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June 2013 Archives

Small Grains Disease Update 06/27/13

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It may have taken some time to get in to the fields this year, but the small grains crops are now roaring away in the warmer weather. The earliest seeded fields are rapidly approaching heading and with that decisions about whether to use fungicide at anthesis are now front and center.

Tan spot still appears to be the most prevalent disease with incidence up to 74% in scouted fields. If fields were sprayed earlier for this disease, new growth should be assessed to check that it remains free and clear of lesions. Research has shown that, if a fungicide was used at the time of weed control, a fungicide application to suppress Fusarium head blight or scab at anthesis (Feekes 10.51) will generally provide adequate control of tan spot for the remainder of the season. Nonetheless, scout the crop when the flag leaf is fully extended (Feekes 9) to see how aggressively tan spot has moved up through the canopy as about half the days these past two weeks have being favorable for tan spot infections. This is especially important for later seeded fields. If the disease progress is keeping pace with the crop development and lesions can be found on the penultimate leaf at Feekes 9, it is probably warranted to spray a fungicide at Feekes 9 and protect he flag leaf. Fungicide options for the Feekes 9 and Feekes 10.51 timing can be found here.

Cereal aphids continue their march from the southern part of the state steadily northwards. There are now reports of Barley Yellow Dwarf virus (BYDV) in the southern part of the state and so it is very important to scout for these aphids. There is no control method for BYDV other than controlling aphid populations. For a discussion on how to scout for, and control these aphids, please refer this article put together by the State Extension Entomologists Ian MacRae (Uof M) and Janet Knodel (NDSU).

The symptoms of BYDV can be variable depending on growth stage, crop, and variety. Look for stunting of plants (more common in early infections) and yellowing of leaves starting from the tip of the leaf and working down either edge. There may also be red to purple discolorations which are particularly common in oats. Because of our late planted crop, it is at more risk this year from early infection of BYDV which will have a greater impact on yield. Remember there will be about a 1 to 2 week delay before you are to see BYDV symptoms after infected aphids have fed on the plant.

There have also been a few reports of leaf rust in the southern part of the state. At the moment these cases remain isolated but it is important to scout now for these rust diseases. Infection by leaf rust typically occurs at about 64°F with the best development occurring at 68-77°F. The risk models point to slightly less favorable conditions for leaf rust development compared to tan spot to date, but recent rains and next week's weather forecast point to more favorable conditions for leaf rust development.

As we move towards anthesis we need to be thinking about control of FHB. For this, products such as Prosaro, generic Folicur and Caramba need to be applied at anthesis (Feekes 10.51). Unlike for the other fungal diseases, the decision to spray a fungicide at anthesis to suppress FHB is driven by weather-based risk assessment models. The scab diseases forecast tool can be found at http://mawg.cropdisease.com, http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/cropdisease/, and http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/. Currently the risk models have been trending at low risk for infection for all but the HRSW varieties that are rated very susceptible to FHB. The warm weather and high dew points increased the risk for these varieties to a moderate risk for infection these past few days.

Madeleine Smith and Jochum Wiersma

Small Grains Update 06/27/13

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It may have taken some time to get in to the fields this year, but the small grains crops are now roaring away in the warmer weather. The earliest seeded fields are rapidly approaching heading and with that decisions about whether to use fungicide at anthesis are now front and center.

Tan spot still appears to be the most prevalent disease with incidence up to 74% in scouted fields. If fields were sprayed earlier for this disease, new growth should be assessed to check that it remains free and clear of lesions. Research has shown that, if a fungicide was used at the time of weed control, a fungicide application to suppress Fusarium head blight or scab at anthesis (Feekes 10.51) will generally provide adequate control of tan spot for the remainder of the season. Nonetheless, scout the crop when the flag leaf is fully extended (Feekes 9) to see how aggressively tan spot has moved up through the canopy as about half the days these past two weeks have being favorable for tan spot infections. This is especially important for later seeded fields. If the disease progress is keeping pace with the crop development and lesions can be found on the penultimate leaf at Feekes 9, it is probably warranted to spray a fungicide at Feekes 9 and protect he flag leaf. Fungicide options for the Feekes 9 and Feekes 10.51 timing can be found here.

