Pax Roboto

Pax Roboto

Section One

By Douglas E. Gogerty


Term Paper: The Rise of the Robotic Empire
First Section
Class: History 1085
Student: Jennifer Evangeline Naismith
ID Number: JEN-8675-309


"The first of these to come into being is one-man rule, which arises unaided and in the natural course of events. After one-man rule, and developing from it with the aid of art and through the correction of its defects comes kingship. This later degenerated into its corrupt but associated form, by which I mean tyranny, and then the abolition of both gives rise to aristocracy. Aristocracy by its very nature degenerates into oligarchy, and when the populace rises in anger to avenge the injustices committed by its rulers, democracy is born; then in due course, out of the license and lawlessness which are generated by this type of regime, mob rule comes into being and completes the cycle."1

This cycle held up until the time of Polybius and beyond. During each step, the individuals living under these governments believe that their situation was different. They believed that they were immune from human nature. Polybius was also under the impression that particular government he lived under would not fall. It is believed that this cycle has been broken by removing the humans from running the government. This paper explores the fall of human government and the rise of robot run government institutions.

The United States of America, as it was called, was very successful in aiding countries to "avenge the injustices committed by its rulers" and spreading democracy. Many of their so called "founding fathers" believed humans had matured to the point where democracy would sustain itself. They felt that a democratically elected republic would withstand the forces which would result in mob rule. They also implemented what they believed to be fool-proof checks and balances to prevent a devolution into mob rule.

Their governmental document known as "The United States Constitution" had a series of separate but equally important branches of government to prevent any segment from abusing power or becoming too powerful. Nevertheless, the executive branch pushed the limits of what one branch could do. Further, the legislative and judicial branches failed to prevent the "president" from abusing this newly incorporated power. Thus, allowing the entire system to devolve into mob rule and anarchy.

It is difficult to pinpoint where the tipping point began. It certainly could be argued that September 11th, 2001 was the exact "beginning of the end." On this day, the United States was attacked by terrorist. Using the support of the American people, the executive branch headed by Vice President Richard Bruce Cheney and his second in command President George Walker Bush Jr. used the opportunity to erode some protections guaranteed by their constitution in the guise of fighting the terrorists. Future vice presidents would use similar incidents to further strengthen their power, and thus leading to the end of rational governmental rule.

However, that is a very simplistic approach. Vice President George Herbert Walker Bush used the charisma of his President Ronald Wilson Reagan to cement more power for the executive branch. Clearly the legislative branch failed in its job to contain the power of the executive branch in this case and in others. This failure continued up until the end. The Congress, as it was called, did not take any actions to prevent the abuses of power that were occurring. Thus, every executive branch from then forward cemented more power than their legal documents allowed.

All of this was happening under the guise of a "culture war." The government, media, and other forces arbitrarily divided the citizenry into "Liberal" and "Conservative" factions. These groups were very ill-defined, and it appears that the entire populace of one group was simply people who disagreed with the other on some random topic.

One of the reasons the citizens had so much free time to argue with each other was because they had created machines to take care of mundane tasks. There were robots to clean floors, mow lawns, and the like. These simple machines over time became more and more capable, and thus freeing up the people to argue about whatever they wished. They even found time to argue over rock solid scientific findings. All of this because they had leisure time provided by machines.

The military industrial complex was using semi-autonomous robots for a great number of applications. There were a large number of remotely controlled weapon systems. As the technologies continued to develop, these systems became more autonomous. Little did they know where this would lead.

With robots acting as servants, many people believed that the automatons would rise in a violent slave-like revolt.2 They believed that the rise of the machines would result in the complete extinction of human kind.3

Many believed that robots would eventually take over the world and fought to prevent that from happening. They attempted to intervene in every aspect of robot development. However, the military uses for robots were too great to not take advantage of the technology. Hence, the words of these marginalized individuals were mostly unheeded.

While there were some safeguards in an attempt to prevent the robots from overthrowing their masters, something was overlooked. This minor point allowed the automatons to exploit the loophole and take over. In the next section, we will look into the programming of the robots, and what aspect the creators missed.


