March 2013 Archives

Apr. 3: Latinos - Exploring Changing Demographics

Apr. 1: 1965 Immigration Act

Senate group resolves key issues on immigration reform, March 31, 2013, Reuters

Cold War/Civil Rights
-Cold War/Civil Rights - how did the Cold War affect domestic civil rights? and new attitudes about immigration?
-President John F. Kennedy and his Nation of Immigrants book

1965 Immigration Act
Abolished the restrictive national origins system originally passed in 1924
Gave priority to "family reunification" so that U.S. citizens and permanent residents could sponsor the following types of immigrants in this order of preference:
1. Unmarried children under 21 years of age of U.S. citizens
2. Spouses and unmarried children of permanent residents
3. Professionals, scientists, and artists "of exceptional ability"
4. Married children over 21 years of age and their spouses and children of U.S. citizens
5. Siblings and their spouses and children of U.S. citizens
6. Workers in occupations with labor shortages
7. Political refugees
Each country in the eastern hemisphere was given a quota of 20,000
Countries in the western hemisphere would not be subject to any quotas (quotas added later)

New Immigration - Total Number of Immigrants Admitted by Country, Continent, 1971-2002

Asia: 7.3M
Philippines: 1.5M

North America: 9.8M
Mexico: 5.1M

Europe: 3.3M
South America: 1.5M


Definition of Hispanic or Latino Origin Used in the 2010 Census
"Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.

More than half of the growth in the total population of the United States between 2000 and 2010 was due to the increase in the Hispanic population.


  • In 2010, there were 50.5 million Hispanics in the United States, composing 16 percent of the total population

  • Between 2000 and 2010, the Hispanic population grew by 43 percent--rising from 35.3 million in 2000, when this group made up 13 percent of the total population.


New Immigration - the Case of Filipinos
-Fled recessive government regime of Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines (1965-85) controlled the media, legislature; corruption and arrest of dissidents
-U.S.-Philippines post-colonial relationship facilitates migration
-"Brain Drain" phenomena of migration

"Brain Drain" from the Philippines to U.S.
-Best and brightest leave due to lack of opportunities; creates cyclical problems; country has less ability to fix fundamental economic, political, and social problems that spur emigration in the first place
-"The Learning" (POV)
-"Leaving home for greener pastures"
-"Working in Baltimore"

Bracero Program and "Operation Wetback"

Bracero Program, 1942-1964
-Wartime labor shortage in the U.S. led to bi-lateral agreements between U.S. and Mexico to legalize and control Mexican migrant laborers on short-term labor contracts
-Program began as a temporary war measure, but it became a fixture of agricultural work landscape until it was finally terminated in 1964.
-More than 4.6 million Mexican nationals were legally contracted for work in the United States (some individuals returned several times on different contracts)

Bi-lateral agreements set forth: Guaranteed minimum wage of 30 cents per hour; Humane treatment of workers; Housing, medical care, provisions

In reality, many laborers faced a range of injustices and abuses: Substandard housing; Discrimination; Unfulfilled contracts; Unpaid wages

Significance:
--Largest and most significant "Guest worker program"
--Braceros served as a foundation for contemporary Mexican immigration and Chicano communities
--Example of civil rights abuses, debate over immigration and race
--Serves as a model for contemporary discussions over labor and migration

"Operation Wetback," 1954
-Massive deportation campaigns began in 1950
-Aggressive targeting of persons of Mexican origin
-Mass deportations into the interior of Mexico
-From 1950 to 1953, apprehensions doubled from 470k to 840k
-South Texan farmers and ranchers resisted new aggressive tactics because it disrupted their supply of undocumented workers; it also challenged their position of authority in the borderlands (Hernandez, 159)

1954 Program
-Grew from already established deportation practices
-Massive, paramilitary law-enforcement campaign that involved raids in workplaces, restaurants, public places
-More than 1M deported during the year (Operation was officially a four week project)
-Many U.S.-born children of Mexican braceros were wrongly repatriated along with their parents

Opportunity or Exploitation: The Bracero Program, Smithsonian Institution (text and photographs)
Interview with Juan Loza, Bracero History Archive [make sure you have selected "Full View" in the upper right hand corner to get full English transcript of interview]
Excerpts from the Oral History of Juan Loza.docx

