1975 Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act
-Pres. Ford established Interagency Task Force (IATF) in April, 1975 to coordinate federal activity concerned with evacuation and resettlement of Vietnamese refugees.
-Most refugees admitted on a "parole" basis on emergency basis.
-Allocates federal funds to assist with relocation and resettlement for refugees
-1977 Amendment allows permanent legal residence in the United States for certain refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia or Laos
Refugee Act of 1980
-First comprehensive refugee legislation in U.S. history-Designed to ease process and centralize admissions
-Set annual quota for refugees at 50,000 (which actually slowed the entrance of SE Asian refugees)
-Ended parole system, decentralized the process, and turned states into main caretakers.
-Allowed refugees from all over to come to U.S., not only those who were refugees from Communist countries like before.
-Afterwards, any person with a "well founded fear of prosecution" could apply
-Shift from U.S. governmental regulation to management by voluntary agencies (mostly religious organizations) who contracted with the federal government to sponsor refugee families
-ASSIMILATION, SELF-SUFFICIENCY, AND DISPERSAL
-Federal policy encouraged refugees to find gainful employment as soon as possible.
-The government also tried to minimize financial burden on any single region by dispersing the refugees widely
-But forced separation from families and dispersal of communities had negative effects on groups that had faced persecution, forced displacement, and genocide
- MN was one of the first states to respond to newly established federal refugee policy
- Strong social service agencies led the way in resettling refugees
In the 1990s, the proportion of immigrants who were refugees in MN ranged from 24-46%, compared to 6-16% nationwide
Refugees from Africa, Asia, and former Soviet Union (especially Somalia and Laos)
- 13% of foreign-born Minnesotans are from Africa (compared to 3 % nation-wide)
- 41% are from Asia (compared to 26% nation-wide)
- 43,000 Hmong in MN, a 255% increase since 1990 (much of it secondary migration from CA and elsewhere in U.S.)
Adaptation in the U.S.
Different rates of adaptation (class, generation,gender, pre-migration experiences, etc.)
Changing gender roles