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Pollinator Habitat

Karl Foord, Extension Educator - Horticulture

Karl Foord

Photo 1: Home landscape

Karl Foord

Photo 2: Home landscape

Karl Foord

Photo 3: Home landscape

Karl Foord

Photo 4: School landscape

Karl Foord

Photo 5: School landscape

Karl Foord

Photo 6: Business landscape

Karl Foord

Photo 7: Industrial landscape

Karl Foord

Photo 8: Industrial landscape

Karl Foord

Photo 9: Roadside setback for industrial landscape

Karl Foord

Photo 10: Undeveloped area

Karl Foord

Photo 11: Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) with bumblebee

Karl Foord

Photo 12: Hoary Vervain (Verbena stricta) with bumblebee

One of the factors in the decline of pollinators is the loss of habitat. To get a sense of this I took the position of a bee looking for forage. I drove my car from my house through my neighborhood in Chaska, Minnesota around the Chaska Middle School out to Hwy 41 and north toward Hwy 5 and the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum.

What I found in this casual survey was a preponderance of turf in the landscape. The homes had most turf surroundings with a few shade trees and low maintenance foundation shrubs. There were a few flowers to accent a rock or a mailbox. Often these plants were not attractive to pollinators such as daylilies. The businesses had turf and accented their signs with rocks and low maintenance plants. The industrial area was completely dominated by turf and shade trees, and contained no cultivated flowers.

The place where I found bee forage was in refuse areas or undeveloped areas. Here I found typical weeds such as thistle (Cirsium spp.), Queen Anne's Lace (Daucus carota), Bird's Foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) among others. I also found Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), Hoary Vervain (Verbena stricta), and Grey-headed Coneflower (Ratibida pinnata). The majority of bees including bumble bees and other natives were working the beebalm and the vervain, predominantly.

Incidently the richest area was the undeveloped area along Hwy 41. I was informed that this was destined to be developed.

As a bee searching for forage this is rather discouraging with the future looking even more bleak. All things considered it still looks like one of the more promising solutions is to follow Dr. Marla Spivak's exhortation to plant flowers and specifically those that provide nectar and pollen to our pollinators.

There are many subtle and complex interactions between plants and their pollinators.
Can our combined urban spaces be designed in such a way as to substitute for the loss of natural areas as we humans continue to expand?

I do not know. However, it is in our best interest to try. As Marla says, "Plant Flowers!".

Planting a "Smart Snacks" garden

Each year, the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum Education staff designs and plants a IMG_1761.JPGTeaching Garden on-site focused on programming about food with titles like "Veggies by the Yard", and "Grow A Healthy Handful". Interpretive signage is always important to provide walk-by learning to visitors. These programs and the signage as well as plant lists, construction details, and tips for teaching are made available as teaching materials to Extension Master Gardeners the following year.

With all the interest in protecting pollinators, coupled with the need for people to eat healthier, the "Smart Snacks" garden idea was born. It was IMG_1763.JPGtrialed in the Teaching Garden (now called the Extension Master Gardener Teaching Garden), and this year was made available to Master Gardener volunteers. Five signs highlighting specific messages were made available as well - how tomatoes are pollinated, growing plants for pollinators, healthy tomato stats. Plant lists included cherry tomatoes, verbena, basil, mint, zinnia - and photos of examples as well as resources for materials. Smart Snacks gardens can be planted anywhere including in a "pop-up garden" format planted in a collapsible "bag" pot placed on asphalt or cement. The goal? To get people planting to support their own snacking and that of pollinators!

I chose to plant my own Smart Snacks garden along our driveway in two raised beds / P1250824.JPGretaining walls each about 48" x 72". I had started planting pollinator-friendly plants last year: swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata), native bee balm (Monarda fistulosa), gayfeather (Liatris spicata), coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia), purple dome asters, and others. Early spring flowers include pigsqueak (Bergenia cordifolia), lily of the valley (Corvallis), beard tongue (Penstemon) and big root geranium (Geranium maculatum). This spring, I added elderberry, anise hyssop (Agastache), more bee balm, cherry tomatoes, and saw the milkweed had spread.

The Smart Snacks garden is successful. A variety of bees - native, bumble, honey - as well as P1250883.JPGsoldier beetles, monarchs, dragon flies, and moths come to roost and "snack" on nectar-rich plants and pollen. I, too, snack a bit on mints and cherry tomatoes, as I pass by. The best surprise were six monarch larvae on the swamp milkweed! I look forward to expanding my Smart Snacks garden annually into nearby beds.

