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Haddon's 10 strategies (Robertson, 19-21)


  1. Prevent the creation of the hazard in the first place
    • Pre-participation musculoskeletal physical examinations to identify underlying pathological problems of the knee joints
    • Provide treatments and rehabilitation prior to sport participation
    • Warmup programs involving neuromuscular and proprioceptive training can be effective in stabilizing the knee
  2. Reduce the amount of the hazard into being
    • Limit the number of sports and frequency of participation (useful in reducing body stress and exhaustion)
  3. Prevent the release of the hazard that already exists
    • More ACL tears are likely to occur during ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle (Wojtys, et al., 2002) The use of oral contraceptives may be a consideration
  4. Modify the rate or partial distribution of release of the hazard from it's source
    • Limiting activity to individuals' ability
    • Substituting players as necessary during the game
  5. Separate, in time or space, the hazard and that which is protected
    • ACL injuries may be eliminated or reduced by restricting sports participation to postovulatory phase.
  6. Separate the hazard and that which is to be protected by interposition of a material barrier
    • Use well fitting sports gear including shoes, knees pads and braces
  7. Modify basic relevant qualities of the hazard
    • Limiting sports to favorable weather conditions and avoiding surfaces that increase the potential for injury
  8. Make what is to be protected more resistant to damage from the hazard
    • Fitness training including stretching, strengthening, and improving balance and movements
  9. Begin to counter the damage already done by the environmental hazard
    • Seeking and receiving prompt medical care as soon as the injury is noted
  10. Stabilize, repair, and rehabilitate the object of the damage
    • Rehabilitation together with the use of stabilization devices such as knee braces