January 2012 Archives

Chapter 14: Personality

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To skim the surface, Chapter 14 covers personalities, personality tests, and different theories on personalities. Included in this chapter are big theories like Freud's and tests like Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The two things that caught my attention most in this chapter were the twin tests and the handwriting analysis of presidential candidates. At the start of the chapter there is results from a test done where identical twins were separated at birth for research. The twins were analyzed and reunited decades later and although they had completely different lives and political views, had almost identical results in personality tests done. The fact that two people could be raised completely different ways in different parts of the world but still be so similar really fascinated me. The handwriting analysis was very intriguing as well because the idea of understanding someone's personality from their signature seems absolutely ludicrous. The three signatures of three presidential candidates from 2008 were analyzed based on things like whether their Ts were crossed or how tall a letter was. The chapter covers much more on theories, tests and evaluating the personality scientifically but this is just a taste of what is to come in Psych 1001.Barack Obama details.jpg

Chapter 8

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Throughout this chapter the author mainly discusses how we as humans think and how language is learned. They explore how we learn languages, going into depth on how children specifically learn languages. This section I found interesting because when exploring the different facets of childhood development the author includes different tests to show how we gained this knowledge. One of the tests was to see the development of syntax skills in children. In this experiment kids are placed in front of two screens, one with big bird tickling the cookie monster and the other vice versa. The participants where then given instruction to point the screen where big bird was the "tickler" and cookie monster the "ticklee." In this experiment in was interesting to see that children at the 17 months are not only capable of understanding words but that they can comprehend the order of their instructions. Another part of the chapter I found stimulating was the section discussing how different types of animals communicate and attempts to teach animal human languages.

Chapter 7: Memory

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As the title explains, chapter seven is about the memory. It succeeds in describing the difference between well known short term and long term memories as well as adds issues with processing this new information. The chapter also adds quite a few other terms that may not be well known including priming or semantic memory.

An idea that interested me was echoic memory, being able to remember what someone says in detail for brief seconds after it is said, because I thought I was special for being able to do that at all when I was in first grade not knowing that it is a normal thing. I am also very excited to learn about how to transfer information from the short term memory to the long term. I have issues with remembering many things after the application of the information is over.

Chapter seven is a long one and has a ton of new information so I recommend to readers, allow some time to get it down.

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Chapter 15 mainly discusses the topic of psychological disorders and also the types. I found out that two subjects were interesting, one is anxiety disorders and the other is mood disorder and suicide. As a matter of fact, these two problems have already become more and more serious in today's society. As a student, sometimes we feel anxious and worried about school work. But when the problem becomes really serious, it may cause diseases a mentioned in chapter 15. Also, mood disorders kind of result in suicide and other bad effects to our body. We need to be aware of those effects of the illnesses and try to be away from them. As I briefly read through the chapter, maybe the part of childhood disorder is a little bit stuck to me and I have confusions about it. Before reading the textbook, I don't even know about that bad experience in childhood can cause problems in future development.

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Chater 3, titled Biological Psychology, goes into great depth about the biology behind psychology. It starts off by discussing how the nerve cells are "communication portals" for the body. It then goes on to discuss in detail the how nerve cells function and discusses neurotransmitters, like endorphins. The chapter then goes into discussing the brain, identifying what roles different parts of the central nervous system play in behavior and how it functions in emergency versus everyday settings. The chapter moves on to talking about the endocrine system, or what hormones are and how they affect people's behavior. The chapter finishes by giving a brief tour of the mind and then discussing genes and how they affect our psychological traits.

I found several things extremely interesting when browsing this chapter. I enjoyed reading about endorphins as it is a term that is commonly used, yet most people don't really understand that they play a role in pain reduction. This could be due to the popular film, Legally Blonde...

I was also very interested in the section about genes, and how heredity plays a part of our psychological makeup. I learned that while a trait may be highly heritable, that doesn't mean we can't change it.

