Focus: Gaining an understanding of Photoshop by constructing Kandinsky inspired animations. We will focus specificly on learning about the tools of Photoshop like the pencil, pen, eyedropper, paint bucket, stamp, selection tools, and Opacity.
a. 126.96.36.199.1 1. Describe the use of elements in media arts such as image, sound, space, time, motion and sequence.
b. 188.8.131.52.2 2. Describe how the principles of media arts such as repetition, unity contrast are used in the creation, presentation or response to media artworks.
c. Learn basic tools of Photoshop.
-handout on the explanation of the Kandinsky Animation project
Expressionism started in a variety of countries around 1905 however German expressionists were some of the most well known and really ran with this movement (Pioch). There were two primary waves of Expressionism including Die Brucke (the Bridge) and Der Blau Reiter (The Blue Rider) (Pioch). Die Brucke was highly inspired by Van Gogh, Gauguin, and prehistoric art (Pioch). The leader of this group was the artist Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Their work was dark and full of tension. They became most famous for their woodcut prints and use of Graphic elements (Pioch). Der Blau Reiter was the second wave and founded by Vasily Kandinsky, marc, and Gabriel Munter in 1911 (The Blue Rider). The group focused on color shapes and forms and their relationship to sound and music. They also focused on the spiritual qualities of color and how they can enhance the viewer's experience of a painting. (The Blue Rider).
Vasily Kandinsky was famous for his Expressionist paintings, which were highly influenced by the elements of music. He once said "The very word composition called forth in me an inner vibration. Subsequently, I made it my aim in life to paint a composition" (Dabrowski, pg 11). His inspiration and source of content in his paintings come from the expression of his feelings, as he responds to events of an internal nature (Dabrowski, pg 11). Although he started painting around the age of thirty he did not really begin to develop his personal style until 1909 when he was in his early forties (Dabrowski, pg 12-13). He was born in Moscow, Russia to a wealthy merchant, was well educated, and he initially studied the law and economics (Dabrowski, pg 12). There were two main events that lead Kandinsky to become an artist, the viewing of Monet's Haystack Painting at a French Impressionist opening, and the realization that music can create images in ones mind through the performance of Richard Wagner's Lohengrin (Dabrowski, pg 13). Kandinsky was also inspired by the composer Arnold Schoenberg. They shared a belief that modern art and atonal music were traveling in the same direction, breaking previous traditional beliefs of both forms of art (Leggio, pg 98). So not only were Kandinsky's compositions inspired by the expression of his feelings but the feelings are also a reaction to his close listening and study of music. In his compositions the dot is the equivalent of one tone in music, and he uses this basic element to build up a composition of harmony that reflects the harmony of the music he is inspired by (Leggio pg 105). Other important elements in his pieces are lines, circles, and geometric shapes. He uses a variety of intensely saturated colors combined with muted and transparent color to create harmony and balance in his piece. He also uses dark black line through out his paintings to unify, organize, and create movement through his paintings.
Class 1: Students will view a power point presentation of Kandinsky's paintings and how they were inspired by music and personal feelings. They will then receive a handout on the upcoming project, which is to create a Kandinsky inspired Photoshop animation. Students will also view examples of Kandinsky animations to gain inspiration for their own Photoshop animations. We will end with each student researching at their computer to find two to four Kandinsky Paintings that will be the inspiration for their animations.
Class 2: Introduction to Photoshop tools including paintbrush, pen tool, paint bucket, shape tool. Students will be asked to watch how to use each tool and then practice using that tool after each demonstration. They will also be shown how to work in layers, so that each time they practice a tool they start a new layer, from a merged copy of the previous layer. Also a demonstration of the stamp tool will be conducted by making a stamp from one of Kandinsky's paintings. Each student will be asked to make a stamp from one of the paintings they picked for inspiration. Color adjustment will also be explained as well as Opacity. Lastly students will learn how to open up their animation window, and create a short animation of their practice through their layers. After seeing how animation in layers works students will be asked to bring in a progression of how they want to build and change their Kandinsky composition through 5 small drawings.
