January 2012 Archives

Ze Second Blog Assignment



Today in lecture something that has been catching my eye both in reading and past lectures once again came up. When the video of the lady who couldn't identify faces came up, it once again shot the concept of not only the vastness of the brains capabilities, but also the vastness of the brains possible inefficiencies. There are big mental disorders such as schizophrenia and depression that just about everyone is familiar with, but when your eyes are opened to very rare and unique disorders and disabilities such as the inability to identify even those closest to you, it reminds you of all the things we really don't associate with thought or brain functioning, things that you really would never conceive of losing or missing. I can't even vaguely fathom what my like would be like if i couldn't recognize my mother, brother, or even dog. Another example of a unique disorder in the textbook that i almost guarantee no one would even think of being possibly via the brain is Capgras Syndrome, which is a condition where a person is essentially tricked, or told by the brain that their relatives, loved ones, etc. have been replaced by dopple gangers, identical doubles so to speak. Its things like this that are really opening my eyes to the over-arching complexity of the brain and the many things you really never even thought about or associated with the brain, such as something as simple and seemingly thoughtless identification of a face.

Chapter 6 Learning

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Chapter 6 is mainly about learning. Human beings' reaction towards and perception about real world happenings and phenomenon are all associated with out learning process. In particular, the text laid the ground for learning process by introducing the importance of human being's response to stimuli and how human beings associate stimuli with a particular response. Subsequent sections of this chapter also discusses other mechanisms of learning process such as cognitive thinking and the biological reasons behind human learning behavior.

The textbook's account of the "Little Albert" experiment appeals to one of me personal experience. Once I was talking to my mum about one of my classmates who fears to scream whenever she saw insects, any single kind of them. My mum suddenly asked me, "are you afraid of eruca?" I thought about it for a second and said I would not touch them but I would not scream when I see them either. My mum said, "when you were about 18 months one day you played at the backyard with an eruca in your hand, and apparently you had no idea what it was. I was about to shout or scream to you to let go of it, since it was really gross, before I realized that if I do this you would have a certain kind of phobia. So I just said to you "dear could you put that down? Its mother must be looking for it." Thanks to my mum I am not another "Litter Albert"!

Ch.8 Language, Thinking, and Reasoning

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This chapter talks about what exactly language is. Language is a really interesting tool that we use to communicate. It affects our daily lives and every way. Its really interesting that for something so complex like language, we as humans pay very little attention to it, it is an automatic process. We can understand better how complex a language is when we try to learn a different one. Something I found that I did not know was that babies can hear even before they are born! Their auditory systems are done developing by the 5th month of pregnancy, and the babies are able to recognize their mothers voices and characteristics of their mothers native language. Another interesting thing about language is that children are much better at learning a language than adults. I know this from personal experience because I went to a Spanish immersion school from kindergarden to 8th grade. I was fluent in spanish by 2nd grade, and I remember it being a breeze, but now as try to pic up french or italian I am finding it to be incredibly difficult. This chapter also touches on decision making and the process that goes into that.

Chapter 5: Consciousness

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Consciousness expanding the boundaries of psychological inquiry

This chapter will be addressing about the consciousness of the human body. Concerning with our different stages of sleep, dreams, sleeping disorders, and drugs. What really stood out in this chapter that interested me was the different stages of sleep. I honestly did not know that when we go to sleep we go through different stages. I will be looking forward to learning about these different stages when we get to chapter 5.

Chapter 15

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Chapter 15 focuses on mental illness and how it has been seen in the past and present. It also focuses on the different types of mental illness and how they differ/are the same. I was really interested in how the different disorders/syndromes are defined and the criteria for their diagnosis. The fact that there are different syndromes in different cultures, but that many of them overlap cultures tends to make me think that mental disorders are all at least somewhat universal. I personally found this chapter fascinating because my family has a long history of mental illness.