Matters of the Mind

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Everybody has an idea about what being smart looks like. When we think of a smart person, we think of someone who speaks with a certain fluency, who exhibits intellectual originality. Maybe we think of someone who's quick with a retort, or who seems to possess a wealth of knowledge on even the most obscure subject. But what does it mean to be smart? How does the mind of a smart person actually differ from the mind of a less smart person? And does intelligence describe an actual, existing mental quality, independent from its own operations and effects? Or is it simply the construct we use to account for someone's apparent skill at performing an intellectual task?

Chapter 9 overviews the efforts of psychologists and scientists to define and explain intelligence. It begins by discussing early models of intelligence, models that attempt to either account for its origins, or to describe its essential qualities, the gears and machinery behind the smooth clock face. Francis Galton theorized that intelligence results from heightened sensory abilities. Charles Spearman formulated the concept of general intelligence: an overarching capacity that expresses itself across a spectrum of abilities and behaviors. The chapter provides a fascinating look at how we have turned our capacity to reason, measure and assess, inward on itself.

In this chapter, the textbook goes into more detail about the biological stand point of the study of psychology. For example, it talks about the different sections of the brain and what the different "jobs" for each section is. The Cerebral Cortex is the Forebrain or the main body. Psychologist are interested most in this section because this is the most highly developed area of the brain. In other words, it carries the most information. A section or Lobe of the Cortex that is popular in my view point is the Frontal Lobe. This part deals with memory, motor planning, and language. Alcohol targets this area making it hard to remember certain things when ingesting it. It also slurs speech and wobbles a person's movement with enough ingested.
This chapter also focuses on reactions and nerve cells especially. It describes the different parts of the nerve and what is the chain reaction when a nerve cell is alerted. Otherwise known as a Neurotranmitter which are different between each different messenger. The transmitters do different jobs just like the different lobes in the brain. The transmitter that goes in hand with depression is Serotonin. This chemical controls mood, temperature regulation, aggression, and sleep cycles. This chapter is very interesting since it goes through the scientific outlook on how reactions work. nervecell.gif

Chapter 15 begins with descriptions of five different people each with a different mental disorder and then goes on to explain how the concept of mental disorder is not an easy one to define. Explanations and treatments for mental disorders have not always been clear cut, some disorders may even stem from culture. In order to diagnose these types of disorders easily something known as the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was created in 1952. The book then goes on to mention multiple different classes of disorders such as anxiety, which is among the most prevalent disorders, mood disorders and suicide, such as depression and bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, which is questionably the most severe, and last childhood disorders, such as autism and ADHD. Each of these disorders are defined and discussed in great depth in this chapter.

Chapter 10: Human Development

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This chapter goes into what has an influence on children in terms of development later on in life. All of these studies and subsequent theories are grouped into a type of psychology called developmental psychology. A big component on developmental psychology is looking into the effects of experiences during early childhood. Early experience during childhood can have a profound impact on brain development and influence one's entire life. However, this does not mean that children are fragile in their early lives and are easily damaged by the negative effects of early deprivation.
I found it quite interesting that the human brain begins to develop only eighteen days after fertilization all the way into early adulthood. While most of the body's other organ are fully developed by birth, the brain takes much longer to fully develop and is not completely developed at birth. At infancy, babies have a set of motor behaviors that are sparked by stimulation and are important to survival. One of these needs is the sucking reflex, which is that a baby will clamp down and suck on anything put in its mouth.
Chapter 10 strongly asserts that there are many different connections that an infant has to its surroundings that are stimulated through connections with their parents as well as through interactions with their environments. I hope that this chapter can explain how much someone's personality is determined by their surroundings as opposed to their genetics.

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Chapter 4 gives the reader some explanations of how we sense and perceive things from our environment by a connected relationship of the brain and nervous system, a look at the possibility of ESP, and some interesting findings in this area as well.