Cereal aphids continue their march from the southern part of the state steadily northwards. There are now reports of Barley Yellow Dwarf virus (BYDV) in the southern part of the state and so it is very important to scout for these aphids. There is no control method for BYDV other than controlling aphid populations. For a discussion on how to scout for, and control these aphids, please refer this article put together by the State Extension Entomologists Ian MacRae (Uof M) and Janet Knodel (NDSU).

The symptoms of BYDV can be variable depending on growth stage, crop, and variety. Look for stunting of plants (more common in early infections) and yellowing of leaves starting from the tip of the leaf and working down either edge. There may also be red to purple discolorations which are particularly common in oats. Because of our late planted crop, it is at more risk this year from early infection of BYDV which will have a greater impact on yield. Remember there will be about a 1 to 2 week delay before you are to see BYDV symptoms after infected aphids have fed on the plant.

There have also been a few reports of leaf rust in the southern part of the state. At the moment these cases remain isolated but it is important to scout now for these rust diseases. Infection by leaf rust typically occurs at about 64°F with the best development occurring at 68-77°F. The risk models point to slightly less favorable conditions for leaf rust development compared to tan spot to date, but recent rains and next week's weather forecast point to more favorable conditions for leaf rust development.

As we move towards anthesis we need to be thinking about control of FHB. For this, products such as Prosaro, generic Folicur and Caramba need to be applied at anthesis (Feekes 10.51). Unlike for the other fungal diseases, the decision to spray a fungicide at anthesis to suppress FHB is driven by weather-based risk assessment models. The scab diseases forecast tool can be found at http://mawg.cropdisease.com, http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/cropdisease/, and http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/. Currently the risk models have been trending at low risk for infection for all but the HRSW varieties that are rated very susceptible to FHB. The warm weather and high dew points increased the risk for these varieties to a moderate risk for infection these past few days.

By Dan Martens, Extension Educator, Stearns-Benton-Morrison Counties

I am posting links here to May 16 and June 6 Hay Auction Summaries for the Mid American Quality Tested Hay Auction at Sauk Centre Minnesota. It shows lots sold, grouped by hay and bale type and quality, along with straw and corn stalks sold.

May 16, 2013 SC Hay Auction.pdf

June 6 2013 SC Hay Auction.pdf

History of Selected Lots 2012 2013.pdf  Medium Square Alfalfa in 25 RFV point groups from 101 to 200 RFV, Grass Hay 5-9% Protein and Medium Square Straw. A "season long average" has been calculated.

Graph 2001 to 2013 SC Hay Auction.pdf  Averages of each auction through the season since 2001

Mid-American Hay Auction will conduct an extra auction on July 11 and August 1.

Read further for more information about Hay Markets, Late Planted Forage Options, Etc. Take a look on MN Crop News Articles on Cover Crops, Fallow Syndrome, other 2013 issues. 


 


By Lizabeth Stahl and Jill Sackett, Extension Educators

 

The challenging spring of 2013 resulted in wide-spread planting delays across the state and a significant amount of acres that remain unplanted at this time.  If the decision has been made to take the "prevented planting" option for insurance purposes, the question remains about what to do with these acres.  Leaving the ground bare greatly increases the risk of not only soil erosion, but also the risk of "Fallow Syndrome" the following year. 

Late Planted Forage Crop Options

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by Dan Martens, Stearns-Benton-Morrison Counties
Some farmers have been still trying to plant corn for silage or other forage crops to meet feed needs for dairy and beef cattle. Recent rain has made a mess of these efforts again recently.
One of the more recent field trials done to look at Late planted forage crop options was done in Pelican Rapids and Rosemount in 2002 and 2003. I am posting a report of that study here.

