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We love seeing and getting pictures of your research team in action! University of Minnesota Extension Communications put together three simple tips for taking great photographs - try these tips for powerful photographs of your monitoring, investigation and teamwork.

  1. Try striving for a candid photograph, where team members are engaged in interaction or tasks at hand. They might be seemingly unaware of the camera or perhaps glancing at it, but most importantly they're captured "in the moment," authentic -- not posed.
  2. Try to get a perspective that is "first person." The goal is for the audience to feel like they're sharing in that moment. Photos of team members/subjects are shot at eye level or from below eye level.
  3. Use natural lighting whenever possible - which is easy to do when you are in the field monitoring birds, water, and monarch larvae!


monarch.pngThe youth scientists in D2D clubs this summer are having great experiences watching birds, searching for monarchs, exploring wetlands, and so much more. These activities are usually fun and inspiring, and with a little facilitation, they can also be powerful learning experiences.

"What?!" you may be thinking. "Of course these are good learning experiences!"

But experiences alone don't automatically lead to learning. It's the reflection on the experience that generates understanding.

If you are familiar with Experiential Learning, you may recall the mantra "Do, Reflect, Apply." These three words are a simple summation of the process of learning from experiences:

  • DO: Have an experience, perform something, try something
  • REFLECT: Talk about the experience with others, describe what happened, analyze the context, actions and outcomes
  • APPLY: Consider how this experience might relate to other experiences in the future, consider what was learned, then apply insights to a new situation.
The D2D curriculum provides a couple resources to foster reflection: The Scientist's Log, the I Wonder board, the Sum It Up page and the "Doing science is like" supplemental activity. Here are a couple more ideas:

  • Rose/Thorn/Bud: At the end of each meeting, conduct a quick round robin discussion in which each youth scientist reports one "Rose" (highlight/what they liked best), one "Thorn" (difficulty/challenge), and one "Bud" (a new idea or skill) from the day.
  • Occasionally use the "Reflect & Rethink" page developed in the first year of the D2D program.
  • If you've done the "What is a scientist?" activity, have the youth do drawings of themselves as scientists...what qualities do they possess that make them scientists?
Here's a reflection idea from D2D club leader Kristi McCullough:


When preparing investigations, hold a "roundtable" in which youth present their research plans to each other. Peers can provide feedback and troubleshoot together. Kristi says this allows youth to sharpen their research skills by analyzing multiple research plans instead of just their own. By doing this throughout the club experience, the youth scientists gain confidence in their science skills and develop ownership in all of the club's projects.

As you hold your club meetings, be sure to allow time for reflection throughout the experience. Ask questions about what the youth say and do during these moments, and listen closely to their answers. As that reflection time helps youth scientists make sense of and learn from the fun and interesting experiences they are having, it will be time well spent!

Andrea Lorek Strauss

Extension educator, Environmental science education
University of Minnesota Extension, Rochester, Minnesota

References:
  1. Deidrick, J., Doering, S., Geiser, D., Kanengieter, H., Piehl, B., Stevenson, A. (2005). Questions for Guiding Experiential Learning: A field guide for adult volunteers, mentors, coaches, fair judges, etc. St. Paul: University of Minnesota Extension.
  2. Knapp, C. (1993). Lasting Lessons: A teacher's guide to reflecting on experience. Charleston, WV: Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools.


"What's in a question, you ask? question-mark-graphic.jpgEverything. It is a way of evoking stimulating response or stultifying inquiry. It is, in essence, the very core of teaching."

- John Dewey, education philosopher.

Experienced leaders use and create a variety of good questions throughout the summer to propel their team members into the inquiry flow. According to a summary of research by Patricia E. Blosser, questions serve a variety of important roles in effective science education:

  • Provoking interest in a topic or idea;
  • Stimulating thinking about information and issues;
  • Helping learners develop a certain mind-set;
  • Reinforcing information and ideas; and
  • Managing activities and learner behavior.
Try to ask open-ended and thought-provoking questions that serve a specific purpose.