I Know everyone has heard the words sensation and perception but have you ever really known what they actually mean or how to describe them? The text defines both of these words in an interesting way as sensation is the detection of physical energy by our eyes nose mouth etc. which then gets relayed to the brain. Perception on the other hand is the brains interpretation of the information, which can in some cases lead to differences in the actual sensation, as demonstrated in the above picture that contains both an image of an old woman and a young lady.

The Chapter also delves into different types of perception such as ESP and defines its possible types even with the hard times researchers have studying these claims. Some other experiences the book covers are matters of seeing numbers as colors, and tasting words. The connection of Sense and Perception is amazing and still yet fully defined and this chapter serves as a good introduction to the topic.

In Chapter 8, we will mainly learn about how human's languages work, how our thinking and language related, and reasoning.
The reading first talks about the features of language. This is mainly about the 6 different steps to make a sentence that others may understand. It also talks about how children, disabled people and bilingual children learn language. Then we will learn the theoretical accounts of language acquisition.
Then the reading talks about thinking. This part is mainly talking about the relationships between language and thinking, especially when we are reading.
Finally we will learn about reasoning. We will learn about what methods we use, what factors affect us, and what strategies we use when we are solving problems.
Since I am learning another language this semester, I am very interested about how can a child learn a language, especially those children who grow up in a bilingual environment.

Chapter 12 focuses on what stress is, what causes it, how we adapt to it, our reactions, and how to control our stress. Every category has subcategories that explain different segments of it. How we adapt to changes and challenges. The Brain and the body's reaction to stress and how our health is important. How we can cope with stress and how to maintain good health.
What struck me was the list of things that could cause stress and the visuals that went with them. I knew most of the things on that list would cause stress to anyone, but only after looking at that list did I realize how all those could go hand in hand and cause unbelievable amounts of stress. If you think about each one on its own, like lets say getting fired from work, this doesn't seem as bad by itself because you can look for different jobs and try and to get yourself back to where you need to be. But having many things like getting fired, loans, weddings, deaths, and other stressful changes all at once can put a person under so much pressure and stress it seems unbelievable and can be very risky for your well-being.
It is interesting how one section of the chapter talks about different personalities that people have and how they each respond to a stressful event. Like how we would automatically think of someone that had a heart attack as someone with a lot of responsibility, impatience, hard driving, ... It goes on to talk about how different illnesses can create stress. This chapter explains what can be the problem (in this case stress), how people are different when it comes to tolerance, and what you can do to prevent stress.

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In this chapter we will learn about how we conceptualize the world through the use of our five senses. Much of the reading is spend discussing the ways in which our brains are tricked into perceiving a reality that does not exist. Topics such as selective attention, subliminal persuasion, ESP, and in my opinion the most interesting, optical illusions. I have always found illusions to be extremely interesting, and I think perhaps the most interesting part about them is that once you know the trick, you sometimes still can't make your brain see it the correct way. One example of this from the text is the Ames Room. As the video will explain, the room is a trapezoid shape, with the floor and ceiling slanting toward each other.

Due to the relative size principle, our eyes trick our brains into believing that the two people are standing at the same distance from our viewpoint and therefore, one is significantly smaller than the other. This principle was used in the making of The Lord of the Rings and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory to make some characters appear dwarf-like. Pretty cool stuff.

Chapter 11 deals with human emotions and motivation, in other words "what moves us?" The first section "Emotion" examines multitudes of definitions and theories surrounding emotions, all of which seem very interesting! As an animal lover, a section I found particularly interesting was titled "Support for an evolutionary basis of emotions" which goes into the similarities between the emotions expressed by both humans and many animals. One such example was the human sneer compared to a dog baring its teeth, both expressed in anger. The emotion section goes on to explain things like influences on emotion, body language, and lie detection.
The second section "Motivation" is where the question of "what moves us?" comes in. Starting off with happiness and self-esteem the authors give us common misconceptions as to what makes us happy (finally establishing that money does in fact NOT make us happy though it can affect our happiness). Later on in the chapter we get into our wants and needs then go through sexuality and sexual orientation to finally rest on the epitome of what people think is their main problem in life: love.