Late planted forage trial 02 03.pdf

University of Wisconsin Extension has also dealt with this issue over the years. You might find some additional useful information at

http://www.uwex.edu/ces/forage/articles.htm





By Daniel Kaiser and John Lamb
Extension Soil Fertility Specialists

Many of our earlier planted fields in Minnesota have been exhibiting some significant variation in plant growth and yellowing this spring.  Our conditions in May and early June have been less than favorable for corn growth and for the release of nutrients from organic matter.  Due to the heavy rains nitrogen loss is being increasingly questioned and the decision of whether to side-dress or not will need to be made sooner or later.  There are a few considerations to make when deciding if more nitrogen should be applied.

by Dan Martens, Extension Educator, Stearns-Benton-Morrison Counties
Posted Originally June 13 Evening
; UPDATE June 14 about 9:45 a.m. Note to watch potential insect issues.

The "PDF" document listed here is information from field observations and lab tests we have so far from June 13. We may get a couple more reports on Friday and then I will aim to update the PDF posted here later in the day on Friday. I will note the UPDATE time.  

Alfalfa Field Data June 13 2013.pdf

The weather clearly drives decisions now. Making the best of it still counts. Weather looks a LITTLE more hopeful.

Wide Swath? Maybe not THAT wide. Regional Extension Educator Doug Holen offered today that farmers have told him that with wet soil conditions, they lay the swath as wide as they can without driving on it. Pressing hay into soft ground is not a good deal, nor is tracking mud up on the swath. Thanks, Doug... and farmers who shared this.

Alfalfa Weevil? Could be. There are a couple of notes at the end of the June 13 Field Data pdf related to alfalfa weevil larva (AWL) and potato leafhoppers. We should be on the watch for both through second crop harvest. AWL could be an issue with second crop regrowth.  There is a growing degree day monitoring map for AWL. Local conditions could vary. Take a look at:

Thermal Models for insect pests. The full URL is http://www.soils.wisc.edu/uwex_agwx

For more information about using and interpreting information from alfalfa scissors-cut sampling or in using PEAQ sticks, go to:

www.extension.umn.edu/forages/harvesting.html

LATE AND PREVENTED PLANTING: Check other news items posted here for links to a wider variety of information about late and prevented planting issues. Corn silage is still the best forage option for any of the corn silage that people still need to plant for the coming year.


By Robert Koch, Extension Entomologist

On June 11, 2013, we found soybean aphids on soybean at the Rosemount Research and Outreach Center near Rosemount, MN. Not many beans were out of the ground there, but in the two fields we sampled, we found aphids. We sampled one commercial soybean field at the VC growth stage (unifoliate leaves unfolded) and found 7.5% of plants infested with 1 to 9 aphids on each infested plant. The other field we sampled was a small plot trial, also at the VC growth stage, and had 10% of plants infested with 2 to 3 aphids on each plant.

by Dan Martens, Extension Educator, Stearns-Benton-Morrison Counties
Posted Originally June 10 Evening

UPDATED JUNE 11 8pm... NO UPDATES June 12

The "PDF" document listed here is information from field observations and lab tests we have so far from June 10. We may get a couple more reports on Wednesday and I will aim to update the PDF posted here later in the day on Wednesday. I will note the UPDATE time.  

Alfalfa Field Data June 10 2013.pdf

The weather clearly drives decisions now. Even where we are beyond some of the quality goals on some farms, It still all counts in a market or feedbunk. There are a couple of notes related to that at the end of the report.

For more information about using and interpreting information from alfalfa scissors-cut sampling or in using PEAQ sticks, go to:

www.extension.umn.edu/forages/harvesting.html

LATE AND PREVENTED PLANTING: Check other news items posted here for links to a wider variety of information about late and prevented planting issues. Corn silage is still the best forage option for any of the corn silage that people still need to plant for the coming year.