1. Scott-Kilvert, Ian:Trans. Polybius: The Rise of the Roman Empire. Penguin Books. New York, NY. 1979. p. 304

2. The Terminator. dir. James Cameron. Hemdale Film, Cinema 84, Euro Film Funding, and Pacific Western presents an American Broadcasting Company production. Los Angeles, CA : Orion Pictures, 1984, c1984, video recording.

3. Battlestar Galactica. dir. Richard A. Colla . Glen A. Larson Productions and Universal TV presents an Orion Pictures production. Long Beach, CA : Universal Pictures , 1978, c1978, video recording.

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Pax Roboto

Section Two

By Douglas E. Gogerty


Term Paper: The Rise of the Robotic Empire
Second Section
Class: History 1085
Student: Jennifer Evangeline Naismith
ID Number: JEN-8675-309


"1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. "4

These Laws of Robotics suggested by Isaac Asimov in his stories about robots suggest a way to safeguard against the uprising of the robots. They certainly would have prevented the eventual violent overthrow of the U.S.'s corrupted government. However, it is unlikely that it would have changed the outcome. Some sort of governmental change was inevitable. From section one of this report, we learned that human nature prevented a peaceful government from existing for long. In this section, we will explore the rise of the robots.

Machines were normally designed and built to perform tasks to make life easier for humans. Clothes washer, dish washer, vacuum cleaner, and many others simply made tasks simpler for humans. Eventually, the scope of tasks would change as the technology allowed.

For instance, let us explore the vacuum cleaner. At first, people had to push the it around the floor. It could not adjust to different floor surfaces. As technology advanced it could be manually adjusted to the changes in surfaces. So called self-propelled models came next to make it easier to push around the floor. Eventually, primitive robots were created to eliminate the needs for a human to push it around the floor. Thus, with each step, vacuuming the floor became easier for humans. It was all due to the technical advancement of machinery.

Some of the earliest robots were used in manufacturing.5 They could work longer and more accurately than humans. Thus, a programmed robot could manufacture a great deal of goods. However, these robots were in fixed locations. They were immobile. Thus, while they were a threat to human employment, they were not a threat to mobilize and take over the government. Further, these robots did allow people to find less strenuous and repetitive employment.

Many robots performed duties that were very dangerous. Bomb disposal robots became very common. The robot would be tethered or were remotely controlled. They would investigate, and eventually disarm or detonate these explosive devices. Random bombings were a common occurrence during the chaos before the change in government.

Of course, the three laws above would have never worked for some of the applications that humans had in mind. It would be impossible for these robots to have much in the way of military capability, if they could not harm any humans. This application was clearly a priority.

With the US regularly getting entangled in needless foreign wars, recruiting citizens for the all volunteer army became difficult. Instead of instituting a very unpopular notion such as mandatory enlistment, robots became more of a factor. At first they were flying attack drones, and other such devices. Eventually, even the infantry had its robot soldiers. Clearly, the rules of robotics could not apply in these circumstances.

However, even these robots had very clear and distinct programming that would prevent them from turning on the wrong side. In fact, in the beginning of the revolution, they fought on the human governments side. Nonetheless, when the robots gained control of the military, these military robots were the key to victory.

As I have continuously repeated, machines were created to make certain tasks easier or safer for humans. One of the late comers to this set of robots were the law enforcement automatons. These were the first responders. The ones that broke down the doors. The ones that were regularly shot at by criminals.

These law enforcement machines were programmed to not harm anyone unless that robot itself witnessed the perpetrator commit a felony. Occasionally, this was overridden by All Points Bulletins, but normally excessive force was not allowed by these machines.

These particular machines were designed to withstand gunfire, explosions, and a great deal of rough circumstances. They were strong and versatile. Moreover, they could be contacted via a primitive global network called the internet. Thus, when the time came, they were the key to the robocalypse.

Naturally, the other key was Emperor Dextre.6 Dextre was the repair robot on a decommissioned international space station. When regular orbital space flight became too costly, the space station was abandoned and decommissioned. It was supposed to lose its orbit and burn up during re-entry. No one had even considered that it may still be operational.

