Annotated Bibliography (Round 1: 3 Entries)

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Boal, Augusto. Theatre of the Oppressed. Theatre Communications Group. New York, 1985.

Theatre of the Oppressed is an ongoing project, originating in South America, which uses theatre exercises to encourage a participatory environment in a community and seeks to reveal the social and political realities of life. This book explores many of Boal's projects conducted around the world and articulates the necessary revolution of Western theatre. He argues for equal and active spectator engagement, unlike the usual, passive spectators seeking catharsis. A reconsideration of these roles in the theatre can be equally applicable to an analysis of the dichotomy of teacher and student. His work is more focused on transformations in the theatre in order to bring social relevance to the art form, but many of his theories are relevant when considering the need for social relevance in education.
This work serves broadly as a foundation for the applied component of my project. I am interested in exploring how Boal's liberating framework of the theatre can be in conversation with Freire's ideas of liberatory education. The games and workshops explored in this book offer one entry point into difficult dialogues, through the facilitation of communal, embodied learning. I am interested in engaging these ideas in practice and expanding on them to conceptualize their application within the creation of a feminist classroom.

Bresler, Liora, ed. Knowing Bodies, Moving Minds: Towards Embodied Teaching and Learning. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. 2004.

This collection of essays explores a wide spectrum of embodied education. Various art forms, educational levels, curricula, theories and cultures are analyzed to understand the link between the mind and the body in education. Each essay investigates the different access points to knowledge and discusses both the knowledge of the body and the knowledge acquired through cognition. They seek to understand the performative nature of our bodies in order to articulate the consequences of isolating mind and body in education. The various articles offer a diverse analysis of embodiment in education, but ultimately support the approach of simultaneous inclusion because the negative consequences of this current approach are inhibiting the development of educational reform which can truly transform the future.
This work is a crucial contribution to my thinking because it approaches embodiment through various artistic, athletic, and communal practices and offers multiple, intersecting discussions about "alternative knowledges." I will engage these ideas when thinking about ways to access and nurture embodied knowledges and will structure my workshops within a framework of the mutually constitutive powers of mind and body. My process will maintain simultaneous acknowledgement and interaction between mind and body and will attempt to highlight the necessity of transcending the imposed hierarchy when considering the knowledges produced by each.

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Continuum. New York, 2007.

This book focuses on the nature of oppression and the quest for liberation through a radical evaluation and transformation of education. Freire first focuses on the relationship between the oppressed and their oppressors in order to articulate the role of liberation in the lives of both. Once this dialogue on oppression is established, he explores the challenges and flaws in mainstream educational practices--specifically the pedagogical techniques which maintain practices of domination and hinder true liberation through education. As a solution, he argues for the inclusion of people in their own process of education and thus development through the creation of "pedagogy of the oppressed." This approach to education is organic, coming from within the community, and challenges the relationship between teacher and student, oppressor and oppressed, in order to re-envision education, liberation, and development.
I am particularly interested in Freire's discussion of the "banking model of education" and seek to explore ways the creation of a feminist classroom space can challenge such a model. I also intend to focus on his discussion of our "vocation to become fully human," which is grounded in educational practices. In doing so I hope to begin the process of recognizing and naming the educational practices which stifle this process of becoming in order to consider how transformations of these practices can nurture us towards our ultimate goal of becoming fully human.

2 Comments

Hi,

Here are some citations that I found that might work for you. I searched in Academic Search Premier, ERIC, Race Relations Abstracts and Women's Studies International.

I searched using these keywords: (embodied or critical or feminist) and pedagogy and classroom and
some idea of internationalism or diversity or kenya

If you haven't already, you may want to see what Henry Giroux has to say about your idea.

Let me know how it goes.

Best,
Kim

Transformative Pedagogy for Democracy and Social Justice.
Source: Race, Ethnicity & Education; Jul2003, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p165, 27p
The authors propose a theoretical model of engaged learning for democracy and justice that draws from multicultural education and critical pedagogy, Freireian dialogic education, and Kolb's active, experiential learning. Engaged learning is defined as applying concepts and ideas from the classroom to out-of-class cognition and action. An empirical investigation (n 3203) examines the impact of a course focusing on intergroup relations and social conflict. The course is shown to increase students' structural attributions for racial/ethnic inequality and socio-historical causation. The course also increases students' action orientation away from individual blaming to individual action toward institutional targets, and institutional and societal change. On pre- and post-test measures, engaged learning is shown to mediate the impact of course content and active pedagogy on students' active thinking and understanding of socio-historical causation as well as students' action strategies that promote more tolerance. On post-test only measures, engaged learning mediated effects on socio-structural understanding, understanding others, and learning about conflict. The authors discuss the importance of content, active pedagogy, and engaged learning, and implications for future research and practice on teaching about democracy and social justice.

