Bordo, Susan. Unbearable weight. Los Angeles, CA: The Regents of the
University of California. 1993
In this book, Bordo discusses the body politic through body image. This includes such issues of weight, weight loss, media images, movies, eating disorder, etc. She looks at the body in various contexts of discourse, feminism, gender performance, the marketability of beauty and many more.
My paper will explore the marketability of beauty and how it plays into the interpersonal customer-server exchange. I would like to conduct interviews that ask questions that are specifically about body image and how it plays into the serving experience. I see serving as a type of performance intertwined and/or closely related to gender performance. I will pull from Bordo's take on why beauty is marketable and how it functions in the restaurant business.
Weichselbaumer, D. (2003). Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring. Labor
Weichselbaumer discusses the concept of "unobserved heterogeneity" that rewards the masculinity of lesbians and penalizes the femininity of gay men. She suggests that employers discriminate in favor of masculine characteristics which would be in favor of lesbian employees. Weichselbaumer conducts an experiment sending job applications from four different identities: The feminine straight (FS), the masculine straight (MS), the feminine lesbian (FL) and the masculine lesbian (ML). She concludes that indicating a lesbian identity reduces one's second interview invite by 12-13%.
I will pull from the article to further contemplate the marketability of beauty in relation to discrimination in the restaurant business. Who is included and who is excluded as marketable according to beauty? My analysis will include how sexual orientation acts in the hiring process in the restaurant business. Although she uses categories, this article will provide a useful context while also making space for critique and dialogue because of her bold claims.
Lorde, Audre. "The Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power." Sister Outsider. Crossing Press.
In this essay, Lorde explains the erotic as an empowering, feminine entity that all women have but which has been oppressed into submission because of "the male world." She describes the erotic as revolutionary for women in the workplace. With the erotic in the workplace, according to Lorde, the use goes beyond economic benefit and into how we feel doing what we are doing. She claims that women should utilize their feminine erotic as a way to apply their suppressed power.
I will explore her concept of the erotic in order to challenge the critiques of the marketability of beauty. I think that Lorde implies that the privileges in the marketability of beauty be accepted, by women using it, as a use of the erotic. This is problematic because of many reasons including the exclusionary factors of the word "beauty" itself. What is defined as beautiful? I will argue that the term "beauty" is hegemonically, socially constructed as white, thin women. Although it is not limited to this, my workplace is exemplary in showing this prototype as visually privileged.
Lynn, Michael. "Determinants and Consequences of Female Attractiveness and
Sexiness: Realistic Tests with Restaurant Waitresses. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2000.
Berry, Bonnie. "Beauty Bias: Discrimination and Social Power." Journal of American
Chernin, K. The Obsession: reflections on the tyranny of slenderness. New York,
NY: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. 1994.
Dublanica, Steve. Waiter Rant: Thanks for the Tip-Confessions of a Cynical Waiter. Harper
Collins Publishers. 2008.
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed. Henry Holt and Company. 2001.
Hamermesh, DS., & Biddle, JE. "Beauty and the Labor Market." American
Economic Review, 84(5). 1994. pp. 1174-1194.
Mobius, MM, & Rosenblat, TS. "Why Beauty Matters." American Economic
Review, 01-25. 2006.
Butler, Judith. "Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and
Feminist Theory." Theatre Journal, Vol. 40, No. 4. 1988. pp. 519-531.
Bordo, Susan. "Reconstructing Feminist Discourse on the Body." The Body and the
Reproduction of Femininity. 309-326.
Quinby, Lee and Irene Diamond. "Foucault, Femininity and the Modernization of Patriarchal
Power," in Feminism and Foucault: Paths of Resistance. Northeastern Univ. Press. 1988.
Bartky, Sandra Lee. Femininity and Domination: Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression
(Thinking Gender). New York City, New York: Routledge. 1990. pp. 161.
LeMoncheck, Linda. "Sex Objectification as Taking the Part for the Whole."
Dehumanizing Women: Treating Persons as Sex Objects. Rowman & Littlefield. (1985).
Blake E. Ashforth and Ronald H. Humphrey. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18,
No. 1. 1993. pp. 88-115
Butler, Judith. "Imitation and Gender Insubordination." The Second Wave: Feminist Theory.
Ed. Linda Nicholson. New York: Routledge. 1997.
West, Candace and Don Zimmerman. "Doing Gender." Gender and Society. Sage Publications
Brewster, Zachary W., and Christine Mallinson. "Racial Differences in Restaurant Tipping: A Labour Process Perspective." Service Industries Journal. 2009.
Erickson, Karla Anne. "Paid to Care: Selling Service, Smiles and Community in American Restaurants." Dissertation Abstracts International.Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 2004.
Lynn, Michael. "Determinants and Consequences of Female Attractiveness and Sexiness: Realistic Tests with Restaurant Waitresses." Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2009.