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Extension > Yard and Garden News > Archives > September 2012 Archives

September 2012 Archives

September 15, 2012

Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture


Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare)

Karl Foord

Photo 1: Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare)

Sweet William (Dianthus barbatus)




Karl Foord


Photo 2: Sweet William (Dianthus barbatus)



Indian Blanket (Gaillardia pulchella)




Karl Foord


Photo 3: Indian Blanket (Gaillardia pulchella)


Flowering Plant Video Library - Fruit Trees

Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture

Sour Cherry, Pie Cherry (Prunus cerasus 'Northstar')

Karl Foord

Photo 1: Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus 'Northstar')


Canadian Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis)




Karl Foord


Photo 2: Canadian Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis)



Grapes (Vitis spp.)




Karl Foord


Photo 3: Grapes (Vitisspp.)



Apples I: Dwarfing Rootstock and Pruning (Malus domestica)

Karl Foord

Photo 4: Dwarf Apple (Malus domestica)

Apples II: Pest Management (Malus domestica)

Karl Foord

Photo 4: Pears (Pyrus communis)

Pears (Pyrus communis)

Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture


Turtlehead (Chelone lyonii)

Karl Foord

Photo 1: Turtlehead (Chelone lyonii)

Boneset (Eupatorium maculatum)




Karl Foord


Photo 2: Boneset (Eupatorium maculatum)



Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)




Karl Foord


Photo 3: Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)


September 3, 2012

In this issue of the Yard and Garden News:

Spotted Wing Drosophila Update

Basil Downy Mildew Found in Minnesota

Downy Mildew on Impatiens Drops Leaves across Minnesota

Flowering Plant Video Library - Late Summer Flowering Bulbs

  • Lavender Globe Lily & Curly Garlic Chives (Allium spp.)

  • Autumn Lily - Late Summer Flowers (Lycoris squamigera)

  • Lavender Globe Lily (Allium tanguticum 'Summer Beauty')

  • Blackberry Lily (Belamcanda chinensis)

  • Flowering Plant Video Library - Late Summer Flowering Annuals
  • Flowering Tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris)

  • Cleome or Spider Flower (Cleome hasslerana)

  • Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis)

  • Flowering Plant Video Library - Late Summer Flowering Perennials
  • Joe-Pye Weed (Eupatorium purpureum 'Gateway')

  • Hardy Hibiscus, Rose Mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos 'Blue River II')

  • Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorus)

  • Lesser Calamint (Calamintha nepeta)

  • Flowering Plant Video Library - Miscellaneous Grasses III
  • Prairie Cordgrass, Sloughgrass (Spartina pectinata)

  • Karl Foerster Feather Reed Grass (Calamagrostis x acutiflora 'Karl Foerster')

  • Prairie Dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis)

  • Dwarf Forms of Prairie Dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis 'Tara' and Morning Mist')

  • Prairie Blues and Carousel Little Bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)

  • Flowering Plant Video Library - Miscellaneous Grasses II
  • Bottlebrush Grass (Elymus hystrix)

  • River Oats Wood Oats (Chasmanthium latifolium)

  • Elijah Blue Fescue Grass (Festuca glauca 'Elijah Blue')

  • Silver Spike Grass (Achnatherum calamagrostis)

  • Tufted Hair Grass (Deschampsia cespitosa)

  • Flowering Plant Video Library - Miscellaneous Grasses I
  • Fireworks Fountain Grass (Pennisetum setaceum 'Fireworks')

  • Blue Grama Grass (Bouteloua gracilis)

  • Blue Lyme Grass (Elymus arenarius)

  • Heat Damage to Blue Lyme Grass (Elymus arenarius)

  • Flowering Plant Video Library - Sedges
  • Creeping Broadleaf Sedge (Carex siderosticha 'Variegata')

  • Variegated Muskingum Sedge (Carex muskingumensis 'Oehme')

  • Bunny Blue and Silver Sceptre Sedges

  • Ice Dance Variegated Sedge (Carex morrowii 'Ice Dance')

  • Palm Sedge (Carex muskingumensis)

  • Rhizomatous vs. Bunching Sedges

  • Flowering Plant Video Library - Switch Grasses
  • Ruby Ribbons Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum 'Ruby Ribbons')

  • Cloud Nine Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum 'Cloud Nine')

  • Panicum Frosted Explosion (Panicum elegans 'Frosted Explosion')

