Over the last 100 years, all but four states have had at least one U.S. Senator die in office with 41 states losing a member of its delegation to the nation's upper legislative chamber on the job since the end of World War II. Just two states - Arizona and Utah - have never endured the death of a sitting Senator, and are also the only two states in the nation never to hold a special election to the chamber. Delaware's last such passing took place in 1867 (Democrat George Riddle) and Maryland's in 1912 (Democrat Isidor Rayner) - one year before direct election of members to the chamber was instituted in all states with the 17th Amendment.
The victory by Massachusetts Democrat Katherine Clark in Tuesday's 5th Congressional District special election marked the 32nd time a U.S. House seat was won by a woman in the Bay State. Since the first woman was elected to the chamber in 1916 (Montana's Jeannette Rankin), Massachusetts has held 627 seats across the subsequent 49 Congresses. Women have been elected to 5.1 percent of these seats, which is the 21st highest rate in the nation. In addition to Clark, four other female U.S. Representatives have served from Massachusetts: Republican Edith Nourse Rogers (18 terms, 1925-1960), Republican Margaret Heckler (eight terms, 1967-1983), Democrat Louise Day Hicks (one term, 1971-1973), and Democrat Niki Tsongas (four terms, 2007-present).
A total of eight candidates will be on the ballot in New Jersey's gubernatorial election Tuesday. That is the lowest number since 1989, when voters got to choose from six candidates in the ballot access-friendly Garden State. There were 19 gubernatorial hopefuls in 1993, 10 in 1997, nine in 2001, 10 in 2005, and a dozen in 2009. Since 1901, an average of eight candidates have appeared on New Jersey's gubernatorial ballot. As a result, candidates have won with a plurality of the vote eight times during this 110+-year period: in 1907, 1913, 1919, 1934, 1981, 1993, 1997, and 2009. In addition to major party nominees Chris Christie and Barbara Buono, the other six candidates running for governor in 2013 are Kenneth Kaplan (Libertarian), Steven Welzer (Green), William Araujo (Peace and Freedom), Jeff Boss (NSA Did 911), Diane Sare (Glass-Steagall Now), and Hank Schroeder (independent).
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