Chapter 10

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The first major thing that stood out to me in this chapter was its focus on the development of a child from birth and how certain factors play into the child's personality and mindset throughout the persons whole life. It speaks to the genetic factors and also the factors of the child's environment, and then by default goes into discussion of the nature-nuture ideals. It walks the reader through steps such as developing motor skills as a infant too experiencing puberty as a teenager, and how this relates too and effects the human psyche, and eventually gets to the adult stage. It then moves to the cognitive developments of a person, and then too social, moral, and emotional development and factors that shape them. It finishes up with some typical major things adults experience, such as careers and love lives. The quickest and most efficient way to summarize this chapter is probably to simply say developments throughout lives many stages.humangrowthdevelopment.jpg

Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

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Chapter 4 gives us an overview of our senses and how we use them in everyday life. This chapter starts off by defining the terms sensation and perception and goes into how our brains process the many images we see. A few of the sections that stuck out to me included the study done on ESP, or extrasensory perception, an explanation of how the eye processes visual information and motion, and how we use our body senses. This chapter also explains the roles of proprioception, the smell and taste senses, and the importance of our auditory system. I also thought it was very interesting how important each sense is to how we function on a daily basis. An interesting fact I found was that adding flavor enhancers to the diet actually improves patients' health status. Although alot of information was covered throughout this chapter, these are some of the major themes that I found interesting.

tongue taste map.jpg

anatomy of an eye.jpg

Chapter 12: Stress, Coping, and Health

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This chapter explains how stress impacts and influences our lives; whether it is in a negative way or a positive way. What causes stress are things or events in a person's life that are called stressors. A stressor can range from feeling overwhelmed in work or school to a tragic or traumatic event like death in the family. A little stress is very healthy and normal for humans because it balances us out but too much stress is very dangerous and can lead to serious health issues like low resistance and exhaustion. Coronary heart disease has also been linked with stress in ones life that is too great for their body to handle. Also, when a person is dealing with high stress, it often leads to unnecessary alcohol consumption beyond the regular norm as well as extreme weight loss or weight gain. An excellent way to relieve stress is to exercise daily; whether it be walking for 20 mins, aerobic exercises, meditating, and so much more. There are many ways to help deal with stress and this blog only lists a small amount!

First Blog Ch.3 "Biological Psychology" - Jarod Aaron

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This chapter covered a lot of information about nerve cells, parts of the brain/how they influence behavior, the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the idea of nature vs nurture. The most interesting part that struck me was about the nerve cells. I remember learning general fact about these cells in high school but I thought that the topics of 3.1-3.4 were very interesting and something I look forward to learning more about when we get to this chapter.
-3.1- Distinguish the parts of neurons and what they do.
-3.2- Describe electrical responses of neurons and what makes them possible.
-3.3- Explain how neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate with each other.
-3.4- Describe how the brain changes as a result of development, learning and injury.

I thought these questions were interesting because they involve more in depth ideas of how these cells work. Sure I learned in high school the parts of neurons and what they did but not much was said about what made it possible which would be covered in 3.2 and 3.3 of this chapter. Nerve cells are small and very complex which is why I look forward to learning more about these cells as we get to this chapter.


Chapter 15:Psychological Disorders

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Chapter 15 begins with identifying mental illness in the past and in the present, most of the chapter focused on the present. The book mentions a subject that caught my attention which was that there is such a thing as culture bound syndrome, many of them seem to persist in Asia and Africa. The most prominent culture bound syndrome for the US and Western cultures is anxiety disorders, this came as no huge surprise to me. It seems as though everyone I know exhibits some form of an anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders don't just plague humans, they can also plague animals, such as dogs. There is a condition called lick acral dermatitis. This actually struck home for me because my current dog and my previous dog have both suffered from this. In both cases it seems to have been caused by some form of stress such as us kids moving around or a lot of people being around and there being too much excitement. It can be hard because they don't understand that they shouldn't stop licking themselves, no matter what you say.