  • Huron Solstice and North Wind Switch Grass

  • Flowering Plant Video Library - Miscanthus
  • Little Fountain Miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis 'Kleine Fontaine (Little Fountain)'

  • Zebra-banded Miscanthus

  • Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus)

  • Cautions about the Invasive Character of Miscanthus

  • Distinguishing Types of Zebra Banded Miscanthus

  • Spotted Wing Drosophila Update

    Jeffrey Hahn, Asst. Extension Entomologist

    Jeff Hahn

    Photo 1: Spotted wing drosophila female on blackberry

    Since the presence of spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii was first confirmed in Minneapolis at the beginning of August (see August 15, 2012 Yard and Garden News, ), there have many reports of this fruit fly in other parts of the state. As of the end of August, SWD has been confirmed in 11 counties and suspected in another three, ranging as far north and west as Alexandria (Douglas County) and down to the southeast corner of the state.

    Although SWD was found for the first time this year, it is possible that it had been present in Minnesota a year or two earlier but at levels to low to be detected. Regardless of when it first appeared in Minnesota, it is likely that the abundance we experienced this year was the result of spring weather that literally carried up large numbers of SWD on storm fronts. We have seen a variety of other insects this year that were likely influenced by weather patterns blowing them up to Minnesota including insects that we would not normally see in such large numbers (e.g. variegated cutworm) and insects that normally don't occur in Minnesota all (e.g. genista broom moth)

    Jeff Hahn

    Photo 2: Spotted wing drosophila damaged blackberries

    SWD attacks many types of ripening, thin-skinned, soft fruit, especially cane fruit, like raspberries and blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, grapes, cherries, and plums. There has been some question about whether they will attack tomatoes but it is doubful tomatoes are attractive to them. If you have a garden with any of these fruits, there are not a lot of options for protecting them this late into the season. The primary control is treating the adults when they are first present to prevent them from laying eggs in the fruit. Once fruit is infested, you can not effectively treat the larvae as they are protected inside the produce. Infected fruit becomes soft and decays and sometimes becomes discolored. When you probe into the fruit, you can usually see the small white maggots that are responsible.

    There are some cultural control steps you can take to help minimize SWD. First, pick the berries frequently when they are ripening. Remove and destroy any overripe or obviously infested fruit. Don't place infested produce into compost piles as they will likely be able to complete their life cycle and emerge as adults. It is better to place them in plastic bags tightly tied shut and thrown out. You could also place infested fruit in clear plastic bags and leave them in the sun; the heat should kill them if left out for 12 - 24 hours. You could also freeze them, making sure that the fruit is frozen for a long enough period to kill the maggots.  Burying is not a good option as adults can still emerge even when buried down to 12 inches.

    Even fruit that looks fine could be infested. Use your discretion as to whether you save or dispose of this produce. Should you inadvertently eat infested fruit, ingesting the maggots is not harmful to people. Using apparently uninfested fruit for cooking should not be a problem; any flies that are present would not survive the process.

    Bob Koch - MN Dept. of Ag.

    Photo 3: Spotted wing drosophila larvae (maggots) in damaged fruit


    SWD overwinters as an adult. It is unclear whether they can survive a Minnesota winter. This fly was not detected in Wisconsin in 2011 after it had been first found there in 2010. That could bode well for us but time will tell what kind of a problem we will face with SWD. It will be important to set up traps and survey for them in 2013.

    If you encounter flies or maggots in fruit that you suspect are SWD, contact the Minnesota Department of Agriculture's "Arrest the Pest" hotline at 1-888-545-6684 or Arrest.the.Pest@state.mn.us. Please note the location and date of collection for the specimen.

    For more information on SWD, see also the University of Minnesota's VegEdge web page.



    Basil Downy Mildew found in Minnesota




    M. McGrath, Cornell University, Bugwood.org


    Photo 1: Angular leaf yellowing caused by downy mildew on basil



    Michelle Grabowski, University of Minnesota Extension Educator

    Downy mildew of basil has been officially reported in Ramsey and Washington counties in Minnesota. This new disease was first reported in Florida in 2007. Since then it has spread to many more states.

    Basil downy mildew is caused by the pathogen Peronospora belbahrii. This pathogen thrives in warm, humid conditions. It can move into the garden in infected seed or transplants or as airborne spores.