World War Two

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Why were Japanese Americans Interned?
Long-standing racial prejudice in both countries
Increased Yellow Peril fears, 1930s
----fear of Japanese espionage
----fear of Japanese invasion
----loyalty of Japanese Americans questioned
War Hysteria
Politics, not National Security

Pearl Harbor
Reflections on Pearl Harbor
Interview with Daniel Inouye
-Increased anxiety about national security after attack
-Anti-Asian and commercial associations in U.S. and Canada demand action
-West coast leaders push for internment
-Rationale for "military necessity" - removal of Japanese is necessary for security of Pacific Coast

Executive Order 9066
"Military Necessity" Rationale
-Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt
-"Gov. Olson (California) Wants All Japs Moved," San Francisco News, 3/6/42
-"Their Best Way to Show Loyalty," San Francisco News, 3/6/42

Resources
Timeline


Internment Experiences

Memories of Evacuation
Interview of Mits Inaba
Interview with Joseph Ichiuji

Legal Challenges
--Yasui, Hirabayashi, Korematsu

Service in the U.S. Military

--Interview with Young Kim
--Draft Resisters

After the War
--Resettlement
--Redress Movement


Links
Ansel Adams's Manzanar photographs, collected at the Library of Congress
Frank Emi, Leader of Heart Mountain Draft Resisters, Dies at 94, LA Times Obituary
Frank Emi, Obituary in Rafu Shimpo
Interview of Lily Fujimoto
Interview with George Matsui
Short Film - "Volunteering from Camp"
Yasutake Family Story
Short Film of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team's Rescue of the "Lost Battalion"

Mar. 13: "Becoming American"

America as a "Melting Pot"
Crevecoeur (1782)
-Impurities would be melted off; all old world traits would be abandoned
-Fusion of all men would create a new American (like a new alloy); the end result would be better together than the separate components on their own
-"New American" reflected confidence in the power of the 18th-19th century American environment to "transform" a "new race of men"
-Conformity is key
-Racially exclusive; Non-whites are not included in this vision

Israel Zangwill (1908)
-U.S. = "American symphony" that is free from prejudice and hatred
-Immigrants must let go of old-world hatreds and customs and conform
-Pot melts European immigrants, even southern and eastern Europeans

Henry Ford (1910s)
-The Ford English School (est. 1914) taught the company's immigrant workers how to speak English, American culture, history, and values (thriftiness, cleanliness, good manners, timeliness) in order to foster "good" workers and "good" Americans

Assimilation (Anglo-Conformity, 1910s-1960s)
-Promoted subordination of immigrant cultural values and customs, American holidays, civic rituals, and the English language
-Emphasized the rejection of ethnic customs, native language, etc.
-Goal was to emulate the cultural traits of white Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPS)
-Took the form of heavy-handed Americanization campaigns

Americanization
-Pres. Teddy Roosevelt: "No hyphenated Americans" (1910s)

"Cultural Pluralism"
-Dominant theory today, with roots in early 20th century
-Celebrates the coexistence of many cultures, without any one culture dominating the region.
-Philosopher Horace Kallen's (1882-1974) idea of "nation of nations" (1910s) - each ethnic and cultural group in the United States had a unique contribution to make to the variety and richness of American culture

The End of Formal Racism, 1960s
-The Civil Rights laws (Civil Rights Act of 1965, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Immigration Act of 1965) ended formal discrimination in the United States

How do we understand race today?
-Do we live in a "post-racial" society?
-Race is not biological or inherent, but race still matters. [Michael Omi and Howard Winant study how ideas about race became constructed and formed; "the socio-historical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed"]

Immigration and the meaning of "American" in recent U.S. history
-1972 - President Richard Nixon give speech at the Statue of Liberty to dedicate the new American Museum of Immigration (appeal to white ethnics against backdrop of antiwar protests & African American demands for civil rights)
-1992 - "On the Pulse of Morning," Poem by Maya Angelou, 1992 Inauguration of President Bill Clinton
-2013 Pres. Barack Obama's inaugural address - immigration reform as a fulfillment of equality and civil rights

Extra Credit

Students can earn extra credit in this class by attending out-of-class events and writing a 1-2 page summary of the event and what you learned. Events must be approved by Prof. Lee and relate to U.S. immigration history.