Chapter 3: Biological Psychology

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This chapter focuses on the brain and it's functions, and also how it relates to cognitive psychology and the nervous system. It is considered, "the most complicated structure in the known universe."
Perhaps the most interesting feat of our brains starts of small with neurons. Neurons are cells designed for communication with each other and include a nucleus where there are proteins (for cell and genetic make-up), dendrites (receivers of messages), neurotransmitters (chemicals used for communication/muscle contraction) and axons (senders of messages). When charged particles in the nucleus have enough "excitation" the action potential is full, and the particles cross over the neuronal membrane to carry off messages to other neurons.
The brain contains many specialized parts, but the 4 major sections of the brain include:
•Frontal lobe: motor function, language, memory and planning
•Parietal lobe: touch and perception
•Temporal lobe: hearing, understanding language and memory
•Occipital lobe: vision
Our nervous system can be similarly broken down into 2 major sections:
•Somatic: controlling and coordinating voluntary movement
•Autonomic: involuntary actions of glands/internal organs, emotion regulator
This chapter stood out in particular because I am a psychology major focusing in cognitive psychology. Later I would like to become a brain surgeon, so this information was especially interesting to me. (:
Brain Map

Chapter 16

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Chapter sixteen is all about helping people change through psychological and biological treatments. It begins by discussing the people who seek psychotherapy. Different groups are more prone to seeking this kind of help, such as women and caucasian americans as opposed to men and ethnic minority groups who tend to eschew this kind of help. People who typically benefit from psychotherapy are those who have high motivation to change and are equipped with a supportive therapist.
Freud had a huge influence on this kind of therapy which uses things like free association and dream analysis. There are many different kinds of therapy like group therapy (ex. AA) or family therapy. Sometimes these therapies can be very helpful, or they could only seem to be helpful because of factors like spontaneous remission or the placebo effect.
Another option for treatment is biological treatment which can span from taking medication all the way to psychosurgery. The importance of taking biological treatment seriously is emphasized since no one reacts to treatments in the same manner. I found the statistics of who seeks psychotherapy quite fascinating as well as the logistics of biological therapies.


Chapter 9: Intelligence and IQ Testing

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This chapter covers the attempt to define and understand intelligence even though we cannot do either or.
Sir Francis Galton proposed a radical hypothesis: Intelligence is the by-product of sensory capacity. He reasoned that most knowledge first comes through the senses, especially vision and hearing. He assumed that if one had great hearing and vision, then they were superior to all others. Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed the first intelligence test a diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability. The tests consisted of naming objects, generating the meanings of words, drawing pictures from memory, completing incomplete sentences, determining the similarities between two objects, and constructing a sentence from three words. These processes included reasoning, understanding, and judgment.
Most experts agree that intelligence has something to do with abstract thinking, the capacity to understand hypothetical concepts, rather than concepts in the here-and-now. In 1921, a group of 14 American experts agreed that intelligence consists of the abilities:
• to reason abstractly
• earn to adapt to novel environmental circumstances
• acquire knowledge
• benefit from experience

IQ Test.jpg

Chapter 10

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Human Development describes why humans change and why. The section that I found most interesting in the chapter were, "The Obstacles to Normal Fetal Development," which can occur in three ways: exposure to hazardous environmental influences, biological influences resulting from genetic disorders or errors in cell duplication during cell division, and premature birth.
Prematurity was the topic that I was most interested in because I was born three months premature only weighing about three pounds and four ounces. I was told that I was put in an incubator for many weeks and that I required hospital attention for about three months.
Prematurity is defined as babies who are born at fewer than thirty six weeks gestation. Babies that are born 25 weeks and later can usually survive on their own but anywhere before then can lead to serious mental and physical impairments.