Class 3: Class will open with a short discussion on how you can use color, and the way and order your composition develops to add interest and movement. An explanation on how Kandinsky uses repetition of color line and shapes to unify his compositions and create harmony. Also how he creates order with the contrast between color and the use of black outlines through out his work. Students will also be reminded how to work in layers, and how to copy a merged layer. Students will then have the rest of the hour to develop their compositions, remembering to make each new element in a new layer. As they work the video "Wassily Kandinsky Art" will be playing in the background for inspiration with out sound as well as some Schoenberg music that was one of Kandinsky's biggest inspirations. Students will be told to listen to the sound of the music and see if it influences how your composition develops.
Class 4: Students will get to work right away with Schoenberg playing in the background. After they finish they will be shown how to export their annimations as a quicktime video and put it in a public class file. During the last part of the hour Students will vote on their 3 favorite Schoenberg songs and sign up for their animation to be shown with their favorite of the 3. From this list the instructor will string together the animations into one video with Schoenberg songs in the background.
Class 5: Students will watch the video of their class work, and pick three animations that caught their attention and write why in terms of image, color, and movement. Writing for each will be one to two sentences.
Evaluation/Assessment- Critical analysis through short written reaction
Discipline Based Art Education:
Art production: Students made Kandinsky Inspired animations
Aesthetics: Students were introduced to the aesthetics of Expressionism through the work of Kandinsky
Art History: Students learned about the Expressionism movement as well as the artist Vasily Kandinsky.
Art Criticism: Students wrote a short reaction to their classes work by picking three animations that stood out to them and why in terms of the elements used, as well as color, and movement.
Learning about Chalk animation and Robin Rhode as a chalk artist and how he uses limited resources of chalk and a camera to create really unique stop motion films and still images. It will also teach students to use chalk animation.
a. 184.108.40.206.1 Analyze how the elements in media arts such as image, sound, space, time, motion and sequence, are combined to communicate meaning in the creation of, presentation of, or response to media arts.
b. 220.127.116.11.1 Analyze how a work in media arts influencesand is influenced by the personal, social, cultural and historical contexts, including the contributions of Minnesota American Indian tribes and communities.
c. Gain an understanding of chalk annimaiton and how it can be used in the art world.
Handmade example of a thaumatrope
Early Example of chalk animation:
French artist Emile Kohl
Example of line Annimation
Directed by David Piel, adapted from Crockett Johnson's children's book
Example of wall-painted annimation
The artist Blu
Examples of chalk annimation
unable to find artist
from Firekites' album 'The Bowery'. music video co-directed by Yanni Kronenberg and Lucinda Schreiber
Artists have been seeking the ideas of animation since the beginning of art. Cave artists tried to create the illusion of movement by making an eight legged boar in the Altamira cave's of Northern Spain, and Egyptian wall decorations resemble a comic book or story board (James). Eventually the development of thaumatropes by Paul Roget began the idea of the persistence of vision which was an essential piece to developing animation (James). Thaumatropes show one object on each side of a piece of paper and have two strings attached. When you twirl the strings your eyes sees both objects together even though physically only one side of the paper is in view at any given time. The first animation really set way after the invention of the motion camera and projector by Thomas A. Edison (James). One of the first ever animations was actually a chalk animation created in 1906 by Stuart Blackton called "Humorous Phases of Funny Faces" (James). The first full length animated film was also a chalk animation. Fantasmagaria was created by French artist Emile Kohl and was a huge contribution to the development of animation as a film genre ("Meep! Meep!"). Today Chalk animation is alive and still used in a variety of ways. Everything from music videos, commercials, and the fine arts.