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Chapter 16 focuses on the application of many of the psychological studies in real life through multiple kinds of treatments. While previous chapters mostly focused on the studies of different psychological theories or figures, this topic talks about the applicability of such topics and how they are used to directly help people today. Topics range from the Freud's impact on modern day psychodynamic therapy to differences to how the therapy procedure works as a whole.

A topic that especially caught my eye was the mention of the Dodo Bird Verdict. This postulates that the type of therapy used on patients doesn't affect the outcome; rather, all forms of therapy are almost equally beneficial merely due to their common traits like the presence of someone to confide in and the close relationship between the patient and the therapist. While this may intuitively seem wrong due to the idea that different mental disorders must also require as different treatments, many studies and data seem to support such a conclusion.

However, regardless of whether this verdict is true, theories like these show that psychology is an ever-expanding and always-fascinating field, with results that frequently diverge from the expected.

Chapter 14-Personality

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Chapter 14 is about personality and the first section asks the question, "what is it and how can we study it?" Personality is a person's normal ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. One of the ways that personality is studied is through the studying of twins that were separated at birth, which are called twins reared apart. This kind of study was pioneered at the U of M and took over two decades to complete.

One of the fathers of studying personalities, Sigmund Freud, is a world renowned psychologist that wasn't actually trained in psychology, but rather neurology, which was one of the reasons why he was so successful in studying personalities, however some of theories are controversial and it is still debated today whether or not a few of them are true.

What I found to be most interesting in this chapter was the fact that many of the tests that I was familiar with are not actually accurate. An example of this was the Rorschach Inkblot Test, which is now viewed by many psychologists as unreliable and there are few mental disorders that this test is supposed to detect that it is able to repeatedly indicate the same disorder.

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Chapter 5: Consciousness

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Hello, Psych Discussion!!

The chapter that I am focusing on is all about the different forms of consciousness. It discusses sleep, dreams, drugs and other alternations of consciousness. I found many parts of this chapter to be interesting such as the various stages of sleep, sleepwalking, out-of-body experiences, and much more. However, two topics that I found particularly intriguing were lucid dreaming and déjá vu. The reason that I enjoyed reading about them so much was because they are both things that I have experienced for myself. For those of you who are unfamiliar with the terms, lucid dreaming means realizing that you are dreaming while you are asleep. Déjá vu is when you feel like you are reliving an experience that is new. I think that lucid dreaming is really cool because you can sometimes control what you are dreaming about or change certain aspects of your dreams. Here's a link to how to do it! (The lady seems kind of crazy, but whatever). Déjá vu is also really interesting because the sensation really feels like you have been in that situation before. I know that most of you have probably experienced this feeling before.

I hope you enjoy reading the chapter! :)
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Chapter 11 explores our emotions and motivations. Emotions being the reactions we have to stimuli and motivation being the driving force behind our actions. Emotional reactions are categorized into areas such as primary emotions, secondary emotions, conscious emotions, unconscious emotions, etc. Not only does the chapter recognize the emotions we utilize, but it delves into why we use them. Motivation gives us reasons for doing things and exploring these reasons has been perplexing psychologists for years. The theories in the text help us understand incentives, needs, wants, and even self-identification.

What I've found to be the most interesting in this text is the business applications that can stem from using psychology. I've come across motivational theories in business courses and how understanding them is indispensable when leading in the workplace. All of us have/had jobs that require unlimited expectations, yet are fueled by our limited drive. Helping to manipulate motivation is a tactful way to increase production and overall happiness at work.

Chapter 6: Learning

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Chapter 6 explains the process of learning (which is defined in the book as: "change in an organism's behavior or thought as a result of experience") and the different approaches one use's to make learning easier. One of the methods of learning discussed in the chapter is classical conditioning, in which people learn to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with another stimulus that brings up a certain reaction. There are different forms of conditioning such as, high order or operant conditioning which is used in daily life for many reasons. Positive and negative reinforcement are also used to help someone grasp something through punishments and rewards. Observational, latent, and insight learning are also popular forms of the learning process.
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Ch 6: Learning and stuff

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Learning is a fascinating process that varies from the rather simplistic classical conditioning seen in many organisms to more complex forms of learning, such as observational or insight learning, which require a degree of thinking on behalf of the learner. Classical conditioning is fairly simple and straightforward: if you ring a dinner bell every time you serve dinner, people (an animals) will learn to associate that bell with dinner, and that may very well get their digestive juices flowing.