Chapter 9: Intelligence and IQ Testing

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Growing up in a nation where intelligence was somewhat a measure of ones success can be a bit stressful. On the other hand, how does one measure their intelligence? Do one's grades make them intelligent? Are Asians really that smart? Does an IQ test really mean anything? There are so many questions that people ask in regards to intelligence. While psychologist Edwin Boring defines intelligence as "whatever intelligence tests measure", there are multiple intelligences. Though many people do not know the official term of the model, they are most familiar with the Triarchic Model, as seen below.
Analytical Intelligence deals with the ability to reason logically. It is also known as being "book smart."
Practical Intelligence deals with the ability to solve word problems. It's also affiliated with being "street smart."
Creative Intelligence deal with the ability to think of effective answers to questions, or understanding the cause and effect of something.


Chapter 9 greatly explains the different way of being intelligent and greatly emphasizes the usage of IQ testing. It also talks about the many factors affecting IQ tests, such as race, gender, etc. I thought it was really interesting to see all the different aspects of "intelligence", and reading this chapter really brought about awareness to the subject of matter. I, myself, had always thought that intelligence was associated with one's grades and GPA. What do you associate intelligence with?

Chapter 7 "Memory"

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If you've ever had to cram for an exam then you've probably had to stretch the powers of your memory to its limits! Chapter seven explains how information that bombards us everyday is converted into memories and also explains how these memories can be forgotten.

There are believed to be three main systems which are essential to the understanding of memory. The three main systems are sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

What I found interesting about this chapter was the several different ways we can stimulate memorization.

1. mnemonics: a learning aid that enhances recall.
ex.) Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally --> Order of operations
ROY G BIV --> The colors of the rainbow.
2. Pegword method: a method that allows us a list of objects in order. (This is what makes lyrics to songs very memorable.)
Rhyming is a very important part in the pegword method.
ex.) One is to bun. Two is to shoe. Three is to tree.
The song Jenny (867-5309) by Tommy Tutone is a great example of how the pegword method can help us memorize a phone number!

3. Keyword Method: Think of an English word that reminds you of another word you are trying to learn. (Great for language learners!)

I'm looking forward to read more about this chapter to find out more ways to help me study for my finals!

Don't Be a Victim to Your Own Eyes (Chapter 2)


Did you know that at one point in time it was believed that ice cream caused polio?

As you saw by this example, the human mind can come up with some crazy conclusions when it isn't guided by systematic research. There are several different methods by which the mind can trick and deceive even the smartest individual. The two that we'll be discussing quite a bit are:

1) Biases and
2) Heuristics.

Biases are preexisting notions or prejudices in favor of or against something. You gain biases in your everyday life and naturally will lean toward evidence that only proves whatever point you're trying to make. It's only natural, after all. No one likes to be wrong. So let's take a look at the different types of biases that you yourself have at one point or another in your own life (and I in mine) made.
Hindsight bias is the idea that "I knew it all along" when really, we were just as clueless as the rest of them. Take the ice cream example from above: when the study came out on the news that ice cream caused polio, you could imagine your grandma or perhaps even someone in the health food industry say something to the effect of "I told you all thems sweets was bad fer ya! Ya shoulda ate them broccolli cuts and this wouldn'ta happened! Nothing good comes from lollipops and jimmies and chocolate sodas all the time!"
In other words, it's really easy to look at something and point out what you should have done... After the fact.
Along with hindsight bias, we get the overconfidence, also known as the 'Didn't you know I have ESP?' bias. This is basically the notion that you're always right and you're confident in your own ego - even if 70% of the time you're probably wrong. You like to think of yourself as better than you actually are. But don't worry, you're probably still pretty awesome (or am I just being overconfident?)

Ever hear the phrase "Never judge a book by its cover"? Well it turns out that we almost automatically do this every time anyway thanks to a little thing called heuristics. Heuristics are another fun thing that our mind likes to do to mess with us. Think of them as mental shortcuts and knowledge that "you just know off the top of your head". In all actuality, half of the time you're probably wrong. Heuristics are nice though. They help organize the brain and lets you make sense of the world around you without filling up your entire mental capacity (though, there isn't any real need to worry about that, now is there?)

