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Haddon's Ten Strategies

1) Prevent the creation of the hazard in the first place.
Due to human error, collisions will always occur on the roadway. To prevent the creation of the hazard is to prevent the collision from occurring. Efforts can be made to reduce the risk of a collision, such as advance warning systems and collision mitigation systems; however, to prevent the creation of the hazard is not realistic.

2) Reduce the amount of the hazard brought into being.
To reduce the amount of the hazard is to reduce the number of collisions. EVP systems have already shown to be a benefit to reduce the rate of collisions; however, research is identifying ways to present advance warnings to drivers for an approaching EV not only at intersections, but on all types of roadways.

Other ways to reduce the amount of the hazard is to assess potential risk factors. "A 2004 report by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) stated that the occurrence of accidents can be reduced with intensive driver training and assessment" [8]. Increasing driver training, along with adaptive warning systems can reduce the number of collisions. Other areas have already been identified as risk factors, such as driving with lights and sirens. Standards could be placed which specify under which conditions it's necessary to drive with lights and sirens and without.

3) Prevent the release of the hazard that already exists.
An EV crash inherently produces multiple hazards. Within an ambulance, to prevent further hazards from releasing due to the crash would be to secure rear compartment equipment, illuminate sharp corners and edges and provide adequate safety belts for EMSP.

4) Modify the rate or spatial distribution of release of the hazard from its source.
Modifying the rate has been shown to occur by the use of EVP systems. Other methods would be to provide education to drivers and to the public on how to respond to an EV when approaching an intersection or on any roadway.

5) Separate, in time or space, the hazard and that which is being protected.
Hazards resulting from the collision and not the collision itself can be separated in time or space. To separate the hazard would be to not have dangerous surfaces, unsecured equipment and projectiles present during the collision. Such way to do this is by having locking mechanisms on drawers and equipment so when the EV is engaged in a crash, these potentially hazardous objects due not become unsecure.

6) Separate the hazard and that which is to be protected by interposition of a material barrier.
EMSP can wear protective equipment; however, under critical situations, health providers require mobility, therefore a trade-off will exist.

7) Modify basic relevant qualities of the hazard.
Similar to strategy 8 and 2.

8) Make what is to be protected more resistant to damage from the hazard.
The rear compartment of an ambulance does not follow a crashworthiness standard. The compartment is not capable of withstanding the effects of a collision due to the lack of crumple zones which are designed into passenger vehicles [8]. If the rear compartment is design with such zones, the EMSP and patients will become more resistant to damages resulting from the crash.

9) Begin to counter the damage already done by the hazard.
When an EV is on call, constant electronic communication should be exchanged between dispatch and the EV. Therefore, if an EV is involved in a crash and the EMSP is unable to call it in, dispatch already knows and can send support to the scene.

10) Stabilize, repair, and rehabilitate the object of the damage.
By having an additional EV on-call if the first one is involved in a crash can assist in stabilizing injuries that resulted due to the readiness of the second EV to report to the scene of the crash.