Analyzing journal article by SABRINA TAVERNISE
Sabrina Tavernise takes a scientific approach to the issue, with inclusion of some review of the literature, and relevant history. Comparing the beginnings of the inquiry into education gap issues from the 1950s and 60s, the Kairos is set by introducing the importance of the original purposes of education. With the initial development of education as a "great equalizer" of society, facilitating the American Dream of hard work providing an opportunity for social movement.
The American Dream argument is an appeal to emotions and values in the readership. American culture holds dear this fundamental societal value, and one way of framing and explaining social changes can be demonstrated via the effect it has on formerly held beliefs about the way society should operate. If society values the opportunities of the American Dream, and that dream is no longer available, the impact of the issue can be understood more acutely.
An ethos appeal is particularly important for this issue, particularly this election year, because there are political buzz-words like "distribution of wealth" and "the rich, poor gap" that instill defensive and unwavering beliefs based on political extremes. By making an appeal to their senses of values and emotions, the logical fallacies that may fall on deaf ears can be better countered.
With their ethos argument setting the stage, the core argument is one of logos: logical in nature. Reardon and Colleagues at Yale (2011) and Baily, Dynarski, (2011) both provide important developments in the literature to both inform and help frame responses to this issues. Both found that the gap in achievement based on socioeconomic class has increased by 40-60% over 3-4 decades. They also note that the racial gap has shrunk considerably.
Furthering their logos argument, the article also identifies stepping stones of those differences. They point out that "affluent children spend 1,300 more hours than low-income children before age 6 in places other than their homes, their day care centers, or schools (anywhere from museums to shopping malls). By the time high-income children start school, they have spent about 400 hours more than poor children in literacy activities, she found," effectively explaining some possible source differences causing the gap. It provides readers with a comfortable, understandable explanation, without alienating them by creating blame on any party.
There are very few claims in the article; The article points out that the socioeconomic achievement gap is widening, the racial inequality of achievement gap is narrowing, and that these issues need to be considered. Its is effective in its claim because it focuses on strong support from a variety of angles for their issue, and does not alienate readers with excessive numbers or excessive depth of claims.