And the last topic that I'm going to cover today is correlation vs. causation; also known as the A, B therefore A=B. Basically what you need to know about this is that two events or variables may go on at the same time, and therefore, it is natural for you to say that one causes the other. Let's take a look at the ice cream example once more. They found that polio cases rose in numbers in the summer. The researchers also found that ice cream sales rise just as significantly in the summer. So does that mean that ice cream causes polio? Of course, we know the answer is no, but it is easy to see how they drew that conclusion even if the two events were not causational, they still correlated.

All in all, this chapter is important to pay attention to because it highlights common mistakes that can be made in any researcher's data and it points out patterns of thought that psychology students just like you need to be aware of when you're doing your research or going over case studies. Look at the data and look at it closely. Don't let your eyes (or your mind for that matter) make a fool out of you.

My First Blog, I think (chapter 15)

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This is my blog regarding a quick review of Chapter 15.

I once read on a quiz/board-game Q: what was considered a social disease [at the turn of the century]? A: Schizophrenia. It's always stuck in my brain for some reason and were talking about a decade ago, when my memory worked correctly.

It's kinda tough to read just the first page of chapter 15 with it's BROAD reference terms. Seems so boxed in for such a diverse and not all-together clearly defined and treated topic. "When adaptation breaks down" - grr, don't get me started.

"Mental Illness? A Deceptively Complex Question", ok now I'm getting a little warmer, more science and declaration of shortcomings (something I have found is VERY MUCH LACKING in the field....out there ya know in the "real" world). The brain isn't something you can do exploratory surgery on in the same way as the lung for example, fairly cut and dried. Attempts to further and further understand what we can admit as a shortcoming is a step in the direction of learning new things and advancing the science of medicine related to some of the illnesses we read about in chapter 15. I dig the stuff like "historical conceptions of mental illness: from Demons to Asylums", history then doesn't have to repeat itself.

Interesting sample of "Culture-Bound" syndromes, interesting nothing I would have thought about and an interesting thing to keep in mind especially in such a diverse culture as my neighborhood in St. Paul or the U of M campus.

Lalala going through many labels, disorders, depression, ADHD and testing for these.

Myth and Reality, looking forward to reading not just flipping through.

Fear Disorders, as a kid I didn't believe in them but as an adult having come to grasp the concept in it's functionality in the medical field and beyond has made it more real to me as opposed to something like snakes that my sister just had to get over herself about.

Mood Disorders and suicide - a topic that can fill a book and has, many! Still working on this one having my parents "break in" (they have keys for emergencies or when I am not in the state) to my house and scaring me half to death cause I wasn't answering my phone...after my heart stopped pounding I yelled ok, so what did you need to talk to me about on the phone?? And would you mind knocking and giving me 60 to 120 seconds to answer the door!! We were worried, what if something had happened to you...this incident will slide out of their brains conveniently as something they remember and they needed to confirm a dinner or what color pen I was using to write with or some such nonsense and that's all well and good but a little fubrd since they are then feeding any such reason I might have been hurt!!

Dissociative Disorders - interested me since childhood, so has, near-death experiences and the holocaust (all separate). I wasn't really into the "babysitters club" books as you may well guess. Knowing some of the history behind the disorder and different people's reactions to them, cults, child abuse etc.

From birth, genetic disorders, cool, vegetative states of being..."Awakenings", el-dopa, very cool. I have read some of ________________ other books, also very interesting. Stuff he encounters that is very cool and at the same time odd. I want to go to NYC and shake a better ending out of him for "Island of the Colorblind", as opposed to ferns, yep FERNS. I hate ferns! My yard is fern-free, as much as I don't care for gardening-ferns are like weeds or overgrown plants and bushes and I am ok with getting rid of them.

So in conclusion chapter 15 seems very comprehensive and I hope the rest of our book is as well, good times.

