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Soybean Planting Date and Delayed Planting

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We are into the fourth year of a soybean date planting trial at Crookston investigating how two different relative maturity soybean varieties respond to planting date. Results for 2006 - 2008 show maximum soybean yield when planting in the May 1 - 15th window of opportunity. Previous planting date trials from the University of Minnesota also show an optimum planting window of May 10 - 20 to achieve maximum yield (Table 1).

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Table 2 shows our past two years' yield results at Crookston. They compare very well with the University of Minnesota data listed in Table 1. We do not have mid to late June planting dates at the Crookston location and would suspect the yield reduction trends would be very similar as in Table 1.

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With later planting, expect some yield reductions, however the soybeans planted later should emerge from the soil much more rapidly with the warmer soil temperatures.

Soybeans are sensitive to day length for initiating flowering and maturity; these events are triggered by the length of the night or dark period. When varieties are planted before the middle of June, flowering is triggered by shorter days after June 21. For each three to five day delay in planting, flowering and maturity are delayed only about one day. Therefore if you plant the same variety on May 10 and June 10 the blooming and maturity of the later planting is delayed about 6 to 10 days. This happens regardless of the maturity of the variety. If planting is going to be delayed to June 10, consider changing maturity a half a relative maturity group earlier than full season. Be aware you will lose about 1% of maximum production per day with delayed planting after June 1st.

Additonal references

2008 On-Farm Cropping Trials Northwest and West Central Minnesota
Soybean Relative Maturity and Planting Date Influence On Optimal Yield

2007 On-Farm Cropping Trials Northwest and West Central Minnesota
Soybean Relative Maturity and Planting Date Influence on Optimal Yield

2006 On-Farm Cropping Trials Northwest and West Central Minnesota
Soybean Relative Maturity and Planting Date Influence on Optimal Yield


Author: Russ Severson, Extension Educator - Crops. Regional Extension Office, Crookston

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