For information on Smart Snacks gardens and planting for pollinators:
MN Landscape Arboretum: Smart Snacks Garden

U of M Bee Lab - Plants for Bees

MDA: Pollinators and their habitats

U of M Healthy Foods, Healthy Lives Institute

Thanks for listening! P1250793.JPG

We aren't always able to answer everyone's text'd questions on the air, so we try to post a few along with answers here in the Yard & Garden News blog. Remember that you can always visit the U of M Extension Garden website for loads of gardening resources.

Hope you join us and our host Denny Long every Saturday, 8-9am, on WCCO Smart Gardens and happy gardening!

From Dave in South St Paul:
My tomatoes are flat and rotting on the bottom. What causes this? I water at the base and they are in containers.

Answer: This is a condition called "blossom end-rot". It is the result of calcium deficiency in the developing tomato fruit. This does not necessarily mean there is not enough calcium in the soil though - just that plant is unable to acquire it. This is due to environmental conditions such as fluctuations in soil moisture, heavy applications of nitrogen fertilizer, and injury roots.
Read more ...

Question: Why do my squash and cucumbers always cross-pollinate? They are planted 15 feet apart.
It's typical for Curcubits varieties to cross-pollinate. They are in the same genus, they bloom at the same time and they are both pollinated by (usually) bees. Successful pollination produces a seed(s) and the tissue that surrounds it. It's important to note that this year's pollination will produce the seeds for next year's plants provided you save seed. Therefore, if you are planting seeds from a seed packet you purchased or transplants you purchased from a greenhouse, you should get the kind of squash / cucumber on the labeled. It's next year you  may get a variation on the original seed due to cross-pollination.

Question: I have had some success wintering begonias. Do you have suggestions for more success?

Answer: When you bring plants indoors for the winter, take this opportunity check them thoroughly for insects and insect eggs especially under the leaves. Wipe / rinse leaves, remove any signs of insects like webbing, and remove/dispose of dead leaves and flowers both on the plant and on the soil surface. Transplant into a clean pot with new potting soil. If the plants are large, consider cutting the plants back about 1/3 to just above a leaf node (a node is the point where a leave grows from a stem). Water and place in a sunny window. Begonias do not do well when over-watered, so check the soil about 2" down with your fingers before watering (recommended for all houseplants). and water if dry. You may find plants that are brought in from the out of doors will drop leaves initially. Remove the dropped leaves and continue watering as usual. Wait to fertilize when new growth appears with a complete fertilizer - 10-10-10 (N-P-K) or similar - at half the recommended strength.

Question: We want to seed about an acre. What type of seed do we use that takes, grows fast, and makes a great grass?

Answer: Choose a grass variety based on your conditions (the amount of light, soil type, moisture level) and based on the kind of activities for which you plan on using the area (sports, low-traffic, play area). Here is a good resource: Turfgrass Selection for Sustainable Lawns

You'll see from the Upper Midwest Home Lawn Care for Cool Season Grasses calendar that mid-August to mid-September is the optimal time for seeding your lawn. Seeding in this time period provides cooler temperatures, encourages germination, and enables the grass seed to form healthy roots before gradually going dormant for winter.

Question: Plum tree loaded with fruit. When is the best time to prune so the branches are not on the ground?

Answer: A good problem to have! Support the plum branches with sawhorses, PVC pipe, or other sturdy braces. Harvest the fruit as soon as it is ripe to reduce attracting pests like yellow jackets or birds damaging fruit. Then prune the tree when it is dormant - March or early April in Minnesota. See Stone Fruits for Minnesota Gardens for specifics on pruning including diagrams. Extension also has a great publication on pest management for stone fruits here.

Question: My Hydrangea doesn't have any flowers on it yet. Do they bloom every year?

Answer: Hydrangeas that are hardy in Minnesota typically bloom every year. Factors that can influence blooming include:

  • whether the plant is hardy in your zone (example: the Hydrangeas from a florist are not typically hardy for our landscapes);
  • weather issues such as late frosts that affect flower buds;
  • the amount of light the plant receives;
  • fertilization;
  • pruning techniques - some people prune off flower buds unknowingly;
  • whether the plant blooms on old or new wood;
  • animal damage such as deer browsing.

