Annotated Bibliography

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Bordo, Susan. Unbearable weight. Los Angeles, CA: The Regents of the

University of California. 1993
In this book, Bordo discusses the body politic through body image. This includes such issues of weight, weight loss, media images, movies, eating disorder, etc. She looks at the body in various contexts of discourse, feminism, gender performance, the marketability of beauty and many more.
My paper will explore the marketability of beauty and how it plays into the interpersonal customer-server exchange. I would like to conduct interviews that ask questions that are specifically about body image and how it plays into the serving experience. I see serving as a type of performance intertwined and/or closely related to gender performance. I will pull from Bordo's take on why beauty is marketable and how it functions in the restaurant business.

Weichselbaumer, D. (2003). Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring. Labor

Economics, 01-24.
Weichselbaumer discusses the concept of "unobserved heterogeneity" that rewards the masculinity of lesbians and penalizes the femininity of gay men. She suggests that employers discriminate in favor of masculine characteristics which would be in favor of lesbian employees. Weichselbaumer conducts an experiment sending job applications from four different identities: The feminine straight (FS), the masculine straight (MS), the feminine lesbian (FL) and the masculine lesbian (ML). She concludes that indicating a lesbian identity reduces one's second interview invite by 12-13%.
I will pull from the article to further contemplate the marketability of beauty in relation to discrimination in the restaurant business. Who is included and who is excluded as marketable according to beauty? My analysis will include how sexual orientation acts in the hiring process in the restaurant business. Although she uses categories, this article will provide a useful context while also making space for critique and dialogue because of her bold claims.

Lorde, Audre. "The Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power." Sister Outsider. Crossing Press.

In this essay, Lorde explains the erotic as an empowering, feminine entity that all women have but which has been oppressed into submission because of "the male world." She describes the erotic as revolutionary for women in the workplace. With the erotic in the workplace, according to Lorde, the use goes beyond economic benefit and into how we feel doing what we are doing. She claims that women should utilize their feminine erotic as a way to apply their suppressed power.
I will explore her concept of the erotic in order to challenge the critiques of the marketability of beauty. I think that Lorde implies that the privileges in the marketability of beauty be accepted, by women using it, as a use of the erotic. This is problematic because of many reasons including the exclusionary factors of the word "beauty" itself. What is defined as beautiful? I will argue that the term "beauty" is hegemonically, socially constructed as white, thin women. Although it is not limited to this, my workplace is exemplary in showing this prototype as visually privileged.

Lynn, Michael. "Determinants and Consequences of Female Attractiveness and
Sexiness: Realistic Tests with Restaurant Waitresses. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2000.

Berry, Bonnie. "Beauty Bias: Discrimination and Social Power." Journal of American
Cultures. 2008.

Chernin, K. The Obsession: reflections on the tyranny of slenderness. New York,
NY: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. 1994.

Dublanica, Steve. Waiter Rant: Thanks for the Tip-Confessions of a Cynical Waiter. Harper
Collins Publishers. 2008.

Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed. Henry Holt and Company. 2001.

Hamermesh, DS., & Biddle, JE. "Beauty and the Labor Market." American
Economic Review, 84(5). 1994. pp. 1174-1194.

Mobius, MM, & Rosenblat, TS. "Why Beauty Matters." American Economic
Review, 01-25. 2006.

Butler, Judith. "Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and
Feminist Theory." Theatre Journal, Vol. 40, No. 4. 1988. pp. 519-531.

Bordo, Susan. "Reconstructing Feminist Discourse on the Body." The Body and the
Reproduction of Femininity. 309-326.

Quinby, Lee and Irene Diamond. "Foucault, Femininity and the Modernization of Patriarchal
Power," in Feminism and Foucault: Paths of Resistance. Northeastern Univ. Press. 1988.
pp. 61-86

Bartky, Sandra Lee. Femininity and Domination: Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression
(Thinking Gender). New York City, New York: Routledge. 1990. pp. 161.

LeMoncheck, Linda. "Sex Objectification as Taking the Part for the Whole."
Dehumanizing Women: Treating Persons as Sex Objects. Rowman & Littlefield. (1985).
165 pp.

Blake E. Ashforth and Ronald H. Humphrey. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18,
No. 1. 1993. pp. 88-115

Butler, Judith. "Imitation and Gender Insubordination." The Second Wave: Feminist Theory.
Ed. Linda Nicholson. New York: Routledge. 1997.

West, Candace and Don Zimmerman. "Doing Gender." Gender and Society. Sage Publications
Inc. 1987.

Brewster, Zachary W., and Christine Mallinson. "Racial Differences in Restaurant Tipping: A Labour Process Perspective." Service Industries Journal. 2009.

Erickson, Karla Anne. "Paid to Care: Selling Service, Smiles and Community in American Restaurants." Dissertation Abstracts International.Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 2004.

Lynn, Michael. "Determinants and Consequences of Female Attractiveness and Sexiness: Realistic Tests with Restaurant Waitresses." Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2009.

1 Comment

Hello, Katherine!

Thanks for helping out the students on your row at the FMC yesterday. It was really kind [and I hope you didn't mind terribly being put on the spot like that!].

You have great citations, of course! I just wanted to add a couple of things--although I really didn't need to because you're really doing such a great job already.