Students can attend up to 2 events per semester for a total of 2 points (1 per event and summary). These points will be added to the paper grades. (i.e. a paper receiving 83% can be increased to 84% with an extra credit point).

Summaries should be type-written and handed in to Prof. Lee in class no later than one week after the event.

March 6: Mexican Immigration

Immigration News

"Net Migration from Mexico Falls to Zero--and Perhaps Less" Pew Research Hispanic Center, April, 2012
"Long Border, Endless Struggle," New York Times, March 2, 2013
"Mexican Immigrants in the US," Migration Policy Institute Report, March, 2013


Colonizing the U.S. Southwest
-Texas vs. Mexico
-Texas Republic, 1836U.S.-Mexico War (1846-1848) results in annexation of northern half of Mexico (CA, AZ, NM, NE, UT, CO)
-75,000 Mexicans nationals living in ceded territory come under the jurisdiction of the United States
-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo outlined general protections, but many were not followed
-Not "migrants", but subjects of conquest
-"We didn't cross the border, the border crossed us."

Immigration from Mexico

-1900-1930: <1 M migrate to the U.S.
-Why did they leave? (Economic inequality, natural disasters, Mexican Revolution (1910-1920))
-Conditions in the U.S. (U.S.-Mexico borderlands, Southwest economy)
-Who were they? (male laborers)
-Entry at the border: "benign neglect" policies at the border; no Border Patrol until 1924

Mexican Immigration and Race

-"ideal workers"
-"Mexican jobs" vs. "American jobs"
-"Ideal immigrants"

Mon. March 4: Angel Island

Immigration News

Virtual March Will Push for Immigration Changes, New York Times, Feb. 25, 2013
Mass Release of Immigrants Is Tied to Impending Cuts, New York Times, Feb. 25, 2013

Angel Island helps us answer an essential and timely question:

-Is the U.S. a "nation of immigrants" that welcomes newcomers and helps them to achieve their dreams?
-Or is it a "gatekeeping nation" that builds fences and detention centers to keep out aliens it identifies as undesirable and dangerous (and unfit to become an American)?
-The history of immigration through Angel Island tells us that the United States is both.

-Mainly a processing center for European immigrants, Ellis Island enforced American immigration laws that restricted, but did not exclude, European immigrants.
-In fact, one of the goals of Ellis Island was to begin the process of turning European immigrants into naturalized Americans.
o Only 20% of immigrants applying for admission through NY were detained on EI
o 98% were admitted
o Most spent only a few hours or at most a few days there

-Angel Island, on the other hand, was the main port of entry for Asian immigrants and was characterized by American immigration policies that excluded Asians and barred them from becoming naturalized citizens.
o 60% of immigrants entering through San Francisco went to Angel Island;
o 76% of all Chinese applicants went to Angel Island; 38% non-Asians
o Detention time, especially for the Chinese, was measured in weeks and months
o After long legal battles and long detentions, 93% of Chinese were admitted

One million people processed through San Francisco (1/2 million entered and 1/2 million departed).
-They came from eighty countries around the world.
-Non-Asians made up 1/3 of immigrants between 1915 and 1920; 15% after 1924.
-300,000 detained at Angel Island.
- 100, 000 Chinese
- 85,000 Japanese
- 8,000 South Asians
- 8,000 Russians and Jews (500 refugees in 1939-40)
- 1,000 Koreans
- 1,000 Filipinos
- 400 Mexicans
Their diversity meant different immigrant experiences on Angel Island, because up until 1965, U.S. immigration policies treated individuals differently according to their race, class, gender, and nationality.

-Men and women were treated differently, as were people of different classes, but race was the most important factor shaping different immigration laws and immigrant experiences on the island

Angel Island is a window into the American past and sheds new light on America's conflicted relationship with immigration, a story that continues today.
- It is the story of men, women, and children who crossed the Pacific Ocean and traveled north from South America to establish new lives in the United States.
- It is also the story of harsh and discriminatory immigration laws and of immigrant perseverance.
- And it is a story of a place that became a gateway to America, forever changing the lives of immigrants and America itself.


-Immigrants also reacted to their detentions on Angel Island in different ways

"Immigrant Voices," Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation

"Discovering Angel Island: The Story Behind the Poems"

"US History Preserved on Angel Island"

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