One particular artist who is well known for his work in Chalk animation is Robin Rhode. He grew up in Cape Town, South Africa shortly before the apartheid ended ("Catch Air"). His origins as an artist come from simple chalk line drawings on surfaces including brick walls, parking lots, and eventually gallery spaces (Hasting, pg 264). Rhode's work usually includes some sort of live performance in or outside of the gallery space (Hasting, pg 264). He also documents his work through stop motion films and photographs (Hasting, pg 264). His work is highly influenced by the racial challenges and identity of a mixed race man in South Africa ("Catch Air"). The aesthetics of his work reflects the graphite hip hop culture by using surfaces that you would find graphite, such as walls and blacktop. He then uses subjects that are connected highly to the hip hop culture like basketball and Music to talk about his struggle and identity as a mixed race man (Hasting, pg 264). Although his chalk animations are simple and often done in humble circumstances, this aspect enhances his concept even more by using materials and mediums that directly relate to the people he is speaking about. The fact that his performances are comparable to the work of street performers in his culture is another way he connects his art to his message (Hasting, pg 264)
Class 1: Open class with a short introduction to the history of chalk animation showing early films including "Humorous Phases of Funny Faces" and "Fantasmagaria". Show more recent movies that use ideas of chalk animation including "Harold and the Purple Crayon", "Muto", "Awesome Chalk Animation", 'Fire Kites, Autumn Story", "Hitchhikers Choice", and "Whiteboard Animation. We will end the examples with an introduction to Robin Rhode as a fine artist working with chalk as a medium. Students will then be introduced to their assignment of making their own chalk animation music video in groups of about 5. Students will pick groups and begin to brainstorm songs and ideas for their music video for the rest of class. Homework assignment is to have one member of the group bring in the song they will use.
Class 2: First students will see a demonstration of how you use a camera to capture your chalk animation, and how to measure what will and won't be in your camera lens. Then Students will meet in their groups at a table to make a storyboard of their animation using paper and pencil. They will be instructed to think of a particular point in their song they want to animate for which will be about 20 to 30 seconds. Students will be reminded to think of ways they can add interest to their videos through movement, morphing, and perhaps the introduction of their own body or other objects if appropriate. The imagery they choose can also be affected and react to the section of music they pick. They will also be reminded to keep drawings fairly simple, similar to the examples of chalk animation shown in class. Students will sign up for a time to create their chalk animation sometime during the next two class periods. If a group feels ready they can begin their chalk animation during the second half of the class period.
Class 3: The first three groups should start chalk animation, and two should totally complete the animation process (This is If you have 4 groups total, if you have 5 or 6 then the first 3 groups should complete animation. You can make larger groups if necessary.) While students are waiting they can continue to develop and practice drawing for their own chalk animations. Once a group is done the teacher will help the group download images and put them into iMovie to create their chalk animation (The Computer should be in close proximity to the chalkboard or you may need student helpers to keep a controlled atmosphere). They will also find the part of the song they would like to go with their animation from the music source they provide (C.D. or from Flash drive).
Class 4: This class will be used for completing the last two groups chalk animations and downloading and organizing the last of the photos into iMovie. While groups are beginning to finish or not have a lot to do they will get to learn how to form the animations by watching the instructor in iMovie. The Instructor will prepare a D.V.D of all the animations together.
Class 5: The last day will be a time to celebrate. We will watch the chalk animations and each student will write three reasons why they think their piece was successful in terms of movement, development, relation to sound, and imagery. They will also give three things they would like to improve. The class will end with cookies, punch, and team photos.
Discipline Based Art Education:
Art production: In groups Students made a chalk animation
Aesthetics: Students learned the simple line drawn aesthetics of chalk animation through
the work of Robin Rhode and other examples of line, chalk, whiteboard, and paint
Art History: Students learned how chalk animation developed and how it's being used in the
fine art world today through the Artist, Robin Rhode.
Art Criticism: Students used critical analysis to evaluated their own work through writing
three ways they were successful and three ways they could improve.
Catch Air: Robin Rhode @ Wexner Center. Per. Robin Rhode and Catharina Machanda. Wexner Center for the Arts, 23 March 2009. 12 Dec 2009.
Hasting, Julia, design. Vitamin D: New Perspectives in Drawing. Phaidon: New York, 2005.
James, Patrick. "History of Animation the Early Years: Before Disney." Department of Visualization Texas A and M University. 13 Dec. 2009.