« Trends in Related Injuries | Main | Factors Limiting Estimation of Injury Costs »

Variables that are Related to the Risk of Injury

  • the level of competition
  • skill level
  • shoes and equipment – more cleats and cleat placement increase risk. Knee brace effectiveness is inconclusive
  • playing surface – drier surfaces increase injury rates. Sythetic surfaces are controversial and more research is needed
  • age
  • gender
  • phase of the menstrual cycle/ligamatous laxity/neuromuscular control
  • prior injuries
  • fitness/limb dominance, flexibility, strength
  • body size/anatomic alignment (Lal, Hoch, 2007). Smaller joints and ACL’s have higher injury rates as do larger hip to knee joint angles