Although this may not be the most useful theory in psychology, Sigmund Freud's ideas about psychosexual development are very interesting and memorable. This theory is a bit controversial and believed to be pseudoscientific, but Freud thought of it as a way to explain personality development through a series of stages around the erogenous zones. Freud believed that infants experienced sexuality, and without sexual gratification, children could become fixated on a certain stage. The first stage is the oral stage, which focuses on sexual pleasure in the mouth. Infants satisfy themselves with drinking and sucking. The second stage is the anal stage. Children are able to experience pleasure by moving their bowels. This also teaches them to learn to do so at the appropriate time and place. The next step, the Phallic stage, focuses on the child's genitals. The child will become sexually attracted to the opposite sex parent, and feel a rivalry with the same sex parent. For boys this is the Oedipus complex and for girls it is the Electra complex. This part of Freud's theory is the most criticized. The Latency stage is next, during which sexual impulses occur unconsciously. The final stage is the genital stage and sexual impulses become conscious again and mature romantic relationships are possible. These different steps are one of Freud's most interesting theories. However, the lack of research and evidence makes most modern psychologists skeptical.
kinc0027: April 2012 Archives
The bystander effect occurs when individuals do not bother to offer help to victims in an emergency situation while other people are also present. As the number of other people present increases, the likeliness of a bystander helping a victim decreases. One of the explanations for this is that with so many others around, individuals feel less responsible to help the victim. Other explanations include pluralistic ignorance and social influence, where individuals monitor the reactions of the rest of the crowd as the norm reaction. One infamous example of the bystander effect occurred in Paris, France in January 2006. Ilan Halimi, a wealthy French Jew, was kidnapped by a group of Moroccans called "The Barbarians" and tortured for 24 days. The kidnappers did this for the sake of receiving a 450,000 euro ransom. Throughout the 24 days of torture, multiple neighbors heard the commotion, but none called the police. Some instead watched and even joined in the torturing. On February 13, Ilan was left outside of Paris, tied to a tree. Body parts were missing and his body was difficult to even recognize. He was found but he died on the way to the hospital. This may be a severe case, but it shows how powerful the bystander effect can be. So what would you do, ignore the cries and fall in with the crowd or be the Good Samaritan?