April 28, 2005
What I have learned from the Activity Theory is that we as humans always desire different things. We are socially constructed so that we know how exactly we want things to be. In practice, this theory can be used, for instance, to build technological tools such as wheel chairs for disable people, telephones, special T.V., etc. By applying Activity Theory to build a product, there is an object – the target of activity (wheelchair), the subject –user of the product (disable people)-, the community –the immediate environment-, the rules of society – standards-, and the division of work –how different members of the community have divided responsibility in defining and influencing the object. Each component of Activity Theory influence the way the product looks like at the end. “Social action” seems to play an immense role in this model (as well as Piaget and Vygostsky models). Because people are so different, Activity Theory seems to fall short because in designing something it will be found a large variety of users, as well as rules and tools, so that it will be hard to keep the ultimate goal as it was at the beginning. This will cause a lot of time consuming for the design.
In instructional design, I cannot come with a good example because as a teacher I give the students the goal I am expecting, so that even if the subjects do not accept it they have to deal with it. I mostly see this activity theory used for the design of technological tools in which the object is tested with various subjects and conditioned to the rules of society and the desires of the subject too. There are numerous testing to see whether the product fits the users and community needs. In so doing, the designers also need to go and evaluate the division of work, which describe how different members of the community have divided responsibility in defining and influencing the object. In sum, Activity Theory seems to be a user-centered design.
April 5, 2005
Case study 14
When have you had to convince others in the workplace to adopt a new system,
technology or program? Were you successful? If so, what did you do to ensure
Case study 19
Identify Sam's biases regarding this proposed new approach to pediatric education. Suggest strategies for dealing with these biases and give an example when you have dealt with biases in your work place.
He thinks that traditional education is more effective than trying a new approach.
He wonders why Jean Fallon wanted to do the project now and not later (on the ternure)
He thinks that if things are bad, there is nothing that will change that.
He does not seem interested in working with the new project.
THe best strategy to show teachers that technology works is trhough examples. When teachers see what technology can do they sometimes get amazed and become interest in the new approach, but because it seems to difficult to acquire they drop their interest. We as a yourger generation, should show them the easy way to do things and to create a totally new environment that will change the dynamic of the classes.
I am not very familiar with the ternure year, but I believe that a teacher should be evaluated by his/her teaching skills and interest not over a certain period of time but constantly.
March 14, 2005
Chap. 6: Evaluation
There are two kinds of evaluations in ID: summative and formative. The summative evaluation is conducted after the completion of the project. The formative evaluation, on the other hand, is an evaluation that assess each one of the design phases. There advantages and disadvantages for using the types of evaluation of the design. I believe that formative evaluation is the best one because you can make a lot of improvements along the way. Also, by using formative evaluation you learn more because there is an evaluation of each one of the ID phases.
Chap. 7 : Collaboration and communication
Communication contribute to learning and ,undoubtely, to instructional design in many ways: exposure to a broad range of information and perspective, deeper understanding, and stimulus for insight and creative thought. By communicating and collaborating with others, an specially with the client, there will be more generation of ideas, better decisions, more plans for the product, an increase in motivation, and a rich evaluation of the product. In overall, communication and collaboration is a key to success in an instructional desing project. As for my project , the client and I will be able to accomplished easily the following taks by working together:
•Determine the feasibility of developing a program for the textbook support;
• Identify intended learning outcomes;
• Develop appropriate instructional designs based on learner/client characteristics; culture, context and circumstances;
• Match content and subject matter materials to intended learning outcomes;
•Identify additional materials, strategies and methods required;
•Prepare and produce materials for both synchronous and asynchronous modes of delivery;
•Produce all required learning materials;
• Assist with the logistics of the project;
•Continuously evaluate the product.
Chap. 8: Define Phase
In this chapter I have learned to define a project. It has been interesting to read and think about my own project. I am doing an informal request for the Department of Spanish and Portuguese which will end with the development of online lessons that correspond to the new book teachers at this Department will be using next semester. I have understood the importance of knowing the project goals, audience, intended outcomes, and instructional activities. There are other aspects that will not be important in my project, but which are extremely necessary in other kinds of projects. These aspects are the budget, and a scheduled plan.
When one has a clear and strong outline of the project, the task will be easier. It is like building a castle; the stronger the base is the stronger the castle will be.
February 22, 2005
Activities are an important aspect of ID. They are influenced by learner’s needs and characteristics, the context, learning outcomes, and the delivery context. After the activities are designed, they must be effectively delivered. In so doing, the designer should take into account the following aspects: equipment available, time to deliver, background information of the learners. Also the media assets to delivery the material should be able to capture the learner’s attention and to attain the goals of the project.
Being a teacher has allowed me to think about the instructional materials, activities, and the delivery modes for every class. I have not only to think about the topic itself, but also at the type of learners I have in my class and the time I teach. Teaching at 8:00 a.m. is different from teaching at 11:00 a.m. For instance, I plan activities in which physical activity and group work are required for my 8:00 a.m. class. For my 9:00 a.m. class, I plan more individual and pair work without relying on much physical movement (my students are awake by then!).
February 11, 2005
Case Study 7
Evaluate Jim and Iris's approach to handling cultural differences among the members and state the outcomes Iris might expect from different key members of the design team after demonstrating the prototype.
What shocked me about this case study is that Irish started thinking of her culture. She is narrow-minded. It did not occur to her that such differences would be there somewhere. She needs to be aware of the culture differences.
In the case of Jim, he knows about the cultural differences and that the best way to work this out is not only to have an approach; like meetings. His proposal about talking to each member individually would be beneficial for the project because in that way Irish can get more information. With this information she will be able to conciliate and design ways to work the project out.
Case Study 2
One reason people resist using new approaches to training is that they feel they will struggle with the basics when using a computer. They are scared that they could damage the program or click on the wrong place and then mess it up. In summary, people are scared of the challenge.
The second reason is that some people think that the product introduced lacks educational value, or it does not contain all the information they need to learn. For some people the idea that a computer training program answers all the questions is not possible.
The last reason I have is that the learning styles of every person are different. Some people like to interact with others and they feel that interacting with a computer is not the same as talking to somebody. They may feel uncomfortable using this new learning style. Along with this people think that because of their age they are not able to learn as fast as young people and therefore they prefer keeping their own classical style.
Case Study 3
1) The opportunity to learn something new by doing it, making it and correcting mistakes.
2) She will be able to use all the theory she learnt at college.
1) She did not have any real experience in instructional design and this would be a disadvantage for her. She does not feel comfortable yet in doing the job.
2) She may spend too much time following every single step in the ID because she does not have the experience.