-By class (Coolie Act of 1862 and Foran Act of 1885)
-By gender (only "moral" women allowed to enter)
-By sexual orientation ("mentally defective," "sexually deviant" in 1917, 1952, 1965 Immigration Acts)
"Same-Sex Couples Granted Protection in Deportations," New York Times, September 28, 2012
"Gay couples left out of immigration plan," SF Chronicle, February 21, 2013
Race Theories: 19th Century Scientific Racism
-The use of "scientific" methods to investigate the differences between the races often supported or validated the belief that there was a hierarchy of superior and inferior races
-"Pseudo-scientific" methods were used to "prove" the innate differences and abilities of certain races by measuring skulls to determine cranial size. This was supposed to be a measurement of intelligence
-Science was used to justify white supremacy, eugenics (selective breeding) movements, apartheid
-These theories also argued that race was tied to intellectual abilities, physical abilities, and certain characteristics, values, and attributes.
-Thus, different races had different intellectual abilities, characteristics, etc. Some were more intelligent; some were savage.
-And that these differences were innate and fixed. (i.e. one could not learn to be moral if one's race was more prone to criminal behavior; one could not assimilate into another culture if their race was so different from that host culture).
Exclusion by Race
Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
-Excludes Chinese laborers for a period of 10 years; explicitly allows only 5 "exempt" classes to enter: students, teachers, merchants, travelers, and diplomats. First time in U.S. history that the U.S. bars a specific group of immigrants based on race and class. 1882 Immigration Act excludes lunatics, idiots, persons likely to become public charges and places a head tax on all immigrants
1907 "Gentlemen's Agreement"
-"Gentlemen's Agreement" between Japan and U.S. ends immigration of Japanese and Korean laborers; has one loophole - it allows migration of family members
South Asian Immigration and the 1917 Immigration Act
-Immigration Act creates the "Asiatic Barred Zone" (all of Asia except for the Philippines, China, Japan, and Korea) from which all immigrants are excluded. Also excluded are illiterates, persons of "psychopathic inferiority," men and women entering for immoral purposes, alcoholics, stowaways, and vagrants
European Immigration and the 1921 and 1924 Quota Acts
-1921--Quota Act limited European immigration to 3 percent of the number of foreign-born people of each nationality residing in the United States in 1910. The act was designed to limit the immigration of southern and eastern European immigrants, whose populations had been much smaller in 1910. By the same token, the act was designed to favor the immigration of northern and western European immigrants who had as a group already been a large presence in the United States in 1910. Though the numbers of southern and eastern European immigrants decreased greatly after 1921, nativists pushed for even greater restrictions.
-1924--National Origins Act passed. Border Patrol established. Reduced the percentage admitted under Quota Act from 3 to 2 and moved the census date from 1910 to 1890, when southern and eastern European immigrants had yet to arrive in large numbers. All "aliens ineligible for citizenship" (i.e. Asian immigrants) are excluded, but no numerical limitations placed on immigrants within the Western Hemisphere (allowing Canadians and Mexicans to keep on entering)