The Omnipresent Boson: Part 2 - Connections to Metamaterials
Bosons could be a common element in gMOD experiments. Tajmar points to bosons as the basis for his gMOD effect. At superconducting temperatures electrons (normally fermions) form massive bosonic pairs (called Cooper pairs). In their original 2006 paper de Matos and Tajmar described the use of Type I superconductors (niobium and lead) in three years of experiments. According to their theory (connected to Heim Theory by Droscher and Hauser) superconductors should form Cooper pairs. The angular acceleration of Cooper pairs in rotation should result in the dragging of spacetime and with it the generation of acceleration fields (gMOD).
In a recent paper ("Comment on 'Nonlinearity of the Field Induced by a Rotating Superconducting Shell'") Tajmar discusses how it is the "lag-current" (cited by both R. Becker in 1933 and F. London in 1961) produced by the massive Cooper-pairs that generates the magnetic field making gMOD possible. During rotation some of the pairs rigidly follow the superconducting lattice and some lag behind the lattice during rotation. Lag plays a key role.
But what about other researchers working with exotic materials and bosons. Have they reported any gravity-related effects with bosons? The answer is yes.
Researchers Chris Phillips and John Pendry at Imperial College London reported almost two years ago their success in using negative refraction optical metamaterials to achieve rudimentary "invisibility cloaks". Recent advances by their colleagues at St. Andrews University have allowed researchers to employ photonic crystal lattices as metamaterials to control electron waves called "plasmons". These plasmons have been used to create an artificial "event horizon" simulating the gravity field of a black hole.
Plasmons are quasiparticle bosons. The St. Andrews study was inspired by, and simulates, the geometry of space curved by gravitational fields. The metamaterial that makes up the invisibility cloak stretches the metrics of space in a similar way to what heavy planets and stars do for the metrics of space-time in Einstein’s general relativity theory. Metamaterial semiconductors employed by Phillips are essentially artificial atoms that have the capacity to control the speed of light to a slow crawl.
So massive bosons are implicated in peer-reviewed research on gMOD at superconducting temperatures as well as anecdotal reports of gMOD at room temperature. But bosons also exist as massless virtual particles. It is in this virtual state that they are implicated in research on invisibility and metamaterials. A boson producing the collective excitation of the electron's spin wave structure in a crystal lattice is known as a magnon (a massless boson).
A phonon is also a boson. A phonon is a collective excitation of crystal lattice atoms or ions. For years phonons have been considered the basis for superconductivity, but a recent paper suggests that superconductivity is not caused by the actions of phonons, but of spin excitations (hypothetical Goldstone bosons). So now we have a potential connection between superconductivity, Cooper pairs (massive paired-electron bosons), massless (virtual) Goldstone bosons and spin wave excitations. Droscher and Hauser further contribute to the connection between Cooper electron pairs and phonons, say in their paper Spacetime Physics and Advanced Propulsion Concepts that "The coupling of the electron pairs seems to be via phonons, generated by electron movement through the lattice of the superconductor.
Perhaps it is the interaction of Goldstone bosons that is responsible for effects reported by Searl and Hollingshead. Hollingshead in particular increased the charge density on electrons by sending 220 volts at 480 Hz through the RP, which could have increased spin excitations. It could also have effected the excitation of crystal lattice atoms in the RP, producing phonons. A 1991 patent by Motorola suggested that phonon generation can happen at temperatures higher than that for superconductivity and still lead to the formation of Cooper pairs in a superlattice. Interestingly, the semiconductor employed by Motorola is the same thin-film material as employed by C. Phillips to produce slow-light solitons.
Finally, there is also the question of the role of ferrite. The first naturally occurring metamaterials were found in ferromagnets. Ferrite is the classic example of a ferromagnet and is the component which gives steel and cast iron their magnetic properties. Perhaps metamaterials are implicated in reports of power generation in Searl's device and that of others who claim power production from the interaction of magnetic fields. More on that at a later date.
There are still too many questions and not enough published research to make any conclusions about the relatedness of these researchers. Until more independently verifiable data is made available the research by Tajmar combined with improvements suggested by Droscher seem the best bet for the first generation of gMOD.
©2008 Gregory Daigle