Apr. 15: SE Asian Migrations & "The Latehomecomer"

1975 Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act
-Pres. Ford established Interagency Task Force (IATF) in April, 1975 to coordinate federal activity concerned with evacuation and resettlement of Vietnamese refugees.
-Most refugees admitted on a "parole" basis on emergency basis.
-Allocates federal funds to assist with relocation and resettlement for refugees
-1977 Amendment allows permanent legal residence in the United States for certain refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia or Laos

Refugee Act of 1980
-First comprehensive refugee legislation in U.S. history-Designed to ease process and centralize admissions
-Set annual quota for refugees at 50,000 (which actually slowed the entrance of SE Asian refugees)
-Ended parole system, decentralized the process, and turned states into main caretakers.
-Allowed refugees from all over to come to U.S., not only those who were refugees from Communist countries like before.
-Afterwards, any person with a "well founded fear of prosecution" could apply
-Shift from U.S. governmental regulation to management by voluntary agencies (mostly religious organizations) who contracted with the federal government to sponsor refugee families
-Federal policy encouraged refugees to find gainful employment as soon as possible.
-The government also tried to minimize financial burden on any single region by dispersing the refugees widely
-But forced separation from families and dispersal of communities had negative effects on groups that had faced persecution, forced displacement, and genocide

Why Minnesota?

  • MN was one of the first states to respond to newly established federal refugee policy

  • Strong social service agencies led the way in resettling refugees

In the 1990s, the proportion of immigrants who were refugees in MN ranged from 24-46%, compared to 6-16% nationwide

Refugees from Africa, Asia, and former Soviet Union (especially Somalia and Laos)
2000 Census:

  • 13% of foreign-born Minnesotans are from Africa (compared to 3 % nation-wide)

  • 41% are from Asia (compared to 26% nation-wide)

  • 43,000 Hmong in MN, a 255% increase since 1990 (much of it secondary migration from CA and elsewhere in U.S.)

Adaptation in the U.S.
Different rates of adaptation (class, generation,gender, pre-migration experiences, etc.)
Changing gender roles
Generational differences
Family breakdown

Forming Communities: The Case of Hmong Americans in MN
2010 Census Statistics for MN
2002 Election of Mee Moua
"A new generation of Hmong women pursues college" (MPR, September, 2009)

About this Entry

This page contains a single entry by erikalee published on April 14, 2013 10:19 PM.

Apr. 8: SE Asian Refugee Migrations was the previous entry in this blog.

Wed. April 17: Post 9/11 Immigration Policies is the next entry in this blog.

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