Operant conditioning builds upon classical conditioning in the sense that animals now react consciously to the stimulus and make decisions based on what they know will happen next. A parent may learn that ringing the bell gets their kids to come in for dinner faster, so then becomes conditioned to ring the bell every time.

Still higher levels of learning, such as latent learning, might arise when a child learns to tell time and start heading in for dinner on their own.

My favorite form of learning is insight learning, the "ah-ha!" moment when someone suddenly figures out something that was previously difficult for them. It seems to me this is the most useful form in our current world.

Chapter 15 begins by presenting the idea that term mental illness is hard to define. Mental illness is hard to define because there is no clear definition, instead psychologists and psychiatrists have developed criteria to explain what mental illness is. The 5 main criteria that define the term mental illness are: statistical rarity, subjective distress, impairment, societal disapproval, and biological dysfunction. I thought it was very interesting that anxiety is among the most common mental disorders today. The biggest information that struck me while reading the chapter was mood disorders and suicide. In this section of the chapter it said that 20% of us will experience a mood disorder, and depression has reached about 16% of people. Because of such a high percentage, they have named depression the "common cold" of psychological disorders. While reading this I thought about the fact that many people have felt depressed in their lives, but not many of us have felt the great depths of suffering that many people have experienced. The idea of suicide is a very hard one for me to understand, because of the sadness that must be experienced within the person committing.

Chapter 15 begins by presenting the idea that term mental illness is hard to define. Mental illness is hard to define because there is no clear definition, instead psychologists and psychiatrists have developed criteria to explain what mental illness is. The 5 main criteria that define the term mental illness are: statistical rarity, subjective distress, impairment, societal disapproval, and biological dysfunction. I thought it was very interesting that anxiety is among the most common mental disorders today. The biggest information that struck me while reading the chapter was mood disorders and suicide. In this section of the chapter it said that 20% of us will experience a mood disorder, and depression has reached about 16% of people. Because of such a high percentage, they have named depression the "common cold" of psychological disorders. While reading this I thought about the fact that many people have felt depressed in their lives, but not many of us have felt the great depths of suffering that many people have experienced. The idea of suicide is a very hard one for me to understand, because of the sadness that must be experienced within the person committing.

Chapter one gives a brief overview of psychology as a science and how it has come about to be such an important aspect of our lives today.

The first section of the chapter focuses on how psychology is a science. According to the textbook, psychology is the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior. This section also discussed how common sense can be misleading. This was interesting because many people are not going want to admit that their common sense is wrong.

The second section focuses on pseudoscience. People must be aware that all popular psychology methods are not scientifically proven to be accurate. This struck me because I see advertisements for these almost everyday, and I realized how easily a person could be coerced into believing it.

The third section discusses scientific thinking and how it distinguishes fact from fiction. The six scientific thinking principles are given. These will determine whether a claim is fact or fiction and whether it can be improved upon or not.

The fourth section gives a brief overview of the history of psychology. It discusses how psychology originated and describes the frameworks of psychology.

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Many different things come to mind when one thinks of stress. It was originally coined as an engineering term for how much pressure a structure could endure. Psychologists may see it as the same idea applied to the human structure, but not only limited to such. It also involves the biological, mental, and physical consequences of stress, and how we cope.

Chapter 12 starts off by addressing that stress may be observed as many different things. It may be seen as a response to a drive in our live, or as an experience that takes a specific toll on our body. The fight or flight response is the physical process our body undergoes when faced with stressors. Our body pumps us up to a physical peak of awareness and ability. Here we are able to either flee the problem, or attempt to solve it.

