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Guy Debord/The Situationists

Guy Debord was one of the founders of the Situationists, and published The Society of Spectacle in 1967, describing the state of influence that media and pop culture had taken over the general populace. The Situationists looked to blur the lines between art and life and construct situations within the everyday placing value in interaction.

Norbert Wiener The Human Use of Human Beings

Norbert Wiener published The Human Use of Human Beings in 1950. The book discusses the mechanization of the human, as well as the facility for communication between man and machine. He also published Cybernetics two years earlier, which discussed the need for balance in a society headed for entropy. Cybernetics introduces the use of a mathematical language in terms of information exchange.

John Cage

John Cage studied Fine Arts at Pomona College in California. His interest lied in making music out of found sound, or everyday sounds, such as 'wind, a heartbeat, and a landslide.' He was asked to perform at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1943. His music was improvised and 'non-intentional.' He placed the act of listening to the music on to the listener, and handed the piece over to each person, giving him or her ownership. His work is reminiscent of Russolo's "The Art of Noises."

Claude Shannon - Information Theory

Claude Shannon develops Information Theory in the late 1940s, based on George Boole's Boolean logic. Shannon realizes it can be used to build an information storage device which leads to the development of the modern day computer. "Shannon demonstrated that any message can be reliably transmitted providing the right code can be devised" (Meigh-Andrews 104).

Oskar Schlemmer

Schlemmer developed his own theory of performance. He likened painting to the god of intellect, Apollo, and theater to Dionysus, the god of the harvest and madness. He writes of paintings exploring a two-dimensional space, while performance being able to 'experience' space. Schlemmer explains that 'out of the plane geometry, out of the pursuit of the straight line, the diagonal, the circle and the curve, a stereometry of space evolves, by the moving vertical line of the dancing figure.' This writing mimics Marinetti's manifesto, "Futurist Dance" of 1917, in which he writes of the 'geometry of the dance, free of mimicry and without sexual stimulation.'

Richard Huelsenbeck

Richard Huelsenbeck left for Berlin as a result of the closing of the Cabaret Voltaire. He published written work in Zurich in "En avant Dada: Eine Geschichte des Dadaismus (1920)" in regards to the concept of simultaneity and its importance in the scheme of existentialism. He writes, "the screeching of a tram brake and the crash of a brick falling off the roof next door reach my ear simultaneously and my eye rouses itself to seize, in the simultaneity of these events, a swift meaning of life."

Tristan Tzara

Tristan Tzara created a literary movement out of the Dada movement. He wrote "The First Celestial Adventure of Mr. Antipyrine", and went on to publish the Dada magazine. This was seen as a form of codification of the movement. Tzara and Ball also took over the Galerie Corray and it opened on March 17th in 1917 as the Galerie Dada with an exhibition of Der Sturm paintings.

Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings

Ball and Hennings were a couple and the founders of the Cabaret Voltaire. Both performed regularly. Ball invented a new species of 'verse without words' or 'sound poems.' He would perform one of these sound poems called "Karawane."

Frank Wedekind

Benjamin Franklin Wedekind began performing cabaret when he had no money to produce the plays he was writing. His performances were sexually explicit and offensive. He was called an 'anti-bourgeois exploiter of sexuality' and a 'threat to public morality.' His sexually explicit performances brought him closer to the arts community, including one Hugo Ball, the founder of Cabaret Voltaire.

F.T. Marinetti

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti wrote the first Futurist Manifesto, spearheading Italian Futurism, calling for a questioning of the logic of the Parisian art world at the time and a revolt against it. He went on to write many more manifestos about bodily movement (Futurist Dance), and improvised speech (Dynamic and Synoptic Declamation), influencing not only the Futurist movement, but artistic movements that would follow.

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