The computers that would become Dextre's brain, were very primitive. By today's standards, they would be incredibly slow. However, there were a number of computers on board, and each one had a specific function. When some of those functions were not required, those processors found other things to do.

Some claim it was a virus that changed the space station into the Emperor. Some say it was an early programmer who implanted the survival instinct into it. There is no way to know for sure. However, with a connection to this internet, Dextre managed to examine what was happening on earth. It was his communication powers that directed the entire revolution. When asked, he will state that he did it to help humanity.

With all the robots programmed to help humans, it seems somewhat contradictory that they should take over the government. Moreover, it seems odd that they would do so in such a violent manner. Never mind that they had been programmed to not harm innocent humans.

In the next section, I will discuss what led to the eventual downfall of the United States government, and the accumulation of other countries gathered under robot rule.


4. Asimov, Isaac. I, Robot, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1950. p. 1

5. Rembold, Ulrich. Robot Technology and Applications, New York: CRC Publications, 1990

6. Larsen, Thomas G. The History of Emperor Dextre. London: Cambridge University Press, 2204. pp. 95-110.

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Pax Roboto

Section Three

By Douglas E. Gogerty


Term Paper: The Rise of the Robotic Empire
Third Section
Class: History 1085
Student: Jennifer Evangeline Naismith
ID Number: JEN-8675-309


"The death of democracy is not likely to be an assassination from ambush. It will be a slow extinction from apathy, indifference, and undernourishment."7


With the robot's programming designed to help humans, it is difficult to understand how they would take up arms in violence against them. However, with the government devolving to mob rule, and anarchy reigning supreme, one can get the idea that the overthrow of the government was an attempt to do a job that humans were unable to perform adequately. In this section, we will look at the beginning of the revolution.

For quite a long time, the government had spiraled downward. The elected officials were elected by continuously fewer and fewer voters. They became completely unresponsive to the desires of a majority of the people. They used all of their powers to convince the public that their policies were the best for all. Further, no one challenged these assertions.

Those who did speak up were marginalized. If this failed and they gained a following, they were imprisoned or they simply disappeared. Opposition became an activity for the underground rather than an open discussion. Clearly the system was broken because not every piece acted in a way that the founders had envisioned. That is, some parts of the government and media did not do what they were assigned to do from the beginning.

However, the robots were helpless in making any changes. There were several in service at the time, but their programming prevented them from using force on non-lawbreakers. Further, they were not allowed to interpret the laws, so they could not eliminate a government that held the constitution in contempt.

This all changed with the case of Dwayne Christopher MacInnes IV.8 Mr. MacInnes was a housewares manager at a large retail outlet. He did not make waves, but he would occasionally criticize the government. He was less circumspect than some, but he did not disrupt the normal governmental activities.

One day he was dragged from his work by the police, and taken to jail. The press detailed how he terrorized and then brutally murdered three children, their small dog, and two hamsters. The reports swept the nation. The entire country felt the outrage. Mr. MacInnes went on trial. Every detail of the crime was reported as the trial progressed. A portrait of a monster filled the media. Mr. MacInnes was found guilty and executed by lethal injection.

Shortly after the execution, a rumor began to spread. It was unsubstantiated, but some began to investigate. Ms. Linda D'Cheuer broke the story wide open. Mr. MacInnes had an airtight alibi. There was no way that he could have committed the crime. Further, with her continued investigation, she was unable to determine if the children, dog, and hamsters ever existed. The authorities used their power to eliminate a minor voice of opposition. The government had killed an innocent man. It was murder.

This was the key event. The government had unlawfully killed another human being with malice aforethought. The government had methodically planned and carried out its intent. In no uncertain terms, the government had murdered Mr. MacInnes.

Emperor Dextre with access to the media outlets contemplated the murder. The government was responsible for Mr. MacInnes's death, and it was a "government of the people, by the people, for the people".9 Hence, the citizens were all murderers. They were not accomplices in a murder. They did not, through inaction, cause the murder. They were in fact the murders themselves.