    Plants infected with basil downy mildew first display yellowing of lower leaves. Upon close examination, gardeners will notice that the yellowing appears to occur in sections restricted by major veins. This causes a blocky or angular yellow sections on the leaf. If the lower surface of the leaf is examined, dark colored spores can be seen as a dirty looking fuzz that grows directly below the yellow sections of the leaf. A small magnifying glass may be useful in viewing these spores. As the disease progresses, infected sections of the leaf turn dark brown to black and leaves may fall off.

    M. Grabowski, UMN Extension

    Photo 2: severe damage on basil caused by downy mildew

    Basil downy mildew appears to only infect basil (Ocimum sp.). Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, is highly susceptible to the disease. Ornamental or exotic basil (Ocimum citriodorum and Ocimum americanum) can be infected by basil downy mildew but symptoms are less severe than in sweet basil. More information about susceptibility of common basil varieties can be found at the Cornell University webpage.


    Symptoms of basil downy mildew can easily be confused with several disorders including nutrient deficiency and sunscald. It is therefore important for the disease to be confirmed by a laboratory examination. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture requests that suspected cases of basil downy mildew be reported to the Arrest a Pest Hotline at onlinne at Arrest.the.Pest@state.mn.us or by phone at 1-888-545-6684.

    M. McGrath, Cornell University, Bugwood.org

    Photo 3: Gray sporulation of downy mildew on the loser surface of infected basil leaves

    Gardeners do not have many management options available this late in the growing season. Healthy leaves can be harvested and eaten. Infected plants should not be brought indoors to overwinter. Bury or burn infected plant debris. In 2013, gardeners should inspect all basil transplants for symptoms prior to purchase. Grow a less susceptible variety of basil like Lemon, Blue Spice or Thai basil.

    Downy Mildew on Impatiens Drops Leaves Across Minnesota

    Michelle Grabowski, University of Minnesota Extension Educator

    M. Grabowski, UMN Extension/p>

    Photo 1: Impatiens infected with downy mildew

    Earlier this year we warned gardeners to be on the look out for downy mildew on impatiens. As we anticipated the downy mildew pathogen is here in Minnesota and many gardeners are now observing symptoms of this disease. Impatiens that have yellow lower leaves or look like naked stems due to leaf drop should be closely inspected. Downy white growth on the lower surface of the leaves can be used to confirm the disease. For more information about downy mildew on impatiens visit our previous disease alert.

    Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

    Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture

    Lavender Globe Lily & Curly Garlic Chives (Allium spp.)

    Karl Foord

    Photo 1: Curly Garlic Chives (Allium spirale)


    Autumn Lily - Late Summer Flowers (Lycoris squamigera)

    Karl Foord

    Photo 2: Autumn Lily Flowers (Lycoris squamigera)


    Lavender Glove Lily (Allium tanguticum 'Summer Beauty')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 3: Cleome or Spider Flower (Cleome hasslerana)



    Blackberry Lily (Belamcanda chinensis)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 4: Blackberry Lily (Belamcanda chinensis)



    Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

    Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture

    Flowering Tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 1: Flowering Tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris)


    Karl Foord

    Photo 2: Flowering Tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris)

    Cleome or Spider Flower (Cleome hasslerana)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 3: Cleome or Spider Flower (Cleome hasslerana)



    Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis)

    Karl Foord

    Photo 4: Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis)

    Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

    Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture

    Joe-Pye Weed (Eupatorium purpureum 'Gateway')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 1: Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium purpureum 'Gateway')


    Hardy Hibiscus, Rose Mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos 'Blue River II')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 2: Hardy Hibiscus Rose Mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos 'Blue River II)



    Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorus)

    Karl Foord

    Photo 3: Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorus)

    Lesser Calamint (Calamintha nepeta)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 4: Lesser Calamint with Sweat Bee (Calamintha nepeta)





    Karl Foord


    Photo 5: Lesser Calamint with Honeybees (Calamintha nepeta)


    Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

    Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture


    Prairie Cordgrass, Sloughgrass (Spartina pectinata)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 1: Prairie Cordgrass, Sloughgrass (Spartina pectinata)


    Karl Foerster Feather Reed Grass (Calamagrostis x acutiflora 'Karl Foerster')

    Karl Foord

    Photo 2: Karl Foerster Feather Reed Grass (Calamagrostis x acutiflora 'Karl Foerster')


    Prairie Dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 3: Prairie Dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis)



    Dwarf Forms of Prairie Dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis 'Tara' and Morning Mist')