Teaching for Social Justice: Searching for Pedagogy
Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Canada, 2005). 19 pp.
Two university professors investigated whether or not specific pedagogy contributes to raising students' self-awareness and development of critical thinking regarding issues of social justice. This paper describes two pedagogical tools used in the study: the Roundtable and the GRECSO model. The Roundtable is a whole-class activity that explores ideals of equity, shared leadership, appreciation of differences, authenticity, values clarification, and self-reflective listening and speaking. GRECSO is an interactive classroom activity exploring six socially constructed categories of gender, race, ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper reports on research investigating students' perceptions of the influence of the Roundtable and GRECSO activities on their understanding and actions concerning issues of social justice, especially in their organizations and workplaces. The following are appended: (1) Roundtable Guidelines; and (2) GRECSO.\

Shifting Academic Landscapes: Exploring Co-Identities, Identity negotiation, and Critical Progressive Pedagogy.
Communication Education; Jul2003, Vol. 52 Issue 3/4, p177-190, 14p
After reviewing issues of The Speech Teacher and Communication Education from inception through 2003, the authors note the absence of any prolonged, systematic investigation of the influence of race or the interplay of multiple cultural identities in academic settings. This introductory essay articulates the importance of acknowledging the existence of multiple identities in our classrooms (some visible, others not) and assessing our biases towards these cultural markers as we teach our courses. Critical pedagogy is offered as a viable option allowing educators to function as change agents deconstructing and replacing restrictive pedagogy with more progressive approaches to teaching and conducting research.

Gendered and Racialized Identities and Alliances in the Classroom: Formations in/of Resistive Space.
Communication Education; Jul2003, Vol. 52 Issue 3/4, p230-244, 15p
Challenging the Cartesian dualisms that essentialize difference, this essay offers strategies for building transracial, feminist alliances through pedagogy. The authors argue that resistive classroom spaces should be created in which students and teachers challenge the discourses of domination that structure our understandings of identity and difference. To this end, the authors offer autoethnographic descriptions of their identities and their relationship as scholars-teachers- friends and support these descriptions with a case analysis of how they addressed issues of "race" and gender in an Intercultural Communication classroom. They conclude that building alliances requires theorizing identity as relational, requiring embodied practice and willingness to make "self" vulnerable to an "other," particularly when the "self" is inscribed with privilege and power.

Deconstructing Power, Privilege, and Silence in the Classroom.
Radical History Review; Fall2008, Issue 102, p45-62, 19p
While teaching about race/ethnicity and class from a critical pedagogical standpoint, not only might we encounter student resistance to learning about systems of domination, but we should also be aware of the ways that power, privilege, and exclusion in the larger society may be reproduced in our own classrooms. In this article, we recount how we used free-writes and various discussions in an attempt to deconstruct the power dynamics in an upper division seminar on Latinas/os and education. Though a majority of the students were first generation Latinas, middle and upper middle class white students were more likely to share their perspectives and experiences in the course. This resulted in a situation where class discussions were steered away from the focus of Latinas/os and unequal educational practices to a perspective that reinforced an ideology of equality and a climate that privileged dominant modes of classroom communication. Our experiences suggest that deconstructing classroom dynamics and engaging in collaborative teaching can create more democratic spaces that enhance student learning and challenge hegemonic teaching practices and classroom structures.

Decolonizing the pedagogy and practice of international social work.
International Social Work; Jan2009, Vol. 52 Issue 1, p9-21, 13p
This article examines the complexities inherent in a diverse classroom when teaching international issues by exploring decolonizing pedagogy, which includes theories and understandings from postcolonial studies, spatial and critical race theory. Student stories are included, to engage in a discourse on pedagogy and provide theoretical constructs to examine and critique the reactions to these stories.

Hi,

Here are some citations that I found that might work for you. I searched in Academic Search Premier, ERIC, Race Relations Abstracts and Women's Studies International.

I searched using these keywords: (embodied or critical or feminist) and pedagogy and classroom and
some idea of internationalism or diversity or kenya

If you haven't already, you may want to see what Henry Giroux has to say about your idea.

Let me know how it goes.