Some Hydrangeas are just starting to bloom now too. Without knowing the kind of hydrangea and the care you have given it, it's hard to say why your particular plant isn't blooming. However, we have had numerous people ask why their Endless Summer Hydrangea looks healthy, but doesn't bloom or bloom well. Here are some reasons: Why my Endless Summer Hydrangea didn't bloom

From Paul Cherba: I am getting powdery mildew on my lilacs. Or something white. What can I do about that?

Answer: Common lilacs often get powdery mildew at this time of year due to higher humidity levels. It's typically more cosmetic than detrimental to plant health, and the spores are common and windblown, so there isn't a way to avoid it now or any action to take. Fungicides are available to spray. They are most effective if used at the onset of the mildew (see publication reference below).

Choosing plants that are resistant to pests like powdery mildew is the best option for minimizing its affect. Spacing plants according the their mature size and pruning to increase light and air circulation through the canopy / shrub also is helpful. Prune lilacs within two weeks of flowering before they set flowers buds for next year. Watering at the base of the plant will help keep plant leaves free of water droplets that can hold bacterial and fungal spores. More on powdery mildew on lilacs.

Question: My impatiens were beautiful and now they have been snipped of their leaves and flowers with only stalks left.

Answer: If the leaves have been eaten (they are not lying on the ground), then I would say it was rabbit damage or deer damage. If the leaves have dried up and fallen off the plant, you may have a disease such as impatiens downy mildew. This is a relatively new pest for Minnesota gardeners that affects shade-loving impatiens Impatiens walleriana (not New Guinea impatiens). White fluffy growth forms on the underside of the impatiens leaves. There is no cure and the plants should be removed. Avoid replanting Impatiens walleriana in the same bed. Read more here.

Question: I plan on planting an Autumn Blaze maple where my hackberry once was. When is the best time to plant this?

Answer: Planting a diversity of trees is really important. Trees provide shade, habitat for birds, animals and beneficial insects, and create canopies that cool our landscapes and homes - not mention being beautiful and valuable additions to our landscapes. Late summer / early fall is a good time for planting trees, so right now! Cooler temperatures mean less heat stress on the new trees. Here's a helpful Extension publication on planting trees. Good luck!

Repairing Lawns Following Flooding

The month of June was a wet one. Many homeowners, grounds managers, and golf course superintendents are finally starting to see some of the flood waters recede, although standing water is still covering many of our landscapes. The University of Minnesota's Climatology Working Group is calling June of 2014 the wettest month on record. In the Twin Cities we saw 11.36 inches of rain for the month, almost 7 inches above average and falling just short of the 11.67 inch record set in 1874.

We are starting to see a wide range of damage to lawns and turfgrass throughout the state. In situations where standing water was present for greater than 7-10 days, the turf is almost certainly dead and will need to be repaired. Turfgrass covered for less time has a greater chance of recovery, but every situation is different. Unfortunately, there is not good information regarding how long turfgrass can survive under standing water because there are so many potential mechanisms of damage. These mechanisms can be separated into 2 groups: primary damage from waterlogging and secondary damage after the water has gone.

Primary damage includes such factors as water temperature and water depth. Water temperature will probably be the most important factor determining survival, with turfgrass death occurring in only a few days when water temperatures are 80 degrees F and higher (note: we did not see water temperatures this high during recent floods, unless it was very shallow and stagnant). When water temperatures are lower the turf can still die, with lack of oxygen being the primary culprit. If the turf is completely submerged, this will be a worse case than if some of the leaves and crowns are exposed.

Secondary damage might be associated with sediment buildup, fungal diseases, moss and algae, and weed infestation. While we have very little control over the primary mechanisms causing damage, now is the time to start thinking about how to reduce damage that could be caused by the secondary mechanisms. The primary disease you could expect to occur after flooding is pythium blight. Look for circular or irregular patterns of dead turf inside of healthy turf areas. For more information on pythium blight, follow this link to a fact sheet from Purdue University Extension: Pythium Blight. Remember that plant disease samples can be submitted to the University of Minnesota Plant Disease Clinic for correct identification and control recommendations. If you have confirmed that you lawn is infected with pythium or other diseases, I recommend contacting a lawn care contractor to carry out the control measures.