Party-On Wayne

Jeanne Zellmer

Chapter 1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking

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What is psychology? That is good question. I think many students can't answer that question correctly enough before you read chapter 1. So, after I spend 15 Mins go through the chapter , I found out the definition of psychology is one scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior. Wow, you may not agree that a psychology is a scientific study because you think psychology doesn't show up as often as math or physics during our daily life. However, psychology actually has been used everywhere through our life. Psychologists predict people's natural behaviors basis on their daily activities. Therefore, psychology may help you to find out why you were angry 10 Mins ago why you are happy today etc.phrenology.jpg

In chapter 1, I think the most interesting things are the Six Scientific Thinking Principles.
They are set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open -minded and careful fashion.

Here are the six rules:

1. Ruling our rival hypotheses: Whenever we evaluate a psychological claim, we should ask ourselves whether we have ruling out other possible explanations for it.

2. Correlation vs. causation: When two things are associated with each other that does not mean one thing must cause the other.

3. Falsifiability: The capability of being disproved.

4. Replicability: When a study's findings are able to be duplicated, ideally by independent investigators.

5. Extraordinary claims: whether this calim runs counter to many things we know already

6. Occam's razor: whether simpler explanations can account for the data equally well.


Chapter 14 "Personality"

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As soon as our chapters were assigned for this blog entry, I knew I was going to enjoy my chapter. Personality; the how's and why's of human behavior, is the most interesting part of psychology (as I know it now) to me. It was difficult for me to condense all of the interesting pieces in this chapter. I was very interested in all the information about Freud. I do believe he had some wonderful ideas, but at the same time, some of them are pretty off the wall. Apparently I'm not the only one who feels this way since Freud's ideas are still very controversial. I was particularly interested in the Psychosexual development, and the overall recurring theme of sexually motivated theories of Freud's. This would lead me to wonder if he himself had an unhealthy view of sexuality.

I found that throughout the chapter, there were several important psychology figures named. It's amazing to me how many different opinions and theories there are and how much different they can be. B.F. Skinner's ideas grabbed my attention, as well. His thoughts about free will being just an illusion and that we are sometimes unaware of all the situational influences that affect us, really made me think.

free will.tif

The last piece that really struck me was the Big Five Model of Personality. Those being; openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. I can definitely conceive all people fitting into these categories. But, I myself can identify with three areas that commonly occur in my daily life. So, following the text's ideas, I would say that we should probably place some kind of percentage or frequency rating on these areas. I can imagine that using the model this way might be
more helpful in using it in any kind of
counseling or even self-diagnosis approach.

Big Five.jpg

Chapter 7: Memory

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Do you remember what he ate for dinner last night? What about a week ago?

Memory can be broken down into three categories:
• Sensory memory
• Short-term memory
• Long-term memory

Sensory memory can be defined as brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short-term memory. What was interesting to me was psychologists believe that sensory memory relates to our five senses. For example, say this sentence out loud: "Sensory memory also applies to hearing." Now pause for a few seconds and repeat it without looking. Could you repeat the sentences word for word with out looking?

Short-term memory can be described as a memory system that retains information for limited durations. The reason why we seem to lose our short-term memories so quick is because this memories decay and the longer we wait, the less is left.
Do you think you will be able to remember this set of numbers by the end of this blog?

7 4 8 2 9 9 6 3 1 5

Long-term memory stores information including facts, experiences, and skills we've acquired over our lifetime. A fact that was shocking to me was, some scientists estimate that a typical person's memory holds about as much information as 500 complete sets of Encyclopedia Britannica.

Now for a game that takes some common CENTS!

Which penny is correct?

Scroll down to find the correct answer!
First do you remember the 10 numbers? Write them down then scroll back up to check if you were right. If you were correct then congratulations!

The correct answer for the penny (a).