Volunteer Corn: It's More Than a Weed Control Issue

By Lizabeth Stahl, Extension Educator - Crops

Volunteer corn has become one of the more prevalent weeds in fields across the Midwest. Conditions experienced in 2012, however, have combined to create almost a perfect storm in some fields for potentially high volunteer corn populations in 2013.

by Dan Martens, Extension Educator, Stearns-Benton-Morrison Counties
Posted Originally June 6 about 10 p.m.
UPDATED JUNE 7 about 4:30 p.m. Added Wanderee info.
UPDATED JUNE 10 Evening. Added Dreier and Hoen

The "PDF" document listed here is information from field observations and lab tests we have so far from June 6. We will likely get a couple more reports on Friday and I will aim to update the PDF posted here later in the day on Friday. I will not the update time.  

Alfalfa Field Data June 6 2013.pdf

It's seems to be pretty much a weather game now. There might be a site here and there that has some room to grow and mature on the RFV scale for milk cow hay, more so to the north. I'd guess a lot of it across the Stearns-Benton latitude and south is ready. Beef and heifer hay raisers have some time. Some of our grass hay will be ready to go for better quality too when the sun comes out long enough to get at it. Some people might be calling around to see if there's someone in the neighborhood who can bale and wrap hay or make use of other options on some farms. The rainy weather pattern makes this difficult. When the weather allows harvest, it will be important to follow harvest and storage practices to make the best of the crop.

For more information about using and interpreting information from alfalfa scissors-cut sampling or in using PEAQ sticks, go to:

www.extension.umn.edu/forages/harvesting.html

LATE AND PREVENTED PLANTING: Check other news items posted here for links to a wider variety of information about late and prevented planting issues. Corn silage is still the best forage option for any of the corn silage that people still need to plant for the coming year.





By Dave Nicolai, IAP Program Coordinator

The 2013 Field School for Ag Professionals will be held on July 30 - 31 at the University of Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station, St. Paul Campus, University of Minnesota. The St. Paul Campus (located in Falcon Heights, MN next to the Minnesota State Fairgrounds at Larpenteur and Gortner Ave) is this year's site for the Field School for Ag Professional which is the summer training opportunity that combines hand-on training and real-world field scenarios that no winter program can offer.  The two-day program focuses on core principles in agronomy, entomology, weed and soil sciences on the first day to build a foundation for participants and builds on this foundation with timely, cutting-edge topics on the second day.

Snow, rain, mud, now what?

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crop news late plant  pic 4.jpg

The weather has put us in a bind. Significant amounts of planting have yet to be completed, which has led to questions on the "correct" course of action. There will be no one "correct" course of action and with fields unsuitable for planting and more rain in the forecast there will be no easy decisions. One choice could be to utilize prevented planting, a choice that is appropriate for some and will lead to many other decisions to be made. A second option is to switch corn acres to soybeans; this may also be a wise and appropriate decision for some acres. Remember when planting soybeans after June 10th it is generally recommended to drop 0.5 RM from your typical full season varieties. The final choice is to stay the course and plant corn, a perfectly viable option for some acres.
A full set of delayed planting resources can be found at: http://z.umn.edu/lateplanting

by Dan Martens, Extension Educator, Stearns-Benton-Morrison Counties
Posted Originally June 4 about 11 a.m.
UPDATED 5 PM JUNE 4
UPDATED 4:15 JUNE 5

The "PDF" document listed here is information from field observations and lab tests we have so far from June 3. We will likely get a couple more reports on Wednesday and will update again Wednesday afternoon as needed.l will note accordingly. 

Alfalfa Field Data June 3 2013.pdf

We're in the ballpark with some fields where people could look for a weather opportunity to harvest milk cow quality hay, depending on feed needs and ration strategies. Hay growers will consider past experience with fields, livestock, and the weather in checking field and making harvest decisions. The rainy weather pattern makes this difficult. When the weather allows harvest, it will be important to follow harvest and storage practices to make the best of the crop.

For more information about using and interpreting information from alfalfa scissors-cut sampling or in using PEAQ sticks, go to:

www.extension.umn.edu/forages/harvesting.html


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