To this point I've been recommending that homeowners be patient and assess the damage as it presents itself. Turf that appears to be dead following the receding of flood waters should be monitored for several days; if no green tissue appears within 7-10 days, you can assume it is dead and should start forming a renovation plan. In many cases, you might be surprised with the amount of turf that recovers when the conditions are right. In situations where sediment or debris buildup has occurred, you will want to act fast to remove it. The previous Turfgrass Extension Educator, Bob Mugaas, wrote a great article addressing repair of areas where sediment has built up in the 2010 edition of the Yard and Garden News. That article can be found here: Repairing Flooded Lawns

Timing of repair can be difficult. The cool-season grasses that we grow in Minnesota do not establish well in the middle of the summer due to the high heat and diseases that may occur. If at all possible, I recommend waiting to seed until temperatures cool in the early fall around mid- to late-August. Fall seeded lawns will have a much better chance of a successful establishment. With that being said, recovery in the short term could be promoted by aerating your soil once it is dry and/or applying light rates of nitrogen based fertilizer.

Choice of turfgrass seed can be very important. If flooding is a common occurrence on your lawn, I would recommend Kentucky bluegrass over perennial ryegrass or fine fescues. The University of Minnesota Extension has numerous resources to help you in repair process. Please follow these links for more information:

Purchasing Turfgrass Seed

Finding the Right Grass Seed

Renovating an Existing Lawn

Lawn Diseases

Weed Control

Finally, feel free to reach out if we can be of help. You can contact me directly at: or 763-767-3518

Karl Foord, Extension Educator - Horticulture

Karl Foord

Photo 1: Native bee nesting site on U of MN St. Paul campus

Karl Foord

Photo 2: Native bee leaving nest to forage - nest hole lower right of photo

Karl Foord

Photo 3: Native bee nesting site on Como Ave. St. Paul

Karl Foord

Photo 4: Native bee navigating grass in front of nesting site

Karl Foord

Photo 5: Native bee approaching nest with pollen load

Karl Foord

Photo 6: Native bee nesting site - Purgatory Park, Minnetonka

Karl Foord

Photo 7: Native bees at hole entrances

Karl Foord

Photo 8: Bauer Berry Farm - Champlin, MN; Note each flag represents a single nest

Karl Foord

Photo 9: Nest entrance hole Bauer Berry Farm - Champlin, MN

One of the projects I am engaged in this summer is the identification and location of the nests of native bees. My partner in this effort is Heather Holm, who is the author of a recently published book entitled, "Pollinators of Native Plants". With additional help from Joel Gardner, a bee biologist and graduate student at the University of Minnesota, and Colleen Satyshur, the research coordinator at the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve, we have been able to identify a half dozen different nesting sites of ground nesting native bees. These sites have included areas on: 1) the University of Minnesota campus (Photos 1 & 2), 2) the front of an apartment complex on Como Avenue in St. Paul (Photos 3, 4 & 5) , 3) Purgatory Park, Minnetonka (Photo 6 & 7), 4) a pick-your-own blueberry farm in Champlin Minnesota (Photo 8 & 9), 5) a pick-your-own blueberry farm in Maiden Rock, Wisconsin, and 6) a residence in Chaska.

These sites had several features in common. There was a degree of exposed soil and the areas were mostly untended e.g. ignored or left alone. The fact that these areas are undisturbed by human activity is a critical feature. However, this also means that the areas might not meet the standards of tidiness and neatness often embraced by most urban and suburban neighborhoods.

My upbringing left me with the impression that areas with exposed dirt and perhaps a few weeds were the sign of a slovenly, lazy person. One who did not care enough about their own property to maintain the unspoken but expected standard of tidiness. One key aspect of this standard seems to be a weedless dark green lawn.

The lawn is an English invention indicating aristocratic status. In essence a demonstration that the owner could afford to keep land not being used for buildings or food production.

Wealthy families in America began mimicking such English landscaping styles in the late 1700's. The first lawnmowers were invented in the 1830s in England. The subsequent improvement of these machines permitted middle-class families to imitate aristocratic landscapes and grow finely trimmed lawns in their back gardens.

Jump to the 20th century and behold the increased value of a home through landscaping and its most prominant feature - the well manicured lawn. Maintaining such a lawn may require fertilizers, pesticides, and gasoline powered mowing and maintence equipment as well as water, depending on location.

The University of Minnesota Turf program is searching for ways to reduce the environmental impact of lawns through drought-tolerant, slower growing species as just one of their approaches.

It was the interest in native bees and their nesting sites that has had me reconsider the negative associations associated with some open ground and untidy areas. I now consider such areas to be an important and purposeful part of my landscape, as it provides nesting sites for native bees.

For what used to be an eyesore, is now a place of beauty when occupied by our fascinating native pollinators.

Perhaps it is time to reconsider lawns in terms of their benefits and ecological impacts.