"Emotion" in Chapter 11

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Emotion is a mental state or feeling associated with our evaluation of our experiences. One way we express our thoughts and feelings is by showing an emotion through our facial expressions.
Everyone experiences emotions. In the first part of this chapter the author talks about the various different theories of emotion that attempts to explain what causes our feelings. The theories mentioned in this chapter are discrete emotion theory, cognitive theories of emotion, James-Lange theory of emotion, Cannon-Bard theory, somatic marker theory, and two-factor theory.theory.jpg People recognize and generate the same emotional expressions across cultures. There are a set of primary emotions which are small number of emotions believed by some theorist to be cross culturally universal. These emotions are...
Happinesshappiness.jpg Sadnesssadness.jpgSurprisesurprise.jpg
Contemptcontempt.jpgand Pridepride.jpg

It was really interesting to me that Charles Darwin (1872) pointed out the similarities between the emotional expressions of humans and many nonhuman animals because it may be true after all that EVERYONE experiences emotions. Something else that struck me was Eugene Morton (1977, 1982) pointing out the similarities in communication across most animal species, especially mammals and birds which suggests that the emotions of humans and nonhuman animals share the same evolutionary heritage because it amazes me that we are similar to other creatures on this planet.

Robots Showing Emotion

Consciousness in chapter 5

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When I saw that this chapter was about consciousness, I imagined a bunch of theories on the relation between mind and world and some confusing thing. Surprisingly, I wanted to read it all because of how interesting it is, which is really shocking because I am not a fan of psychology.
So...here are the 4 main topics and a bit of what they are about:

-The biology of sleep.- talks about the 5 stages of sleep and the brain activity and dreaming behavior that we have in each. Describes some sleeping disorders such as insomnia, sleepwalking, and sleep apnea, among others. And there cause.

-Dreams.- This starts with a bit of a history of dreams and the difference between male and female dreaming patterns. Then Freud's dream protection theory comes up which is then questioned by 3 modern theories: activation-synthesis theory, dreaming and the forebrain, and neurocognitive perspectives on dreaming.

-Other alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences.- This focuses on the scientific explanation of unusual (or as some might call it...mystical) alterations such as hallucinations, out-of-body and near-death experiences, déjà vu, and focusing mostly on hypnosis and its myths and realities.

-Drugs and Consciousness.- This section talks about substance abuse and dependence of depressants, stimulants, opiates and psychedelics. A part that I found very interesting is the explanation for the drug use and abuse and the effects that each of these substances in the groups have on the consciousness. So for example, in the depressants group you could find alcohol and how drinking affects your consciousness and the truth about some myths that you hear frequently.

Chapter 14: Personality

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Chapter 14 is an incredibily interesting chapter, it involves personality and that is fascinating because that really pertains to us all as people. Personality is what makes us, us. It is the way we think, feel and behave, and those different thingsfreud_iceberg.27481810_std.jpg shape us as a person. I found it interesting to see how personality and traits originiate. These included genetic factors, shared environmental factors and nonshared environmental factors too, which means everything and everyone around us growing up really has an effect on us. I found Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality very interesting as well. This composes the ego, superego and id. The image shown of the iceberg really helped to show the conscious and unconscious sides of ones personality and how he saw it. I found this section really interesting because I think it says a lot about peoples personalities, and how each of these sections work within us. After reading through and finding how the ego is the psyche's executive and principal decision maker, superego is our sense of morality, and the id is the reservoir of our most primitive impulses, it really makes it clear about the different decisions and thoughts people have. I also was very interested in the Stages of Psychosexual Development, because I find it so odd. I find Freud's ideas in this to be really weird, and to me it makes no sense that he found these "findings" and that we all have this. It just seems very foreign to me, and I'm intrigued to learn more about this. I found reading about the Oedipus complex to just be rather disgusting, and I found it strange that someone wanted to study this.
These were the main parts of the chapter that I found to be really intriguing, and that I am excited to learn more about, and to learn more about why one would study this subject. I think these few areas are things that are almost like the building blocks of this chapter and I know that for me to really understand this, I need to truly understand these areas of study.