However, to my interest there are many side effects associated with stress. A constant fight or flight response to many small things may cause a reduction in health, such as a lowered immune system, shorter life spans, etc. It was also found that stress may cause physiological changes even if there is no real danger apparent!

For this reason there is a large want for stress management, and chapter 12 delves into certain methods. Ranging from cognitive control, to making better decisions, to even delving into the stress to become more well informed. It is well supported that high stress correlates with bad health. Many different methods to induce a healthy lifestyle are included to combat such problems, which may be an interesting read for anybody.

Chapter 15 presents the history of treating mental illnesses, the different conceptions of mental illnesses, and how people with mental illnesses are affected by their conditions and treated by society. Defining mental illness is difficult because some mental illnesses are common and others are not. Some have stressful side effects while other people do not perceive anything wrong with their behavior. Mental illness also cannot be defined simply by the impairment of a person's day to day life because there are other impairing conditions that are not mental illnesses. Those with mental illnesses are often regarded negatively by society. I was surprised to learn that about 75 percent of TV show characters with mental illnesses are portrayed as being violent, when in fact there is only a small percent of violent people with a mental illness.
I also found it interesting that women are more likely to experience depression than men are. I knew that some women go into a depressive state after giving birth, such as Brooke Shields' publicized struggle in 2005, but I learned that 2 to 3 percent of women experience postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder. I did not know that some of the symptoms of this disorder are repeatedly checking on their child and fearing that they might physically harm their baby.
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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10 opens with a profile of a young child, with a portrait of leaves and a tree trunk splashing color onto the monochrome page; the opposite page titled human development, how and why we change. The chapter goes into depth about the complexities, stages, factors, and psychology that all develop from day one of fertilization, through the awkward stages or puberty, the difficult years of adulthood, the easy years of lazy retirement, to the day of passing on. Did you know that the human brain begins to develop a mere 18 days after fertilization? There are many things that I learned from this chapter just by glossing through the pages for a few minutes.

A few things that stood out to me were the diagrams of embryos, body parts, physical development and cute pictures of little children crying and looking happy. From what I have gathered, the majority of the chapter emphasizes the important stages of childhood, with some bolded sentences hinting at the effects of divorce and politics on children, though with roughly forty pages in this chapter, I am positive that we will be learning happier concepts as well.

All these concepts intrigued me because I have realized that there is so little that I really know about what goes on in our heads and our body, and it is so easy to take these things for granted.

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The chapter starts by giving an overview on how intelligence has been defined over the years. First it was thought to be only a sensory capacity, then merely abstract thinking. The most current idea is that we each possess varying degrees of intelligence in different areas. For example, some people are high in linguistic intelligence, while others are high in spatial intelligence. IQ testing is the most common way to test intelligence despite several shortcomings such as the eugenics movement that sterilized 66,000 North Americans in the early part of the 20th century. The reliability of IQ tests is then brought into question and how consistent an IQ score is over time. Average IQ scores for various demographics are compared to each other in an attempt to find the causes of high and low IQ's.

Chapter 2

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IMAG0097.jpgOne of the main thing this chapter talks about is the importance about research design. If an experiment isn't properly designed and administrated, it may not lead to conclusive and accurate results, and can actually lead to very harmful procedures done to patients. Another thing that this chapter focuses on was the difference between correlation and causation. Two things are correlated if they are related to each other, but causation means that one thing leads to the other. Often times there is a third variable that is unaccounted for which links the two variables together. This is really important to understand when looking at newspaper headlines, as they tend to confuse correlation with causation. You must look at the data they took and make sure they lead to causation results and that the researchers or newspaper editors don't mistake the difference between correlation and causation. This is why you sometimes see crazy headlines that do not always seem to make sense such as "Fear of hell makes us richer, Fed says," and "Eating fish prevents crime." While these items are probably, we must be extremely careful to not assume there is a causation relationship between the two variables.