Two Early Flowering Plants for Bees

Karl Foord, Extension Educator - Horticulture

Karl Foord

Photo 1: Andrenid bee approaching Golden Alexander's flower

Karl Foord

Photo 2: Andrenid bee on Golden Alexander's flower

Karl Foord

Photo 3: Two different Andrenid species on Golden Alexander's

Karl Foord

Photo 4: Bombus griseocollis on Blue False Indigo

Karl Foord

Photo 5: Bombus griseocollis on Baptisia australis

Karl Foord

Photo 6: Brown-belted Bumble Bee queen on Blue False Indigo

One of the keys to have a great pollinator garden is to have different types of flowers available for the pollinators at different times of the year. Two early flowering favorites of mine are Golden Alexanders (Zizia aurea) and Blue False Indigo (Baptisia australis).

Golden Alexander's flowers are shallow and easily accessed by small bees with short tongues such as the Mining Bees (Andrenid spp.) shown in photos 1 - 3.

Blue False Indigo flowers are much more difficult to access by small bees but are easily accessed and preferred by bumble bees. The bee in photos 4 - 6 is a Brown-belted Bumble Bee queen (Bombus griseocollis).

Damaged Lawns: Steps to Bringing Some Life Back

Sam Bauer, UMN Extension- Turfgrass Science
Spring Damage
The grass-growing season is in full swing, and for some of you this means repairing turfgrass areas that were impacted by winter injury. By now, it should be apparent which areas of your lawn were damaged (but not killed) from winter stresses and which areas will not recover from winter injury. Plants that are slowly recovering, suffered damage only to the leaves and are able to produce new leaves during the spring. Practices such as removing dead leaf tissue and fertilizing will help expedite the recovery of these areas. In contrast, plants that are dead suffered damage to the crown tissue (survival organ of turfgrasses) and will need to be renovated and repaired. The goal of this post is to provide you with information on the different types of winter stresses that effect turfgrass plants and the cultural practices that can be used to minimize winter injury. In addition, a step-by-step outline of the recovery/renovation process is provided.

Repairing dead turfgrass on a yearly basis can be both time and labor intensive and is an unnecessary added expense. Therefore, one of the first steps to minimizing winter injury is to identify the primary cause of damage. In Minnesota, damage detected in the spring may be attributed to several different stresses that the turfgrass is exposed to during winter months. Specifically, there are five main stresses associated with low temperatures and each has the potential to cause damage and/or death of your lawn. Crown hydration is associated with elevated temperatures (above freezing) and results in an increase in water content of the turfgrass plant. This can be lethal if hydrated tissues are then re-exposed to freezing temperatures causing ice crystals to rupture cells in the leaves and crown. Desiccation causes severe dehydration of plant tissues due to lack of snow cover or inadequate moisture and is generally a problem on elevated areas exposed to wind. Prolonged ice cover can also be damaging to lawns by creating an impermeable layer above the turf resulting in a depletion of oxygen and a build up of gasses that are toxic to lawn grasses. Additionally, grasses can die simply from exposure to low temperatures; however, damage associated with temperatures at or below freezing is minor during winters with adequate snow cover. Finally, snow molds are a common occurrence in Minnesota and winter damage associated with these diseases occur every year. For more information on snow molds, visit this article by Michelle Grabowski: Altogether, these stresses can occur individually or as a complex to cause damage that potentially could be lethal to the turfgrass in your lawn.

Along with the five mechanisms causing winter injury to lawns, there are also many other abiotic stresses that occur throughout the spring period. Salt loading from the use of de-icing salts commonly causes damage to turf along roadsides, sidewalks, and driveways. Primarily, these salts cause severe desiccation of leaf and crown tissue and ultimately result in death of the turfgrass plant. By the time the salts are leached through the soil profile with spring rains, most of the damage has been done. In addition to deicing salts, dog urine spots can kill grass from the high salt content and can cause excessive growth due to nitrogen in the urine. Mechanical damage caused by snowplows, mowing too early, and power raking early in the season can also result in areas of turfgrass that need to be repaired in the spring.

