identify and address the needs, and desires of a population vulnerable to exploitation. I want to specifically address predatory practices in the dancing community, that would be eliminated by unionization. I'm really interested to find out what other contributors, and sex workers find significant, frustrating, and hopeful about sex work in Minneapolis. By doing a few workshops, and editing the magazine I want to cultivate a sex-positive, queer friendly tone as well as present an opportunity for self-promotion, self-preservation, and resistance for the community. I want to look at empowering narratives written by sex workers like Michelle Tea's Rent Girl and Portland's Black Book, and SFX magazines, and draw on the theoretical framework of feminist theorists like Susie Bright and Gayle Rubin.

Project Description

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Although both theoretically interrogate gender and sexuality, third wave feminist theory and queer theory are at odds. Queer theory works to question and dismantle many elements intrinsic to third wave feminist theory. Is it possible for either of these two disciplines to coexist without contradicting the other? If so, how would these inherent contradictory elements be dealt with? Also, on a more personal level, how can I as a feminist reconcile my feminist beliefs with the development of a passion for queer theory? The goal of my senior project will be to investigate and answer these questions in a research paper specifically engaging with theoretical feminist and queer texts.
It is very important for me to pursue an answer to this question. I am coming to the end of my undergraduate studies in gender studies; struggling with and hopefully resolving this question will help guide me in whichever direction I take after my studies here. Also, it is essential that feminist studies, as with any academic discipline, be constantly testing itself against new and conflicting theories, including queer theory.
To write my paper, I will research and choose canonical texts for both disciplines to delineate exactly what each theory incorporates. These will be in the form mostly of theoretical writings but also may extend to film or other artistic mediums.

For my project I am working to connect my research on embodied pedagogies and inter-ethnic education in Kenya with my current explorations of the politics of the University classroom. I will work with the ideas of Paulo Freire, bell hooks, Augusto Boal and many others to conceptualize a classroom space which does not maintain politics of domination but rather remains committed to engaged processes of learning. The focus here will be on critical, feminist, and embodied pedagogies and the ways they can (and already do) intersect with critical race theory. In order to accomplish this, I am centering my project on race relations in the classroom, specifically considering discussions of race as racialized bodies and the development of safe spaces for necessary and difficult dialogues. My approach will seek to manifest the idea of praxis through a theoretical consideration of these processes and the engagement of that theory in an applied component. In the applied portion I will develop multiple workshop models, ideally to be facilitated with groups of graduate students in the GWSS department and possibly graduate students in other departments. This portion of my work is by no means a final product, but is an articulation of the process of engaging praxis. I hope to develop a collection of my synthesis of these theoretical explorations, multiple workshop/lesson plans, and reflections on the actual workshops.

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For my final project I plan on writing a persuasive research paper about the need for prostitution to be decriminalized in the United States and that more. My paper will focus on my belief that women are not prostitutes, women are prostituted. In other words, women in the United States, for the overwhelming majority, do not enter into prostitution willingly. It will be the point of the paper that instead of sending prostituted women to jail for prostitution, more organizations should be created to help women get out of prostitution. To do so I will cite the research, facts, and statistics that have been done on the subject hat show that prostituted women are not willing participants, as well as the changes in laws surrounding this issue in other countries and how these changes affected the prostitution industry. More specifically, I will focus on how the vast majority of women do not enter into prostitution willingly and the sexism, racism, and classism that surrounds the topic, which affects how and why the current laws on prostitution do not help in ending this problem. In my paper I will also discuss the two other options on the subject (legalization and keeping it illegal) and why I believe them to both be inferior options to decriminalization. Finally, I will also look at current bills that are trying to be passed into legislation that deal with this topic.

As a continuation of our conversations in the first week of class I thought I would post some links to the blogs that I visit often. It's important to have ways to check up on the state of the world and often seeing what is sparking a lot of discussion in the cybersphere related to contemporary feminist issues helps me to think about important issues I need to explore and/or incorporate into my dissertation project. Here are a few blogs that I really enjoy reading and that I think provide great feminist critiques about the world around us.

feministingleft.gif Feministing

logo.pngRace Talk

abw-logo.jpg The Angry Black Woman

new1.jpg Radical Queer News

And my friend's blog (who is also a current faculty member in GWSS) (Making / Being In / Staying in) TROUBLE

What types of online publications, mags, blogs etc. do you review every week? Post links in the comments and let's keep this brainstorm going.