Example of news story that might lead you to believe in causation rather than correlation

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Chapter 4 is about how our bodies physically see, smell, hear, feel, and taste the world around us, and how our brains make sense of these input signals. Some people believe our senses go beyond these five, like being able to consistently guess the picture on a card without actually seeing it (known as clairvoyance, and illustrated in the above scene from Ghostbusters.) Others believe their senses allow them to predict future events or read your mind, but these haven't been scientifically proven. We tend to take our senses for granted, but they are extremely important to how we experience life.

What I found most interesting in this chapter was that our senses often don't match up with physical reality. There are many intriguing examples of ways to trick your senses that I found hard to believe! I've gone most of my life assuming that what I see is an exact version of what is in front of me, but apparently this is not so. The following video shows us how the colors we see change in the context of surrounding patterns and light.

No, It's not a trick that is the same color the whole time. Your brain is just interpreting the color differently. This makes me wonder: What exactly is color? This is one of many interesting questions that arise in chapter 4 when we learn that our interpretation of the world isn't perfect, but just that, an interpretation.

chapter 5. Conciousness

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Dream has always been one of the most fascinating subjects for me.
We have gone through extraordinary incidents related to dreams such as deja vu, sleepwalking, or night terror. Dreaming as well as sleeping for that matter is a part of everyday life cycle, yet it is still unveiled in some level. This is why it gets more interesting.
This chapter shows what occurs during sleeping, which theory explains why people dream and how mysterious experiences like hypnosis function. Regarding the dream theory, Sigmund Freud, world-renowned psychologist, illustrated dreams as the guardians of sleep. Also, there are two theories of hypnosis introduced--sociocognitive theory and dissociation theory.
Aside from 'unconsciousness', this chapter is dedicated to talk about consciousness and drugs. The fine line between abuse and physical dependence is noteworthy. In addition, the actual substances that vastly influence on our consciousness, in the end people get to be dependent on, - including depressant, stimulant, etc-are intriguing part to cover.

Social psychology is defined in the text as, "the study of how people influence others' behavior, beliefs, and attitudes-- for both good and bad." This chapter was primarily designed to help us understand why we act helpfully or heroically in the presence of some, but give into peer pressure and negativity with others. I found it interesting that research shows that we often believe that only others are vulnerable to social influence, and not ourselves. We seem to think that social findings apply to everyone but us. This chapter begins by discussing how everyone underestimates the impact of social influence on others' behavior. It then discusses conformity and obedience, or psychologically following someones' orders. Finally it will branch into things such as aggression and the many different sources that can cause aggression (which is defined as behavior intended to harm others). Also, the final pages of the chapter talk about prejudice toward others arises and how we can combat it.
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Let's start with a simply question. What is Psychology? Psychology is a science. It is the scientific study of our brain, mind, and behavior. In fact, human behaviors are hard to analyze and understand. Sometime we understand actions by our common sense because we tend to believe in naïve realism--what we see around the world is true. To deal with this confusion, scientist will establish theory by observe, set hypotheses, and testing to explain and address the behaviors.

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However, scientists may have biases too. For example, confirmation bias and belief perseverance In addition, it is also hard to distinguish between real science and pseudoscience which means claims that look science, but in fact it is not. We like to create pseudoscience because there are apophenia and pareidolia. Finding connection among unrelated phenomena and find connection in different images.

To be able to distinguish psychological fact, we should be critical thinker and in the textbook, there are six scientific thinking principles to help us determine which one is a fact and which one is not.

Time goes on and there are different debates on psychology. The most recent one is called Nature-Nurture Debate. Which means nature and nurture works together to affect and explain human behavior.

Yes, it is true that learning about Psychology is hard and complicate, but it is FUN to learn.

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This chapter is all about Psychological treatments.

It explains what psychotherapy is and who seeks and benefits from treatment.

I found that the section about, "Is Psychotherapy Effective?" to be the most interesting. It shows how different people respond to psychotherapy and if it actually works.

This chapter can help us all understand if psychotherapy is actually effective and situations in which it may actually be helpful.