I would also suggest The Beauty Myth, by Naomi Wolf:
UM TC Wilson Library (HQ1219 .W65 1992 )

I searched in Business Source Premier, Sociological Abstracts, and Women's Studies International for these. HTH, Kim

6 article(s) will be saved.
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Record: 1
Boundary lines: labeling sexual harassment in restaurants By: Giuffre, Patti A; Williams, Christine L. Gender & Society; V. 8, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1994; pp. 378-401-401, 24p (AN FYH2870307659)
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Discrimination and Harassment in the Restaurant Industry. By: Chia-Jeng Lu; Kleiner, Brian H.. International Journal of Sociology & Social Policy; 2001, Vol. 21 Issue 8/9/10, p192-205, 14p, 3 charts; Abstract: This article focuses on discrimination and sexual harassment in the U.S. restaurant industry as of August 2001. There are different types of discrimination, based on race, color, religious creed, national origin, sex, age, ancestry, sexual orientation or handicapping condition. In this article, the issue of gender discrimination and sexual harassment is emphasized; moreover, a recommendation is presented to help restaurateurs reduce the likelihood of discrimination and discrimination-based lawsuits. This article begins by presenting a general view of sexual harassment, including the types of sexual harassment. In conclusion, this article notes that there are still significant information gaps among the public at large, about the scope of the issue of harassment and discrimination in the U.S. restaurant industry and the legal obligation of U.S. citizens as a society to deal with it effectively. In the restaurant industry, harassment and discrimination are problems to all employees as well as to all employers. It is evident that women for the most part still remain the victims in these situations. According to the authors, the best way of solving this problem in a company is to set up a good solid policy and implement it throughout the company. (AN 16388880)
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Exploring the UK hospitality industry and age discrimination. By: Martin, Emma; Gardiner, Katherine. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2007, Vol. 19 Issue 4, p309-318, 10p, 5 charts; Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the steps the hospitality sector is taking to ensure compliance with the age discrimination legislation introduced in October 2006. Design/methodology/approach - A survey of the five sub sectors of the hospitality industry, hotels, restaurants, pubs and clubs, contract catering and hospitality services, was conducted during April 2006. Findings - It was found that ageism was considered a problem by respondents from hospitality services, largely public sector organisations, and the greatest impact from the legislation was considered to be within these firms. Overall, 45 per cent of respondents reported knowing ‘little’ or ‘nothing’ about the incoming legislation and the overwhelming majority felt they did not know enough. Research limitations/implications - Out of the postal survey of 950 organisations there were 112 respondents, representing a response rate of just below 12 per cent. Perhaps the most prominent issue with surveys of this type are the concerns of employers about compliance and being caught out or, in this case, it may highlight a greater level of apathy or lack of awareness than the following results show. Practical implications - The findings show the need to target the message about the age discrimination legislation particularly to the pub, club and hotel sector. Originality/value - The paper highlights the desire for knowledge about the legislation across the sector and the lack of awareness of sources of information. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1108/09596110710747643; (AN 26198326)
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Physical attractiveness stereotypes and service quality in customer-server encounters. By: Luoh, Hsiang-Fei; Tsaur, Sheng-Hshiung. Service Industries Journal, Sep2009, Vol. 29 Issue 8, p1093-1104, 12p; Abstract: Characteristics of service providers such as gender and physical attractiveness (PA) play a significant role in customer-server encounters. This study explored whether various service quality conditions and PA stereotypes would affect perceptions of service quality in customers of fine dining restaurants in Taiwan. This research also identified the moderating effects of server PA stereotype and PA in-group bias on perceived service quality. A total of 480 subjects participated in the study, which had a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design: scenarios of service quality (favourable vs. unfavourable) and appearances of server (attractive vs. average). The results showed that the customers' perceptions of service quality were enhanced with attractive servers compared with those of average appearances. In addition, the server PA stereotype influenced the customers' perceptions of service quality with regard to responsiveness and assurance dimensions under favourable and unfavourable service quality conditions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/02642060902764517; (AN 43197708)
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Serving hamburgers and selling insurance: gender, work, and identity in interactive service jobs By: Leidner, Robin. Gender & Society; V. 5, NO. 2, JUNE, 1991; pp. 154-177-177, 24p; Abstract: Through an analysis of two highly routinized interactive service jobs, fast food service and insurance sales, this article explores the interrelationship of work, gender, and identity. While notions of proper gender behavior are quite flexible, gender-segregated service jobs reinforce the conception of gender differences as natural. The illusion that gender-typed interaction is an expression of workers' inherent natures is sustained, even in situations in which workers' appearances, attitudes, and demeanors are closely controlled by their employers. Gender-typed work has different meanings for women and men, however, because of differences in the cultural valuation of behavior considered appropriate to each gender. JOURNAL ABSTRACT. (AN FYH0310874114)
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Waitering/waitressing: engendering the work of table servers By: Hall, Elaine J. Gender & Society; V. 7, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1993; pp. 329-346-346, 18p; Abstract: Work organizations construct gender relations by two mechanisms. First, they allocate men and women to different positions. Instead of the traditional pattern of firm-specific segregation of waiters and waitresses, quantitative data show that most restaurants in this study have integrated wait staffs. Second, work organizations define job performances in gender terms. Qualitative data from five illustrative restaurants show that male and female servers in integrated staffs 'do gender' by performing gendered service styles. Even when men and women are coservers, job titles and dress codes suggest that providing service in a fine dining restaurant is waitering, whereas serving in a coffee shop is waitressing. Focusing on gendered styles of services expands our definition of gender and has serious implications for efforts to achieve occupational integration. JOURNAL ABSTRACT. (AN FYH2975507592)
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