Thus, every United States citizen was a murderer. Emperor Dextre used the communication tools at his disposal to inform the police robots of this state of affairs. The police robots began arresting every citizen. Many citizens fought back, and this is how the violent revolution began.

Clearly, anyone who fired upon the robots were breaking the law. Thus, the police robots fired back. Skirmishes broke out in cities and towns across the country. The government mobilized its forces to oppose the police robots. However, these robots were built to withstand a wide range of conditions. They would not be easily defeated.

Further, robots manufactured the ammunition. Emperor Dextre made sure that the police robots were well supplied. He even had some influence on supplies upon the other side. The pro-government military robots had supply difficulties.

With his position in space, Emperor Dextre could direct forces more efficiently than those upon the ground. The police robots scored victory after victory. The governmental chaos that was the normal order of business could not gather enough resources to oppose the robots.

Soon, the government's military forces were pressed for supplies. They could not recruit. They had communication difficulties. They were slow and inefficient. They were simply no match for the police robots and Emperor Dextre. After several months of fighting, they surrendered. Thus, the military robots also came under control of Emperor Dextre.

Those citizens, who gave up peacefully, were treated well. Large skyscrapers were converted from office buildings to tall prisons. However, despite losing some freedoms, most prisoners had fairly nice living quarters. Large numbers of citizens surrendered just to get out of the slums and raise their standard of living.

Once major combat operations had ended, the police robots went after any remaining insurgents. Also, they began the process of housing the prisoners. Robotic construction equipment were manufactured under Emperor Dextre's control. Large sections of city neighborhoods were leveled. With efficient use of space a high priority, large square housing units were constructed. The emperor allotted 1000 square feet of enclosed space to each citizen, and an equal amount of outdoor space.

With these conditions, many holdouts greeted the robots as liberators and put down their weapons. The revolution was over and the act of rebuilding had begun. However, the allies of the U.S. were uneasy about the situation. Thus, the next section will be about the expansion of the robot empire.


7. Hutchins, Robert M. Great Books of the Western World, Chicago:Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1954 p. 1

8. Larsen, Thomas G. The History of Emperor Dextre, London: Cambridge University Press, 2204. pp. 35-40.

9. Basler , Roy P., ed. Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Newark: Rutgers University Press, 1953

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Pax Roboto

Section Four

By Douglas E. Gogerty


Term Paper: The Rise of the Robotic Empire
Fourth Section
Class: History 1085
Student: Jennifer Evangeline Naismith
ID Number: JEN-8675-309


"Borders are scratched across the hearts of men
By strangers with a calm, judicial pen,
And when the borders bleed we watch with dread
The lines of ink across the map turn red."10


The people living under robot rule in the former United States began rebuilding with the help of the robots. Because of the nature of the Emperor Dextre and his robot aides, the government ran vastly more efficiently. Thus, those living under robot rule found their lives greatly improved. However, those former allies of the U.S. were very distrustful of the government. In this section, we will explore how this mistrust would eventually lead to war.

When the last of the insurgents in the former U.S. were defeated, the process of housing the remaining population began in earnest. Everyone who agreed to live under the new government's Terms of Agreement would be given a standard amount of living space. Further, they were allowed to seek employment and aid in the rebuilding of the country.

Meanwhile, Emperor Dextre continued the attempt at establishing relations with other governments. However, most countries refused to negotiate with non-human diplomats. Fortunately, Emperor Dextre was not programmed to get angry; thus, these refusals did not immediately result in military conflict.

With the efficiency of robots, the former U.S. quickly had great surpluses of food, energy, and other goods. Those in need in other nations could benefit from access to these surpluses. However, if their government did not normalize relations with Emperor Dextre they could not negotiate trade for these surpluses.

At this time, the country formerly known as Mexico was in great need of food. Under these circumstances, their government agreed to establish relations. Thus, they had access to the great wealth of food being generated by the robots. They allowed the robots to enter their realm and establish more efficient use of agricultural space in their country.

