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Haddon's matrix (Robertson 10; Barnett, et al., 2005)





Physical Environment

Socio-economic Environment

Pre-Injury Phase

Structured warm-up programs that focus on stretching, strengthening, improving balance and movements prior to sport participation

Proper fitting shoes and clothing

Use of relevant and correct size of tools and equipment

Favorable weather conditions

Well maintained and safe playing fields e.g., absence of potholes

Presence of athletic trainer during practice

Optimum preparation and practice

Strict supervision during the game

Injury Phase

Limit activity to individual ability

Strict adherence to rules and regulations

Use of personal protective equipments such as knee pads and braces

Hospital nearby with specialty in trauma care/sport injuries

Emergency response system ready such as phone, ambulance, and first aid kit

Post-Injury Phase

General physical health of the victim

Use of first aid kit

Availability of immediate trauma care

Availability of rehabilitation facility

Prompt ACL reconstruction

Sport-injury rehabilitation program

Family and social support


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