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February 25, 2009

Combatting Effects of Global Warming

In a new report “Climate Change: Adapting to the Inevitable?”, published by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the authors state: “Changes in climate conditions will present engineers with a wide range of challenges. These challenges relate to how existing infrastructure and buildings may need to change to function under a new climate system, and how new systems can be designed and built to function under a different climate, thereby helping the world to adapt.“

How might these challenges be better addressed through the application of gravity modification technology for combating the effects of global warming? Implementations of gMOD such as lifting structures, retaining floodwaters and abating other effects of climate change brought on by fossil fuels may turn out to be economically viable solutions once gravity is under our control.

While the report focuses upon design changes that will “increase the resilience of infrastructure systems and components”, new technological domains such as gMOD could offer tools and tactics to ameliorate the impact of climate change. Countries such China, Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia face increasing sea levels that threaten their economies. Countries in central Europe and Africa face direct threat to their populations and energy independence as they enter cycles of drought and sweltering heat.

Environmental perturbation threatens the continued development of societies, their economies and channels scarce resources into the relocation of large populations from coastal regions. Tens or hundreds of billions of dollars to address these changes are at stake. So technological solutions – even nascent ones such as gMOD – are worth exploring for their potential application.


Adapting

The report focuses upon our ability to adapt to change as well as continue efforts to use less fossil fuels, develop carbon-neutral energy technologies, capture and store carbon and assist more vulnerable countries. One of the first challenges under adaptation is to our coast regions.

The increased probability of flooding can be attenuated by use of gMOD to produce standing fields to act as virtual dykes and retaining walls. This is especially important for the continued operation of non-nuclear and nuclear power generation facilities that have been located on the coast or on flood plains to provide easy access to water for cooling requirements. Use of gMOD to provide extensive standing fields comparable to the seawalls of the Netherlands is not feasible except in cases of very short term application such as preventing storm surges during hurricanes or typhoons.

As highway transportation routes in coastal districts become flooded the most immediate short-term strategy might be to raise highway beds and relocated bridges. These coastal districts might provide the first opportunity to deploy gMOD assisted bridge structures or gravity-assist car ferries to convey passengers and vehicles.

Eventually a complete Intelligent Transportation System integrated with metro-wide WiFi and GPS systems will allow autonomous gravityships to replace ground freight transportation for shipping and logistics. Increased reliability will lead to gravity-assisted passenger vehicles and current infrastructure of highways and bridges will give way to digital infrastructures for managing traffic in Class G airspace – at altitudes 1200 feet above ground level. However the transition time for such a transition (total replacement will likely never be achieved) will take decades and is on the order of creating a national highway system.

Relocating residential areas away from flood plains to reduce the risk of flooding means that urban densities may need to be increased. Enhancing building engineering techniques through gMOD would allow for taller building designs through load reduction. Use of “floating architecture” techniques applied to single residences and multifamily dwellings would allow their aggregation in vertically “layered” urban spaces. Such a redistribution may be permanent or merely transient as weather patterns suggest precautionary relocation.

As climate change increases the perturbations in weather patterns contribute to long term heat spells and drought. As suggested in this blog in December, gMOD could be employed to mine and transport portions of glaciers ready to calf into the ocean thus reducing (or delaying) sea level increase while recharging ground water reserves in drought stricken regions.

A less Herculean task would be to employ gMOD stationary platforms to vertically moor large but light weight sun screens and filters to reduce heat infiltration and reflect light away from glaciers in order to slow their melting. Similar shades could also be employed to reduce the urban island heat effect in metropolitan areas and urban spaces.

Antarctic and Greenland glaciers continue to melt at a rate of 36 cubic miles per year. It has been noted by researchers that the loss of weight currently forcing the Antarctic landmass down will cause the continent rebound and displace more ocean as the continental shelf rises. The gravitational attraction of surrounding ocean waters to the six thousand foot Antarctic glaciers will be lost when they melt. This will reduce the ice mass’s current tidal effects in the southern oceans and further increase sea levels elsewhere.