Best,
Kim

Transformative Pedagogy for Democracy and Social Justice.
Source: Race, Ethnicity & Education; Jul2003, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p165, 27p
The authors propose a theoretical model of engaged learning for democracy and justice that draws from multicultural education and critical pedagogy, Freireian dialogic education, and Kolb's active, experiential learning. Engaged learning is defined as applying concepts and ideas from the classroom to out-of-class cognition and action. An empirical investigation (n 3203) examines the impact of a course focusing on intergroup relations and social conflict. The course is shown to increase students' structural attributions for racial/ethnic inequality and socio-historical causation. The course also increases students' action orientation away from individual blaming to individual action toward institutional targets, and institutional and societal change. On pre- and post-test measures, engaged learning is shown to mediate the impact of course content and active pedagogy on students' active thinking and understanding of socio-historical causation as well as students' action strategies that promote more tolerance. On post-test only measures, engaged learning mediated effects on socio-structural understanding, understanding others, and learning about conflict. The authors discuss the importance of content, active pedagogy, and engaged learning, and implications for future research and practice on teaching about democracy and social justice.

Teaching for Social Justice: Searching for Pedagogy
Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Canada, 2005). 19 pp.
Two university professors investigated whether or not specific pedagogy contributes to raising students' self-awareness and development of critical thinking regarding issues of social justice. This paper describes two pedagogical tools used in the study: the Roundtable and the GRECSO model. The Roundtable is a whole-class activity that explores ideals of equity, shared leadership, appreciation of differences, authenticity, values clarification, and self-reflective listening and speaking. GRECSO is an interactive classroom activity exploring six socially constructed categories of gender, race, ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper reports on research investigating students' perceptions of the influence of the Roundtable and GRECSO activities on their understanding and actions concerning issues of social justice, especially in their organizations and workplaces. The following are appended: (1) Roundtable Guidelines; and (2) GRECSO.\

Shifting Academic Landscapes: Exploring Co-Identities, Identity negotiation, and Critical Progressive Pedagogy.
Communication Education; Jul2003, Vol. 52 Issue 3/4, p177-190, 14p
After reviewing issues of The Speech Teacher and Communication Education from inception through 2003, the authors note the absence of any prolonged, systematic investigation of the influence of race or the interplay of multiple cultural identities in academic settings. This introductory essay articulates the importance of acknowledging the existence of multiple identities in our classrooms (some visible, others not) and assessing our biases towards these cultural markers as we teach our courses. Critical pedagogy is offered as a viable option allowing educators to function as change agents deconstructing and replacing restrictive pedagogy with more progressive approaches to teaching and conducting research.

Gendered and Racialized Identities and Alliances in the Classroom: Formations in/of Resistive Space.
Communication Education; Jul2003, Vol. 52 Issue 3/4, p230-244, 15p
Challenging the Cartesian dualisms that essentialize difference, this essay offers strategies for building transracial, feminist alliances through pedagogy. The authors argue that resistive classroom spaces should be created in which students and teachers challenge the discourses of domination that structure our understandings of identity and difference. To this end, the authors offer autoethnographic descriptions of their identities and their relationship as scholars-teachers- friends and support these descriptions with a case analysis of how they addressed issues of "race" and gender in an Intercultural Communication classroom. They conclude that building alliances requires theorizing identity as relational, requiring embodied practice and willingness to make "self" vulnerable to an "other," particularly when the "self" is inscribed with privilege and power.

Deconstructing Power, Privilege, and Silence in the Classroom.
Radical History Review; Fall2008, Issue 102, p45-62, 19p
While teaching about race/ethnicity and class from a critical pedagogical standpoint, not only might we encounter student resistance to learning about systems of domination, but we should also be aware of the ways that power, privilege, and exclusion in the larger society may be reproduced in our own classrooms. In this article, we recount how we used free-writes and various discussions in an attempt to deconstruct the power dynamics in an upper division seminar on Latinas/os and education. Though a majority of the students were first generation Latinas, middle and upper middle class white students were more likely to share their perspectives and experiences in the course. This resulted in a situation where class discussions were steered away from the focus of Latinas/os and unequal educational practices to a perspective that reinforced an ideology of equality and a climate that privileged dominant modes of classroom communication. Our experiences suggest that deconstructing classroom dynamics and engaging in collaborative teaching can create more democratic spaces that enhance student learning and challenge hegemonic teaching practices and classroom structures.

Decolonizing the pedagogy and practice of international social work.
International Social Work; Jan2009, Vol. 52 Issue 1, p9-21, 13p
This article examines the complexities inherent in a diverse classroom when teaching international issues by exploring decolonizing pedagogy, which includes theories and understandings from postcolonial studies, spatial and critical race theory. Student stories are included, to engage in a discourse on pedagogy and provide theoretical constructs to examine and critique the reactions to these stories.

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