Preventing/minimizing winter injury is a yearlong process and involves knowing your lawn and carefully considering the maintenance practices utilized to maintain the turfgrass. For example, in areas that frequently accumulate standing water, core aeration will help with water infiltration as snow melts in response to warming temperatures. Overall, this will reduce the potential for crown hydration and ice crystal formation along with helping to prevent the establishment of an impermeable ice layer. An additional consideration is fertility, specifically associated with the application of nitrogen. Snow molds are more common on lush, succulent turf, and a heavy application of nitrogen in the fall could promote damage caused by snow molds. In addition, succulent turf is more prone to injury attributed to exposure to temperatures at or below freezing. Keep in mind that as summer transitions into fall keep the cultural practices implemented have a direct impact on the survival of turfgrass plants throughout the winter and into spring.

Steps for Recovery
Providing the right conditions for your lawn to thrive is the most important component of a good recovery program. While it's up to Mother Nature to supply the main ingredients, maintenance practices should focus on creating the optimum growing environment for the turfgrass species in your lawn. The following steps outline the processes required for repairing damaged/dead areas of your lawn and also cover factors to consider for managing the overall health of turfgrasses.

1. Choose a mixture of grass to be planted. This is also where the choice of seeding or sodding comes into play. Sod is good for situations where you desire instant turf cover and quick stabilization. With sod, your species and variety options will be limited because not all grasses form an acceptable sod. Kentucky bluegrass is the standard for sod in Minnesota due to its high aesthetic quality and extensive rhizomes that aid in holding the sod together. Recently, fine fescues have been included in specific sod mixtures for the use on roadsides because of their good performance in high salt environments. This sod also makes a great low maintenance option for home lawns. A list of suppliers of this sod can be found here:
Sod must be watered daily (more frequently in heat and drought) for the initial week, in the absence of rain. Watering should be focused on wetting the sod and the underlying soil; however, after roots emerge from the sod, irrigation should be less frequent in order to encourage further root growth. Seed should generally be watered multiple times a day lightly. The trick here is to keep the surface moist during the germination period. Excessively wet conditions will cause deterioration of seed and seedlings, and encourage turf diseases and weeds. Remember to avoid watering when precipitation is sufficient.
For help finding the right grass species and seed, visit these resources:

Turfgrasses for Minnesota lawns

Finding the right grass seed

Purchasing turfgrass seed

2. Prepare the area for seeding or sodding. No matter which method of establishment you've chosen, preparation of the surface will generally be the same. The surface should be smooth, weed-free, and not compacted. If seeding into existing grasses, a slit-seeder or vertical mower can be beneficial to ensure good seed to soil contact, but be sure not to plant the seeds too deep (1/4" would be the maximum depth to plant seed). In addition, aeration followed by seeding can also be very successful. For sod, removing existing vegetation and smoothing the surface should prepare areas. The thickness of sod is generally around 1.5 to 2" and this should be accounted for when preparing an area to be sodded. In addition, soil tests can be conducted at this time to determine nutrient status and unfavorable conditions in your soil. Soil samples can be submitted to the U of M Soil Testing Laboratory

3. Apply fertilizer and/or soil amendments as determined by your soil test. If you don't have a soil test, a general recommendation for establishment of seed or sod is to apply a starter fertilizer (high phosphorus, ex. 10-20-10) at a rate of 1lb phosphorus per 1000ft.sq. If the fertilizer in the example is chosen, this would also supply 0.5lb of both nitrogen and potassium. If applying fertilizer only, you have the option to put it down before or after seeding, or above or below sod.

4. Plant seeding or install sod. For seed, be sure to check the seed label for the proper rate. Kentucky bluegrass should be seeded at 1.5 to 2lb per 1000ft.sq, whereas fine fescues should be seeded at 4 to 5lb. Seed can be applied by hand, or preferably with a drop-type spreader. Rake the seed lightly into the soil surface. If sodding, take care to tightly pull the sod seams together. The seams of sod rolls should be staggered in a brick like pattern to avoid channels for water movement. And sod should be installed perpendicular to slopes.

5. TLC. This last step is one of the most important for successful establishment of your new grass. Particularly, moisture content of the surface and soil will be a major determining factor on the recovery rate of those damaged or dead areas. The amount of water necessary for turfgrass establishment varies greatly and depends on factors such as soil type, air temperature, and whether the area has been seeded or sodded. Consequently, monitoring the newly renovated area(s) is key to ensuring that irrigation isn't being over or under applied.

We see sod die and seedlings lost from both over- and under-watering. Unfortunately, there's no general formula for success from a watering standpoint. For seed, the surface should be maintained moist like a sponge. During hot and dry periods this might mean watering 3-4 times per day with 0.05 to 0.10" each time. As seedlings emerge, the amount and frequency of watering can be reduced and this typically occurs approximately 1 to 2 weeks after seeding. For sod, irrigation should be frequent during the first couple of days; however, this should be reduced in order to encourage rooting into the underlying soil. Sodded lawns will benefit greatly from several core aerations in the initial years.