How to Write an Amazing Blog

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I have experimented with blogging and learned how to incorporate fun and interesting features like videos, images, and hyperlinks, I'm expecting you to do the same. But that doesn't mean I'm going to leave you high and dry, so in this blog (generously shared by a fellow 1001 Section Leader), I'll walk you through how to do those three important things.

I haven't experimented with non-YouTube videos, but I can't imagine they are too different. YouTube videos are incredibly easy to embed. First, go to the YouTube video online.

Then, below the video, click the "Share" button; you'll open a window like this:

In this newly expanded window, click the button that says "Embed" and copy the text that comes up.

Simply copy this text into your blog and you will have the video embedded. Easy.

Images are a little more complicated, as they require that you first create an asset that is the image. So the first step is to have the image you which to embed saved as a file on your computer. Then, on the blog's homepage, select "Upload file" from the "Create" tab pull-down menu.

You will then get a screen that looks like this:

Use the "Browse" button to find your file. Once you have selected the file, click "Upload" in the lower right. You will then see a screen which will as if you want to "Create a new entry using this uploaded file." I deselected this box, but I would imagine that selecting that box allows you to create the post immediately after you upload the image; this will give you options for how to make the image appear in the post. If you deselect the box, then you will have to copy and paste the code to embed, which is not difficult; you will also have to use other html code (which I do not know right now) to alter its appearance within the blog. However, if you're working with an image that is already an asset (say, something someone else already uploaded), than you will have to follow the same steps as if you deselected the box. To embed an asset (such as ath the image you hypothetically just uploaded), select "Assets" from the "Manage" scroll-down menu on the homepage.

Below the image, click the text "Embed Asset."

This will open and highlight a line of text.

Copy this text. Next, go to the page where you write/edit entries. You will be using html commands to now insert the image. The command for imbedding images is this: img src="...". In between the quotes, paste the embed text you just copied for the asset. Also remember that all html code requires that commands be in the carrot brackets, < and >. So, put the "<" before the "img" and put the ">" after that last quote. This will tell the blog to insert what is indicated by the copied text (actually a URL link, if you look at it) as an image. (Notice that the text you copied to embed the YouTube video has these brackets.) Because a picture is worth a thousand words, here's a screenshot of the code from my cognitive dissonance blog. The highlighted text is the command code.

Lastly, hyperlinks (that is, links that actually take you to the webpage indicated by the linked URL; these are the kinds of links we want) work similarly to images. Again, you'll use html code, so put everything in brackets. Use this command: a href="..."; put the URL within the quotes. This commands opens the hyperlink, meaning that whatever text you include after the ">" will be the hyperlink. I'm putting a link to Google here, as a test. The command to close the link is a/. Thus, whatever words you want to be the link (e.g., in my blog on cognitive dissonance, it was simple "here") should go between ">" and "<". Again, since I can't show you the code in a blog (it will use it as code, not show it as text) here's a picture. The highlighted text is the command code I used, the command to actually get the link to Google I just spoke of.

I think that's everything you will need to know to at least do these blogging basics. But, if there's anything that wasn't clear or isn't working for you (or if you want to do something I haven't explained), you can always search online. Our blogs are through MovableType, which has good documentation and tips for blogging; otherwise, our blogs obey html code, so if you know or research that, you can figure anything else out without too much problem. Google searches are always your friend. Happy blogging!

Chapter 7: Memory

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Chapter 7 is all about memory.

I chose this chapter because I am interested in how our memories work, mostly because I would like mine to work better.

The chapter covers how memory is developed and stored, how we use and recall memories, and even how our memories can trick us.

I found the sections on how our memories can trick or mislead us to be the most interesting because it something that can affect all of us.

The book gives examples of how false memories can be planted into a person's mind, and where eyewitness testimony can go wrong. It also shows 7 of the main ways that memories can be lead astray.

Overall it seems like an exciting chapter, and I am looking forward to touching on the topic of memory in class

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