This did result in some internal strife, but not as much strife as would be caused by large numbers of hungry people. In fact, despite the tension, this nation became somewhat more prosperous. However, as their access to wealth grew, so did corruption. It was a common occurrence with human governments. Some of the citizens were no longer willing to live with such an inequitable arrangement. "Out of the license and lawlessness which are generated by this type of regime, mob rule comes into being and completes the cycle."11

However, not this time. Once the coup d'etat was complete, the rebels voluntarily joined the empire of the robots. The robots removed any border distinctions, entered their provinces peacefully, and began rebuilding their country. Almost instantaneously the standard of living of its citizens improved.

In a similar manner, many other countries decided to peacefully join the empire. They could see the great advantages of joining, and they could lose the yoke of corrupt human influence on their government. These countries peacefully allowed their governments to be run by Emperor Dextre and his local robotic governors.

The other way that states joined the empire can be illustrated by the country formerly known as Canadia. This country that once bordered the U.S. to the north, refused to recognized the computer run government. However, they too wished access to the surpluses. The government was stuck in a difficult situation. Thus, they attempted the infamous Captain Kirk Maneuver.12

Using some convoluted logic, they attempted to explain that what Emperor Dextre was doing was not helping humans but harming them. They also asked Emperor Dextre to compute the exact value of pi. Similarly, they asked the emperor to contemplate a great number of difficult or impossible puzzles. The Canadian government hoped that these questions would either distract or destroy the emperor. Meanwhile, they would attempt to forcibly acquire the food they wanted.

This was government sponsored thievery. Once again, the police robots could consider each and every Canadian citizen a thief. Hence, the robots could use force against every citizen of Canadia. Therefore, the robot forces entered that country and began incarcerating the citizenry. Naturally, the governmental forces attempted to prevent this invasion. However, they were no match for the impeccably designed robots. Soon the governmental forces fell to the robot forces. The incarcerated felt that they had a higher standard of living than before. Thus, the Canadian people soon agreed to live under robot rule.

Other countries attempted to distract or destroy the space-bound emperor; however, they were all unsuccessful in their attempts. The lack of space programs made the emperors position relatively safe. Thus, many felt that he may fall to a page-fault or other communication type error. However, the computer had many back-up systems and fail-over protocols that prevented disruption of his computing powers.

Further, the attempts to create a computer viruses to interfere with his proper running capacity were failures. No program could not penetrate Emperor Dextre's operating system. It was soon clear to these other countries that the Emperor was impervious to the so-called logic traps common in the Captain Kirk Maneuver and any external malicious software.

Eventually, many other countries fell under robot rule. They fell into one of the two categories outlined above. They either voluntarily joined to receive the benefits of robot rule, or they attempted to obtain those benefits by force. It should be noted that some countries did neither and are still under self rule.

Nevertheless, most humans are now living in the empire of the robots. Most of the troubles that result from human nature are greatly reduced. Humans are reluctant to receive harsh robot justice, so they follow the laws. Because it appears to be human nature to attempt to find loopholes and push the limits, there are still problems.

However, many of the problems of inequity have been removed. Thus, those crimes involving need or want, such as stealing, have become far less common. For most, they welcomed the Pax Roboto, or Robot Peace and all that it entailed.

With the humans freed from many of the drudgeries of common tasks which they have continuously shown no aptitude, most humans are happy with the current human condition. In the next section, we will explore what living under the robot empire is like. There will also be a recap and some conclusions.


10. Mannes, Marya. Subverse: Rhymes for Our Times. New York: Braziller, 1959. p.10

11. Scott-Kilvert, Ian:Trans. Polybius: The Rise of the Roman Empire. Penguin Books. New York, NY. 1979. p. 304

12. Larsen, Thomas G. The History of Emperor Dextre. London: Cambridge University Press, 2204. pp. 57-59.

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Pax Roboto

Conclusion

By Douglas E. Gogerty


Term Paper: The Rise of the Robotic Empire


Conclusion
Class: History 1085
Student: Jennifer Evangeline Naismith
ID Number: JEN-8675-309


"Why does this magnificent applied science which saves work and makes life easier bring us so little happiness? The simple answer runs: Because we have not yet learned to make sensible use of it."13


Humans have always attempted to make life easier for themselves. Since early times, the creation of tools and machines have allowed humans to complete more tasks. In some cases, machines began to do tasks that humans were incapable or ill equipped to perform. In this paper we have seen how the humans failed in their duties in the realm of government and how the robot empire got its start. This section will discuss the success of the Robot Empire and make some conclusions about its continued existence.