A follow-up fertilizer application can be applied around 2 weeks after seeding to encourage establishment and density. Sod can be mown rather quickly, possibly even a week after being installed if using a hand-operated mower. Larger mowers can damage sod if they are used too soon; before operating large equipment on sod, check to be sure the sod is rooted into the soil. Seeded areas can be cut just as the grass starts to grow beyond the desired height of cut, generally 2.5 to 3" for lawns. Getting seeded areas mown soon will help to reduce weeds and encourage density in the turf, be sure to use lightweight equipment.

By using these five steps you should be able to recover even some of the worst lawn situations. Remember, choose the right plant for the right place and maintain balanced moisture. These are the most important factors throughout the recovery process.

Where's the Redbud Bloom?

Over the past 30 years, Minnesotans have enjoyed many mild winters. But the winter of 2013-2014 was a return to the winters of yore. In many parts of the state, the past winter was the coldest in either 35 or 78 years and it is a winter that will be remembered for long persistent periods of very cold temperatures. The persistent cold allowed deeper than normal frost penetration in soils even though snowfall was heavy and just as persistent as the cold temperatures. No matter what statistics you look at - lowest temperatures recorded in the state, average monthly temperature, number of days Minnesota reported the coldest temperature in the nation, amount and persistence of snow cover, soil frost depth, windchill conditions, number of nights with 0 degrees or lower - they all add up to one long, cold, snowy, difficult-to-live-through winter.
The past winter also took its toll on trees and shrubs. Winter burn on evergreens and salt damage on roadside white pines were severe. With the arrival of spring, cold injury to plants that are marginally hardy in Minnesota showed up. Vegetative damage can be seen in most of the repeat-blooming shrub roses whose canes died back to the ground. These plants are now busy sending up new canes from their crowns. Because repeat-blooming roses produce flower buds on this year's canes, these plants will still be able to bloom throughout the summer.

K. Zuzek, UMN Extension

Photo 1: Eastern redbud flower

D. Hansen, MN Ag. Exp. Stn.

Photo 2: Eastern redbud without flower bud winter injury

Winter injury to flower buds occurred among other plant species. Among marginally hardy plants that have been introduced to Minnesota from warmer climates, flower buds are often less hardy than vegetative parts such as leaf buds and stems. An example of this type of injury from the past winter is being seen on eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis). Eastern redbuds are small trees with lavender pink pea-like flowers that open to cover tree canopies in May before heart-shaped leaves expand. Flower buds formed during the growing season of 2013 should have provided us with beautiful bloom this spring. Some redbuds in the heart of the Minneapolis/St. Paul did bloom. But thanks to our low winter temperatures the more common scenario, especially in suburbs surrounding the Twin Cities and in colder outstate locations, was flower bud mortality and lack of bloom.

K. Zuzek, UMN Extension

Photo 3: Eastern redbud with flower bud winter injury

Redbuds are not native to Minnesota. Their native range extends throughout much of the eastern half of North America. In the Midwest, the range extends only as far north as southern portions of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Nebraska. The species is considered hardy to Zone 5 where average minimum temperatures fall between -10 degrees F and -20 degrees F, meaning it lacks the cold hardiness needed to survive and perform well in almost all of Minnesota. But decades ago a large number of redbud seedlings were planted at the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum and Horticultural Research Center. Some of these proved hardy enough for use in Minnesota landscapes. Over the last 20 years, seed from these trees have been collected each year and plants grown from this seed are sold as the Minnesota strain of redbud. Even with the improved hardiness of the Minnesota strain, redbud bloom is not 100% reliable and in the most severe of winters (such as the winter of 2013-14) flower buds are killed by low winter temperatures. Cold injury to eastern redbud flower buds used to be more common so that lack of bloom occurred every 4 or 5 years. With winter temperatures trending warmer over the last several decades, redbud bloom has been so much more consistent that this year's lack of bloom may seem unusual to all but the oldest few generations of Minnesota gardeners.

