Immigration in the news: Obama immigration reform speech, 1/29/13
Native American Populations and Depopulation: Arrival of Spanish, French, and Dutch in the 1500s led to slavery, warfare, and massive depopulation (see Menard essay on immigration as an "invasion" and "one of the great demographic catastrophes of human history")
-"Virgin Soil Epidemic" - indigenous populations had no immunities to protect them from European-born diseases like smallpox, scarlet fever, typhoid, chicken pox, diptheria, etc.
-"Ecological Imperialism": Initial mass depopulation made it easier to conquer America/Native Americans; pandemics are disastrous not only because of population decimation, but also because of the impact on cultural and religious practices, interruption of crop planting, etc.
1500: 5 M people in North America
1800: 600,000 to 1M
European Colonialism of the Americas
English Colonies in North America
Colonial Settlers to the New World
Indentured Servants: More than 50% of immigrants to the middle and southern colonies entered as bound labor (see Moraley)
African Slave Trade
-9-10M African slaves forcibly taken to the Americas; 400,000 to English colonies
-The "Middle Passage" (see Equiano); Est. 15% percent of those embarked did not survive the 3 week voyage; 1/3 more died in their first year of enslavement
-Slaves in the Colonies: 1790-1810 = Peak years of U.S. slave trade (c. 190,000 slaves arrive; 399,000 - 523,000 total arrive in British North America from 1701-1870