An educator may ask learners hundreds of questions in the course of teaching. But studies consistently find that they predominately ask learners closed-ended, low-order questions - questions that require learners to recall memorized correct answers. You can improve your teaching by asking more focused, open-ended, and thought-provoking questions. Try the following with youth on your research teams:

  1. Focus your questions. Keep in mind the authentic inquiry process at the heart of D2D: observing and wondering, sparking provocative questions, formulating hypotheses and investigation, analyzing results and generating conclusions. Where are your team members in their inquiry process? Where will they flow next? Use questions to propel them there.
  2. Know why you are asking each and every question. Will your question provoke learners' interest in what comes next? Will it reinforce key ideas or skills? Will it encourage youth members to further analyze or synthesize the topic? Visit the Questioning Toolkit in the From Now On journal for examples of questions that serve a variety of important purposes.
  3. Make sure your questions target a variety of learning-levels. Do you ask your team members to demonstrate, construct, calculate, diagram, or predict? Bloom's Taxonomy defines six different levels of intellectual behavior, each with "action verbs" you can use in writing questions for team meetings. Low-order questions ask learners to recall information or reproduce skills from memory. "Who can show me the first step in properly filling in our data sheet?" exemplifies a low-order question. High-order questions prompt learners to interpret, analyze, synthesize, evaluate and apply ideas and skills in new situations. "How did you decide that this is the best way to graph your data?" or "What are the strengths and weaknesses of this study design to compare bird species in our wetland and prairie sites?" are both high-order questions. Low-order questions are great for reinforcing ideas or managing activities. High-order questions are usually better suited to provoke or stimulate critical thinking, and help youth make connections.
  4. Make sure your questions have an appropriate structure. Open-ended questions are broad in nature with many potential and varied answers. E.g. "How could you design a form to collect information about tachnid wasps at our site? What about spiders?" Alternatively, closed-ended questions are limited to one or a few specific "correct" answers. E.g. "Who can tell me if this is a robin call?" Closed-ended questions are good for reinforcing information and ideas, stimulating recall, or managing activities. Open-ended questions serve well to provoke and stimulate critical thinking.
Many resources describe how to deliver questions effectively. Developing Questioning Skills by Karron Lewis offers practical suggestions. Above all, encourage students to risk answering your questions. Say things like "I am looking for an adventurous person to tackle this question..." or "Can someone take a shot at answering this question?" Let your team members know when you don't expect them to know a predetermined answer but are seeking thoughtful guesses or reflections. And, of course, resist the urge to answer your own questions. Instead, allow at least a few seconds for youth to think about your question before rephrasing.


Well planned and delivered questions will help you keep your team members in the flow of inquiry. In the words of Cathleen Galas: "A good question leads to more new questions, new discoveries, new realms never even considered before....Teachers should share the excitement of asking questions and finding answers to personally relevant questions."

Nathan Meyer

Center for Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences
University of Minnesota Extension

This article was adapted from the EE E-Tip for Field Days.
References:

Bloom, B. et al. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook 1. Cognitive Domain. New York: D. McKay.

Blosser, P.E. (1990). Using questions in science classrooms. Research Matters - To the Science Teacher, No. 9001. Online at http://www.narst.org/publications/research/question.cfm.

Galas, C. (1999). The never ending story: Questioning strategies for the information age. Learning and Leading, 25(7).

Lewis, K.G. (1999). Developing questioning skills. Section 5. Teachers and Students: A Sourcebook for UT-Austin Faculty. The University of Texas at Austin Center for Teaching Effectiveness. Online at http://ncnewschools.org/uploads/library/0807-questioning-article.pdf.

McComas, W.F., & Abraham, L. (n.d.). Asking More Effective Questions. Online at http://cet.usc.edu/resources/teaching_learning/docs/Asking_Better_Questions.pdf.

N.A. (1997). A questioning toolkit. From Now On: The Educational Technology Journal, 7(3). Online at http://www.fno.org/nov97/toolkit.html.


We love seeing pictures of your research team in action! We especially want to see candid moments, where team members are engaged in interaction or tasks at hand. They might be seemingly unaware of the camera or perhaps glancing at it, but most importantly they're captured "in the moment," authentic -- not posed. Also, think about lighting when you're snapping away. Put the sun at the photographer's back and try to avoid deep shadows on the subject matter. These photos are fun to see, and also help us when it comes time to develop presentations and reports about the project. E-mail pictures to Katie-Lyn Bunney at kbunney@umn.edu.

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