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August 17, 2010

Emerging Physics - Part 2

Ordinary and Non-Ordinary Matter, Imaginary Matter and Space Drives - Part 2 of Emerging Physics

In the paper "Emerging Physics for Novel Field Propulsion Science", Drs. Jochem Hauser and co-author Walter Dröscher delve deeper into their descriptions of ordinary and non-ordinary matter.

In Extended Heim Theory (EHT) Ordinary Matter (OM) describes all messenger particles (gauge bosons) including the graviton, photon, vector bosons and gluons as well as leptons and quarks. Non-Ordinary Matter (NOM) describes virtual particles of imaginary matter that do not occur in the initial and final states of a reaction. Imaginary matter is not a new type of matter. These particles occur as interim states and are possibly catalysts allowing novel interactions, such as the decay of a neutral gravitophoton to a graviton/quintessence pair or to a ± gravitophoton pair.

In this model dark matter may be composed of a new class of particles, the neutral leptons (fermions). Neutral leptons are the only class of NOM that exist as real particles rather than imagery particles. The masses of neutral leptons are close to those of their charged counterparts and much less than those of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS).

Some predictions of EHT unexpectedly align with new theories of physics put forward only in the past year. As mentioned previously, Dr. Erik Verlinde expanded on the ideas of Dr. Ted Jacobson that gravity is an emergent quality of space dependent upon the structured "holographic" information it contains. Under this view gravity may also be seen as a consequence of the laws of thermodynamics.

Similarly, EHT posits that four subspaces representing the formation of organizational structures (S2 negative entropy) and information structures (I2 entropy) make up the 16 different forms of hermetry, three of which define particles whose fields in combination are recognized as gravity.

Recently the DØ Experiment at Fermi Labs (http://www-d0.fnal.gov/) reported evidence for five types of Higgs particle (two Higgs doublets of four with some particles interpreted as W and Z bosons), while the Standard Model allows for only a single Higgs doublet. This evidence more closely aligns with the 6 Higgs bosons of ordinary matter (in addition to the 6 Higgs bosons of non-ordinary imaginary matter) predicted by EHT and outlined in Hauser-Dröscher's recent paper.

Finally, the authors bring their discussion back to the implications for space propulsion. When a space vehicle is in the presence of the decay of photons to gravitons and quintessence particles, the gravitons are absorbed by the space vehicle while the quintessence particles are absorbed by the surrounding spacetime, leading to its expansion. Total momentum is conserved though the repulsive force of the quintessence and results in the expansion of the Universe (dark energy).

In the case of decay into non-neutral gravitophotons the negative gravitophotons act on the spacecraft and the positive gravitophotons act on spacetime such that total momentum is conserved. As long as the experimental conditions for the production of gravitophotons along with their respective decay are maintained, the proper acceleration field will be generated.

An experimental setup utilizing a disk rotating directly above a superconducting solenoid should be able to lift itself from the surface of the Earth. The technology required to meet the experimental requirements are currently within reach.