    Karl Foord

    Photo 4: Dwarf Prairie Bluestem: 'Tara' left, 'Morning Mist' right (Sporobolus heterolepis)


    Prairie Blues and Carousel Little Bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 5: Prairie Blues Little Bluestem ( Schizachyrium scoparium 'Prairie Blues')





    Karl Foord


    Photo 6: Carousel Little Bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium 'Carousel')


    Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

    Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture

    Bottlebrush Grass (Elymus hystrix)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 1: Bottlebrush Grass (Elymus hystrix)


    River Oats Wood Oats (Chasmanthium latifolium)

    Karl Foord

    Photo 2: River Oats, Wood Oats (Chasmanthium latifolium)


    Elijah Blue Fescue Grass (Festuca glauca 'Elijah Blue')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 3: Elijah Blue Fescue (Festuca glauca 'Elijah Blue')



    Silver Spike Grass (Achnatherum calamagrostis)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 4: Silver Spike Grass (Achnatherum calamagrostis)



    Tufted Hair Grass (Deschampsia cespitosa)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 5: Tufted Hair Grass (Deschampsia cespitosa)


    Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

    Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture


    Fireworks Fountain Grass (Pennisetum setaceum 'Fireworks')

    Karl Foord

    Photo 1: Fireworks Fountain Grass (Pennisetum setaceum 'Fireworks')

    Blue Grama Grass (Bouteloua gracilis)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 2: Blue Grama Grass - early flowering (Bouteloua gracilis)





    Karl Foord


    Photo 3: Blue Grama Grass - mature seed heads (Bouteloua gracilis)



    Blue Lyme Grass (Elymus arenarius)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 4: Blue Lyme Grass (Elymus arenarius)



    Heat Damage to Blue Lyme Grass (Elymus arenarius)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 5: Heat damage to Blue Lyme Grass (Elymus arenarius)


    Flowering Plant Video Library - Sedges

    Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

    Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture


    Creeping Broadleaf Sedge (Carex siderosticha 'Variegata')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 1: Creeping Broadleaf Sedge (Carex siderosticha 'Variegata')



    Variegated Muskingum Sedge (Carex muskingumensis 'Oehme')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 2: Variegated Muskingum Sedge (Carex muskingumensis 'Oehme')



    Bunny Blue and Silver Sceptre Sedges




    Karl Foord


    Photo 3: Bunny Blue Spreading Sedge (Carex laxiculmis 'Bunny Blue')


    Karl Foord

    Photo 4: Silver Sceptre Sedge (Carex morrowii 'Silver Sceptre')

    Ice Dance Variegated Sedge (Carex morrowii 'Ice Dance')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 5: Ice Dance Variegated Sedge (Carex morrowii 'Ice Dance')



    Palm Sedge (Carex muskingumensis)

    Karl Foord

    Photo 6: Native Palm Sedge (Carex muskingumensis)


    Rhizomatous vs. Bunching Sedges

    Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

    Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture


    Ruby Ribbons Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum 'Ruby Ribbons')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 1: Ruby Ribbons Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum 'Ruby Ribbons')



    Cloud Nine Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum 'Cloud Nine')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 2: Cloud Nine Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum 'Cloud Nine')



    Panicum Frosted Explosion (Panicum elegans 'Frosted Explosion')

    Karl Foord

    Photo 3: Panicum Frosted Explosion (Panicum elegans 'Frosted Explosion')


    Huron Solstice and North Wind Switch Grass

    Karl Foord

    Photo 4: North Wind Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum 'North Wind')




    Karl Foord


    Photo 5: Huron Solstice Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum 'Huron Solstice')


    Flowering Plant Video Library - Miscanthus

    Karl Foord - Extension Educator, Horticulture

    Click on the link to see the video with host Dr. Mary Meyer, Professor of Horticulture


    Little Fountain Miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis 'Kleine Fontaine (Little Fountain)'

    Karl Foord

    Photo 1: Little Fountain Miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis 'Klein Fontaine (Little Fountain)'


    Zebra-banded Miscanthus




    Karl Foord


    Photo 2: Zebra-banded Miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis 'Zebrinus')



    Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus)




    Karl Foord


    Photo 3: Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus)


    Cautions about the Invasive Character of Miscanthus

    Karl Foord

    Photo 4: Invasive Miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis 'Malepartus')


    Distinguishing Types of Zebra Banded Miscanthus




    Karl Foord


    Photo 5: Zebra Banded Miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis 'Strictus')


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