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With Barber Victory Nearly 1 in 4 House Democrats Elected Via Special Election

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Almost one-quarter of the Democratic caucus was first elected to the U.S. House via special election - more than double that of the GOP

ushouseseal10.pngDemocrat Ron Barber's victory Tuesday in the special election to fill the seat of retired U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords in southeastern Arizona means the former Giffords staffer will join an elite but ever-growing group in Washington, D.C..

For Barber is not simply 1 of 435.

He is 1 of 68.

A Smart Politics profile of the 112th Congress finds that with Barber's election in Arizona's 8th CD, nearly one-quarter of the Democratic U.S. House caucus and one-sixth of all members were first elected into the House of Representatives via special election.

Barber won his special election Tuesday by a 7-point margin over Giffords' 2010 opponent, Republican Jesse Kelly, 52 percent to 45 percent.

Green Party candidate Charlie Manolakis received 2 percent of the vote.

Barber now becomes the 43rd Democrat in the party's 191-member caucus to enter the House through a special election, or 23 percent of its membership.

By contrast, that is more than twice the rate of Republican members.

Only 25 GOPers won their seat in a special election out of its 242-member caucus, or 10 percent.

Overall, 68 of the 433 members now serving in the House were first elected through a special election, or 16 percent. (Two formerly Democratic-held vacancies remain in NJ-10 and WA-01).

Current U.S. Representatives Elected via Special Election

Party
Special
Total
% Special
Democrat
43
191
22.5
Republican
25*
242
10.3
Total
68
433
15.7
* Includes Ron Paul who was elected to the U.S. House via special election in the first of his three stints in Congress. Table compiled by Smart Politics.

Many well-known U.S. Representatives currently serving in the House were first elected via special elections including:

· Democratic Minority Leader and former Speaker Nancy Pelosi (CA-08, June 1987)
· Former Democratic Majority Leader Steny Hoyer (MD-05, May 1981)
· Former three-time presidential candidate Ron Paul (TX-14, April 1976)
· Joe "You lie!" Wilson (SC-02, December 2001)

Special elections, of course, arise for a myriad of reasons.

In the case of Gabrielle Giffords, she stepped down in January to focus on her recovery from a near-fatal gunshot wound suffered early last year.

In recent years, specials have occurred due to scandals (David Wu in OR-01, Anthony Weiner in NY-09, Christopher Lee in NY-26, Eric Massa in NY-29), appointments to the U.S. Senate (Dean Heller in NV-02, Kirsten Gillibrand in NY-20), resignations to run for governor (Nathan Deal in GA-09, Neil Abercrombie in HI-01), resignations to leave for a non-governmental post (Jane Harman in CA-36), and death (Donald Payne in NJ-10, John Murtha in PA-12).

But many of the representatives who replace their predecessors due to these unconventional circumstances often make a career out of it.

In fact, Democrat John Dingell (MI-15), the all-time longest serving member of the House, came to Congress in a special election after the death of his father - John, Sr. - in 1955.

In addition to Dingell, other long-serving special election graduates include Alaska's Republican at-large representative Don Young (39+ years), Wisconsin Republican Tom Petri (WI-06, 33+ years), Steny Hoyer (MD-05, 31+ years), and Gary Ackerman (NY-05, 29+ years).

Nearly one-third of current representatives to enter the House via special election represent districts in California (14) and New York (8) - 22 of 68 members (32 percent) - despite those two states holding just 18 percent of all House seats.

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Remains of the Data

Plurality-Winning Governors Elected At Century-Long High Water Mark

The rate of gubernatorial candidates elected without the support of a majority of voters is at its highest level since the 1910s.

Political Crumbs

Seeing Red

Congressman Nick Rahall's failed bid for a 20th term in West Virginia this cycle, combined with a narrow loss by Nick Casey to Alex Mooney in Shelley Moore Capito's open seat, means that West Virginia Democrats will be shut out of the state's U.S. House delegation for the first time in over 90 years. The Republican sweep by two-term incumbent David McKinley in the 1st CD, Mooney in the 2nd, and Evan Jenkins over Rahall in the 3rd marks the first time the GOP has held all seats in the chamber from West Virginia since the Election of 1920. During the 67th Congress (1921-1923) all six seats from the state were controlled by the GOP. Since the Election of 1922, Democrats have won 76 percent of all U.S. House elections in the Mountain State - capturing 172 seats compared to 54 for the GOP.


Home Field Advantage?

When the 114th Congress convenes in a few days, Maine will be represented by one home-grown U.S. Representative: Waterville-born Republican Bruce Poliquin. With the departure of Millinocket-born Mike Michaud, who launched a failed gubernatorial bid, the Pine Tree State was poised to send a House delegation to D.C. without any Maine-born members for the first time since 1821. Three-term U.S. Rep. Chellie Pingree (born in Minnesota) coasted to reelection as expected, however Poliquin edged Kentucky-born Emily Cain by 5.3 points to keep the streak alive. Since 1876, a total of 208 of the 222 candidates elected to the nation's lower legislative chamber from the state have been born in Maine, or 94 percent.


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