How To Write An Amazing Blog

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I have experimented with blogging and learned how to incorporate fun and interesting features like videos, images, and hyperlinks, I'm expecting you to do the same. But that doesn't mean I'm going to leave you high and dry, so in this blog (generously shared by a fellow 1001 Section Leader), I'll walk you through how to do those three important things.

I haven't experimented with non-YouTube videos, but I can't imagine they are too different. YouTube videos are incredibly easy to embed. First, go to the YouTube video online.

Then, below the video, click the "Share" button; you'll open a window like this:

In this newly expanded window, click the button that says "Embed" and copy the text that comes up.

Simply copy this text into your blog and you will have the video embedded. Easy.

Images are a little more complicated, as they require that you first create an asset that is the image. So the first step is to have the image you which to embed saved as a file on your computer. Then, on the blog's homepage, select "Upload file" from the "Create" tab pull-down menu.

You will then get a screen that looks like this:

Use the "Browse" button to find your file. Once you have selected the file, click "Upload" in the lower right. You will then see a screen which will as if you want to "Create a new entry using this uploaded file." I deselected this box, but I would imagine that selecting that box allows you to create the post immediately after you upload the image; this will give you options for how to make the image appear in the post. If you deselect the box, then you will have to copy and paste the code to embed, which is not difficult; you will also have to use other html code (which I do not know right now) to alter its appearance within the blog. However, if you're working with an image that is already an asset (say, something someone else already uploaded), than you will have to follow the same steps as if you deselected the box. To embed an asset (such as ath the image you hypothetically just uploaded), select "Assets" from the "Manage" scroll-down menu on the homepage.

Below the image, click the text "Embed Asset."

This will open and highlight a line of text.

Copy this text. Next, go to the page where you write/edit entries. You will be using html commands to now insert the image. The command for imbedding images is this: img src="...". In between the quotes, paste the embed text you just copied for the asset. Also remember that all html code requires that commands be in the carrot brackets, < and >. So, put the "<" before the "img" and put the ">" after that last quote. This will tell the blog to insert what is indicated by the copied text (actually a URL link, if you look at it) as an image. (Notice that the text you copied to embed the YouTube video has these brackets.) Because a picture is worth a thousand words, here's a screenshot of the code from my cognitive dissonance blog. The highlighted text is the command code.

Lastly, hyperlinks (that is, links that actually take you to the webpage indicated by the linked URL; these are the kinds of links we want) work similarly to images. Again, you'll use html code, so put everything in brackets. Use this command: a href="..."; put the URL within the quotes. This commands opens the hyperlink, meaning that whatever text you include after the ">" will be the hyperlink. I'm putting a link to Google here, as a test. The command to close the link is a/. Thus, whatever words you want to be the link (e.g., in my blog on cognitive dissonance, it was simple "here") should go between ">" and "<". Again, since I can't show you the code in a blog (it will use it as code, not show it as text) here's a picture. The highlighted text is the command code I used, the command to actually get the link to Google I just spoke of.

I think that's everything you will need to know to at least do these blogging basics. But, if there's anything that wasn't clear or isn't working for you (or if you want to do something I haven't explained), you can always search online. Our blogs are through MovableType, which has good documentation and tips for blogging; otherwise, our blogs obey html code, so if you know or research that, you can figure anything else out without too much problem. Google searches are always your friend. Happy blogging!


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Did I make it, am I in Dinosaur-land?

It's me Jeanne Zellmer, blogging for the first time in my life. Rachael will you please email me back to let me know if this worked? And is this just "any-blog-abc" or is this emailed to you, or is it a tack onto another blog...nerf.

I will try this again and see if I can get here without the instructions. Wish me luck. If this is ok, then I will write my assignment like this, correct?

Thank You,

Chapter Five: Emotions

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Emotions are there so motivated behavior can happen

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