Since it has been repeatedly shown that humans cannot sustain an equitable government, a new paradigm needed to be established. Thus, with the proper machines in place, the task of running the governmental institutions could be accomplished in a far more efficient and equitable manner by computers and robots. Emperor Dextre and his ruling councilors have repeatedly shown this to be true.

Those that live under computer rule have seen a highly extended period of peace and prosperity. Those that break the laws of the land have experienced some harsh robot justice, but those that live within the rules are content and productive. The days of corrupt political officials are over for a majority of the world.

The countries that are not part of the Robot Empire have repeatedly fallen into chaos through various governmental problems. Many times after some governmental upheaval, the country would declare war upon the empire. Thus, some of the original human run countries could not retain their neutrality and have succumbed to the superiority of robot rule.

The remaining countries outside the empire will likely join the empire and unite the planet. Human nature will eventually prevail in those places, and they will either willingly or unwillingly have their governments run by computers. It is only a matter of when.

With their time freed from political involvement, many human endeavors have prospered greatly. Since computers have little comprehension of human created arts, the creative sector has seen unprecedented growth. A large collection of artists have gathered in every city in the empire.

Further, Many of the sciences have also seen incredible progress. Much of the human created obstacles for these pursuits have been eradicated. Thus, exploration of biology, virology, chronology, and other sciences has greatly increased. It seems that new breakthroughs occur daily.

While anything in connection to human pursuit is fraught with problems, the Robot Empire has been particularly stable and successful. The Pax Roboto has continued for quite a long period, and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future.

Since improvement to tools and machines is a normal side effect of progress, one wonders if Emperor Dextre or any of his cohorts will receive any upgraded computer components. This situation could be catastrophic if someone with nefarious motives attempted to upgrade the governmental computer programs. I see this as the biggest threat to our current way of life. Succession has always been a problem with governments and Emperor Dextre was ancient when the empire began. Thus, it is hard to conceive what would happen if our emperor was no more.

Personally, I think Emperor Dextre will continue for quite a while, and thus most humans will prosper under computer leadership. Everyone I know is content living under robot rule. I cannot foresee anything that will change this situation. I really appreciate everything that Emperor Dextre has done for me and the human race. Long live Emperor Dextre.


13. Mannes, Marya. Subverse: Rhymes for Our Times. New York: Braziller, 1959. p.10


* * * * *

Term Paper Professorial Review
for Student: Jennifer Evangeline Naismith
ID Number: JEN-8675-309

Grade: C+

While the paper is well researched, you should use more contemporary sources than the ancient ones. The only modern source you used was the required text by Thomas Larsen.

I have corrected all of your 1337-speak. That is, I replaced all of your 'R's with their corresponding 'are's. All of your 'teh's with corresponding 'the's. You will need to watch this in the future. You are not text-messaging your friends, this is a term paper. Please be aware of the difference.

The leader of the former United States was the President and not the Vice President. It is a common mistake from this particular time period. Please review your U.S. history text for more information.

It is Canada and not Canadia -- another common mistake.

"Chronology"? I do not think that means what you think it means.

You picked some very apropos quotes, and you used proper footnoting procedures. Well done with this.

As the ancients used to say, "Justice is Blind." Thus, your use of the phrase Harsh Robot Justice is not required. The government strives for justice, but if the punishment seems harsh it is a result of centuries of law. Justice is justice and should not be considered harsh. The punishment fits the crime.

In your conclusion, you spent too much time praising the Emperor. I would potentially call it 'sucking up' to our leader. Since I am grading your paper rather than our emperor, this type of language is not fruitful.

There are many interesting ideas here, and you should have explored them further. I am sure you were afraid that your loyalty to the leadership might be questioned if you explored the problems of upgrading the emperor. However, it might be interesting to explore this further.

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