### Dröscher's Other... More Controversial Theory of Propulsion

One goal of the work of Dröscher, now made more tangible through his collaboration with Tajmar, is that of propulsive fields achievable of space flight. However a more controversial and advanced propulsion aspect of Dröscher and Häuser's theory has not been mentioned in their publications in recent years, even though they apparently have not abandoned it. Even among talk of new theories of gravity it is controversial. Yet it was this work that brought them an award by the AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics), a very down-to-Earth organization of pragmatic aeronautical engineers and physicists in close association with NASA.

The following descriptions are taken almost wholly from Seculine Consulting's 2006 "Notes on Heim's Quantum Theory", Dröscher & Häuser's 2002 "Physical Principles of Advanced Space Propulsion Based on Heim's Field Theory" and their 2004 "Guidelines for a Space Propulsion Device Based on Heim's Quantum Theory".

In Heim's work, which predates string theory, Einstein's general relativity has been extended in a way that expands the space-time metric by 4 dimensions, and also adds 4 non-metric dimensions for a total of 12 dimensions. In Heim Theory standard gravity G is the tensor summation of three gravitational components, i.e. G = Gg + Ggp + Gq. The 3 gravitational forces are as follows:

Gg (Scalar Gravity, or "Gravitonic") - propagated by the Graviton

Ggp (Dark Energy/Matter) - a pairing of both attractive (+) and repulsive (-) particles propagated by the Gravito-photon

Gq (Vacuum Field) - a repulsive vacuum particle propagated by the Quintessence particle

Under this theory space propulsion may be achieved using gravitophoton field propulsion, which is predicted to be a two stage process:

Stage 1: Sub-luminal travel is predicted via the acceleration provided by an unbalanced pulling force generated through the absorption of negative gravito-photons in the ship’s drive mechanism.

Stage 2: Super-luminal travel possibilities open up through the use of a positive graivito-photon distribution behind the ship to create a pushing force that results in quantum steps in reduced gravitational potential in the speed of light, and is therefore analogous to a warp drive. This is also described by Heim proponents as a “parallel space" travel since there are different values for G and c within the influence of the positive gravito-photonic field.

Super-luminal travel is **faster-than-light travel**. Hence the controversy.

Under the assumption that the gravitational potential of the spacecraft can be reduced by the production of quintessence particles, a transition into parallel space is postulated to avoid a potential conflict with relativity theory. In order to resolve this contradiction, it is postulated that the object has to leave our space time and enters into a parallel 4-dimensional physical space-time (or parallel universe/multiverse).

Einstein's goal was the unification of all physical interactions based on his principle of geometrization, i.e., having a metric that is responsible for the interaction. This principle is termed Einstein's geometrization principle of physics (EGP). To this end, Heim and Dröscher introduced the concept of an internal space, denoted as Heim space H8, having 8 dimensions (in contrast to the theory's original 12 dimensions). Although H8 is not a physical space, these invisible internal coordinates govern events in space time.

In such a space, superluminal speeds would be possible in principle. The interesting fact is that an object can transit into parallel space at a relatively low speed from our own space time.

It is clear that a gravito-photon field propulsion would be far superior compared to chemical propulsion or any other currently conceived propulsion system. For instance, an acceleration of 1g could be sustained without entering parallel space during a lunar mission. For such a mission only the acceleration phase is needed. For a launch from the surface of the Earth of a 150,000 kg spacecraft producing an acceleration larger than 1g the first half of the distance to the moon is covered in some 2 hours, resulting in a total flight time of 4 hours. How about a more distant target?

A Mars mission, under the same assumptions as a flight to the moon, would achieve a total flight time with acceleration and deceleration of 34 days in normal space. Entering parallel space, a transition is possible at a speed of some 67,000 mph reached after approximately 1 hour at a constant acceleration of 1g. In parallel space the velocity increases to 0.4 c, reducing total flight time to some 2.5 hours. Compare this to NASA's projections of a two year round trip to Mars by a direct minimum energy orbit in each direction.

Mars is some 0.5 A.U. away (astronomical units, 1 A.U. = 1,500,000,000 km) yet the nearest star is 4.3 lightyears (1 lightyear = 9,460,000,000,000 km) away. For an interstellar mission, the concept of parallel space is indispensable.

An acceleration phase of some 34 days with 1g would result in a final velocity of just one per cent of the speed of light, 0.01 c in normal space. At the end of an acceleration phase of 34 days a spacecraft with a mass of 100,000 kg transitioned into parallel space would cause a velocity gain by a factor of 33,000 resulting in an effective speed of 330 c. A distance of 10 light-years could be covered within 11 days. The deceleration phase requires another 34 days, so a one-way trip to the star Procyon (11.5 lightyears from Earth) would take about 90 days. There are about 30 known stars within a radius of 13 light-years from Earth.

©2008 Gregory Daigle

[Edited 7/17/08 for clarity]