One potential deployment of gMOD would be to create thousands or tens of thousands of gravitationally attractive zones throughout mid-ocean areas to lift water above sea level thus reducing sea levels in temperate coastal zones. Should one or a few zones fail the resultant mid-oceanic wave produced would be small compared to tsunamis caused by earthquakes or sea mound collapses.


Energy

Modifying gravity and generating fields for propulsion, repulsion, standing walls, etc. does not at first glance appear to be a means for generating power. However, Extended Heim Theory theorist Walter Dröscher has already filed patents for producing energy through the artificial gravity generated by gravitophotons. More on this patent is not currently known but the nature of experimental results may shed some light.

Dr. Martin Tajmar’s experimental results in generating gravitomagnetic fields by the rotation of condensed matter measured effects thirty orders of magnitude larger than predicted by general relativity. That is, the fields detected in his laboratory were a thousand billion billion billion times greater than classical gravity should be able to explain.

It should be noted that Noether’s First Theorem predicts that energy is conserved for energy transactions that do not vary over time. Should an exchange of energy – such as the transition of potential energy to kinetic energy when a ball is dropped – be different on Tuesdays than it is on Thursdays then symmetry is lost and the system is non-conservative.

Imagine a waterwheel where the energy of falling water under the influence of gravity (gravitons) is less than that required to lift the same volume of water under the influence of gMOD (gravitophotons). Clearly this system is non-conservative and would result in excess energy that could be transmitted through a waterwheel to turn electric turbines.

Even without direct energy production the usage of fossil fuels could be reduced by gMOD through its potential to lighten loads in rail and air transportation and thereby friction in engines and powertrains. Airplanes and highway vehicles would run more efficiently and consumption of fuel – whether fossil fuel or renewable biofuels – would be reduced.

Carbon

So gMOD might help us adapt to the changing environment and generate cleaner energy. But even as we transition to cleaner technologies the atmospheric levels of carbon will continue to increase until carbon production is reduced to a level than can be countered by the absorptive capabilities of our oceans and forests. Can gMOD be employed to absorb and store carbon directly?

A uniformly accelerating system is considered equivalent to a local gravitational field according to Einstein's Principal of Equivalence.  Under this principal the difference between centrifugal forces and gravity cannot be distinguished by an observer inside the system.  Any process requiring a centrifuge to separate materials by their specific gravity could be reproduced by a suitable artificial gravity field.  Such centrifuging could be applied to the bulk separation of liquids and gaseous aggregates.

Carbon dioxide has a higher specific gravity than oxygen or nitrogen. In the atmosphere it could be separated from the atmosphere by a gMOD-moderated centrifuge. Stations could be established at sources of CO2 such as industrial smokestacks or extraction sites for natural gas. CO2 could then be contained under pressure and shipped to storage facilities. If credence is given to inventors Wallace and Hollingshead then lower temperatures in the range of 100K accompany artificial gravitational field generation and the gas may be frozen as a solid and shipped more conveniently.

Technology Transfer

Sharing this technology with developing nations facing imminent coastal inundation would minimize disruption of world markets. Because economic distress can be accompanied by political strife, technology transfer to adapt to climate change may help those countries remain politically stable.

Of course, any new technology has its risks and gMOD does provide an opportunity to utilize it capabilities for non-benevolent purposes – from crowd control and military uses to centrifugal separation of transuranic isotopes.

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As noted in the IME report, “the implementation of these solutions and their further innovation will depend on political, economic and social will”. The use of gMOD for coping with climate change will similarly depend upon political, economic and social will and involve substantial cultural change as well. But in the end the transition to a more flexible and robust system employing gMOD to counter changes in our environment brought about by our own actions will better position us for continued growth and opportunity in the last half of this century.

©2009 Gregory Daigle