Mary Meyer, Extension Horticulturist

Mary Meyer

Figure 1: Ostrich fern background, maidenhair fern foreground

Mary Meyer

Figure 2: Gooseneck loosestrife has almost comical flowers

Mary Meyer

Figure 3: Northern seaoats' flowers are pendulous and easily self-seed

Mary Meyer

Figure 4: From left 'Northwind', Warrior', 'Thundercloud', and Cloud 9' Switchgrass

My backyard is at the bottom of a slope that easily floods when we have a 'rain event' of a few inches. The water can even stand in this area for 12-24 hours - fatal for some plants. To make matters worse, the soil is sandy, so when rain is scarce, the soil is bone dry- again fatal again for some plants. I have three tough perennials that have lived well in this area, all of which are shade tolerant: ostrich fern, Canada anemone and gooseneck loosestrife. All three of these plants have aggressive rhizomes that have helped them to live in this difficult site. I believe all of these plants will grow well in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 3. However, northern seaoats will only live as an annual, but it will self-sow enough to come back each year.

Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) is a tough native fern (photo 1). Some people may think the ostrich fern is too tough, with its rhizomes and substantial root system. I love the soft feathery fronds and the fact that it will tolerate standing water and survive droughts. In the driest years, the plants are shorter, the rhizomes do not spread, and the plants die back prematurely. In wet years, it begins very aggressively and grows into the adjacent lawn. I transplant it to other shady locations where I want it to grow. The fertile fronds are stiff, much shorter and still standing in the spring when I break them off and push them into the ground as a standing border for the sedge planting that is up the hill under the box elder. This acts as a border signaling my husband where to mow the lawn and not the sedges.

Canada anemone (Anemone canadensis) is another tough native that easily can be too aggressive due to creeping rhizomes. However, the tough conditions of this site keep it in bounds. It is a sea of 1-2 foot tall white flowers in the spring. The foliage is often confused with wild geraniums, but the single white flowers have a cluster of yellow stamens, typical of the buttercup family, and lack the beak-like style of geraniums. Canada anemone foliage makes a thick ground cover that competes well with other weeds, even buckthorn seedlings!

Gooseneck loosestrife (Lysimachia clethroides) is a 2-3 foot tall perennial native to China (photo 2). I am adding it anyway because it has lived in this tough situation as few other plants would. It also has aggressive rhizomes. In dry years the plants are short and do not spread at all, while In wet years it is tall and robust. I step on it to keep it in bounds as I go to the compost pile, or edge it with the lawn mower. The gooseneck flowers are fun to look at and a delight in floral arrangements. It is one plant that blooms regardless of weather conditions.

Other plants (grasses are my favorites!) that I could add in this site are:

Wood oats or Northern seaoats (Chasmanthium latiflium) (photo 3) are native to south central U.S. and marginally hardy in zone 4. This grass self-seeds and although one plant may die, another will likely come up on its own. This is a bunch grass, with no rhizomes. It has the best flowers for dried arrangements and will last for years if picked early before the seeds are fully developed. The pendulous flowers are flat and beautiful in the fall when they turn bronze and yellow. This grass is native in wooded areas along river banks and it prefers wet sites where it can grow to 4 feet. In drier sites it may only be 2 feet tall. A newer form 'River Mist' is yellow and white striped, much shorter e.g. 18 inches, and has only lived as an annual for me.

Prairie cordgrass or slough grass (Spartina pectinata) is a larger, 4-6 foot tall, long-leaved grass for wet sites that will tolerate standing water and lakeshores. Native to prairies and often found in roadside ditches, slough grass has creeping rhizomes ideal for binding lakeshores. This grass is large and coarse, good for larger sites. In areas containing only cattails or reed canarygrass, prairie cordgrass can be added to increase diversity. An ornamental form of prairie cordgrass ('Aureomarginata') has yellow stripes on the foliage and creeping rhizomes. Prairie cordgrass prefers full sun conditions, but can grow in light shade.

Native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is in almost every roadside ditch across Minnesota. Many ornamental forms are available; we are trialing 17 of these at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum Grass Collection (Photo 4). Plan to come in September and pick your favorite. The 2014 Perennial Plant of the Year ('Northwind') was selected by the Perennial Plant Association for its 5 foot tall, stiff upright form and olive green foliage. 'Shenandoah' (4' tall) and 'Ruby Ribbons' (2' tall) both have red foliage and flowers. "Cheyenne Sky' is purple and red and grows to 4 feet tall. Most switchgrass plants will tolerate wet soils quite well. They are taller in wet sites and shorter under dry conditions. Switchgrass is a bunch grass and does not have creeping rhizomes, however, it can self-seed readily. Switchgrass prefers full sun conditions and will only tolerate very light shade.

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