December 2011 Archives

Ash Ash We All Ash...

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The concept in psychology that I will remember five years from now is the concept of conformity. The study was conducted by Solomon Ash in the 1950s. The study involved participants being asked to compare a standard line with three comparison lines. The other participants known as the "confederates were undercover agents of the researcher. A simple task as to determine which of three comparison lines matched the standard line can be the result of conformity just by having the participants say out loud their answers. In the end, 75% of participants conformed to the incorrect answers in 12 trails. Surprisingly, some even conformed even when the comparison line differed by more than six inches. I will remember this concept because I was surprised at how even when the the difference was by six inches the participants fell into the trap. Even though they were confused and questioned their answers they still conformed in the presence of others. This just shows that when people are around others they can be easy fooled compared to if they had to write down their answers. Also, even in a simple task participants conformed, what if the studied involved a more complex task participants would be even more likely to conform. Also, if I were a participant in this study and I was unaware of the purpose of the study I wonder how I would perform? I think I wouldn't conform to the incorrect answers but the results tell us that more than half will conform. Also, the elevator experiment in which a participant followed by other confederates share a elevator. The confederates all slowly turn and the participant also begins to conform and turn like the other confederates. The clip we watched in class I thought was really funny how people would actually change the direction they were standing because they were different than the other people in the elevator. This just show how we as humans are victims of conformity even when were unconsciously unaware of our behaviors.

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The Elevator Experiment from Miguel Paulo Flores on Vimeo.

Angela Ouyang

The aspect of psychology that affected me most was the idea of false memories. The thought that someone would be convinced they did something that never happened is amazing to me. False memories are figments of our imagination that are as vivid and tangible as real memories except the events we see never actually happened. These memories are important to study and understand because they have serious effects on peoples lives and perceptions of the world.

In 1990 George Franklin was accused of murdering a girl in 1969 by his daughter Eileen. she claimed that she had repressed the memory of her father killing the girl for 20 years. Although many people thought that the memories were false it was impossible to tell at the time. Eileen's therapist was convinced they were real and even testified in court that they were indeed valid. Although many remained unconvinced that a memory so traumatic could be suppressed so long and still be as vivid as Eileen described it, George Franklin was convicted of murder. This was a mile stone case, and was the first conviction in history based solely off of memory and no tangible evidence. Since the murder was of an eight year old girl it could be possible that the court and jury simply wanted a scapegoat so that the family and community could finally rest easy. The world will never know.

It is important for researchers in the field of memory focus more on the idea of false memories and come up with better models to detect valid and false memories. This must be done so no innocent person is placed in jail.

A link to an article about the George Franklin case
http://faculty.washington.edu/eloftus/Articles/lof93.htm
A link to an APA article about how psychologists' view of false memories is evolving
http://www.apa.org/monitor/mar00/memory.aspx

In the case of obedience, we take our marching orders from people who are above us in the hierarchy, such as a teacher or parent. Many groups, such as cults, acquire their influence from a potent combination of both conformity and obedience. For example, I am writing this blog because my teacher told me I need to in order to get a good grade. Obedience can produce troubling consequences when people stop asking questions about why they're behaving as others want them to. During the Vietnam War, U.S. Lieutenant William Calley commanded a platoon of a division named Charlie Company that had encountered heavy arms fire for weeks. They entered a village of My Lai expecting to find a hideout for North Vietnamese soldiers. The platoon didn't find any enemy soldiers but were still instructed to shoot villagers. At the end they brutally murdered 500 innocent women and childrenmy-lai-massacre-vietnam-war-history-pictures-images-photos-rare-amazing-007.gif. When asked, Calley said he was simply taking orders from his superiors and said he had no responsibility for the massacre. In turn, the soldiers in Calley's platoon claimed they were merely taking orders from Calley. Calley was convicted in 1971 of murder and sentenced to life in military prison, but President Nixon commuted his sentence. It amazes me what humans will do just to obey their superiors. Looks like people will go out of their way to kill innocent people just to please the people above them.

Video of Nixon & My Lai----> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHk4TGWx0ZM

Zach DeCou

Bipolar Disorder

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Bipolar Disorder

This week, we were asked to write about the most memorable thing we learned in Psych 1001. Although I initially thought the Principles of Scientific Thinking would be most important to me, I instead decided that I would write about something only discussed briefly in our text but has been very influential in my life: Bipolar disorder, or more accurately, the bipolar spectrum.

Why, you may ask, did I make that clarification? Contrary to what our book portrays, there are actually a variety of bipolar disorders. The three most common are Bipolar I, Bipolar II, and Cyclothymia.

Bipolar Disorder Type I

This disorder, which is described in our text, is characterized by periods of major depressive and manic episodes. You can find the specific symptoms of depressive and manic episodes on the Mayo Clinic Website. Depressive episodes are normally characterized by sadness, feelings of hopelessness, lack of interest in pleasurable activities, guilt, and anxiety, while manic episodes normally involve impulsivity, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, rapid speech, and racing thoughts. The symptoms of Bipolar I are normally severe and cause major problems in every day life.

Bipolar Disorder Type II

This disorder is the closest on the spectrum because I have it; I was actually diagnosed earlier this semester and used my psychology textbook to better understand my disorder.

Bipolar II is very similar to Type I in that it involves major mood swings. However, Bipolar II is characterized by the presence of hypomanic episodes (a less severe type of mania), which are not as disruptive to everyday functioning. During a hypomanic episode, individuals may feel more self-confident, more productive, and more irritable than normal. In Bipolar II, depressive episodes normally last longer than hypomanic episodes but are still marked by the same symptoms as in Bipolar I.

Cyclothymia

Cyclothymia is one of the milder forms of bipolar disorder. It still involves periods of obvious highs and lows, but they are not as disruptive as in Bipolar I and II.

Bipolar disorders are normally diagnosed following a manic episode, which normally first occurs in an individual's late teens or early twenties. Bipolar disorder is influenced by many factors, including genetics (with a heritability of almost 85%), neurotransmitters (especially dopamine and serotonin), and structural differences in the brain. It is also important to remember that some drugs and other substances, such as caffeine, can imitate the symptoms of manic episodes, so it's best to be evaluated by a general physician, psychiatrist, or psychologist if you think you may have a type of bipolar disorder.

The reason the book's discussion on bipolar disorder will stick with me more than anything else I have learned this semester is because of the extent that I used it as I was going through the process of being diagnosed. Not only was I able to use the text's definition of bipolar I, I was also able to use the explanations of the different neurotransmitters and brain regions involved in bipolar II to better understand the biological basis.

Five Years Later

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If there is one thing I will remember from psychology it is the idea of scientific thinking. I will remember this both because it was repeated so often through out the book and because it is a way of thinking. In every chapter the author would show different claims made by people and why they were not able to make such a claim without more proof. Also there is the pseudoscience which is neither able to be proven nor disproven and how you should be cautious when participating in said pseudoscience. The other reason is it is an idea. It is much easier to remember an idea from a course because an idea is a very broad toic and easier to remember than say a specific time and or date of an experiment. I also, find that scientific thinking is more useful than any one experiment or breakthrough in psychology. It is also easily transferred to other fields of science such as chemistry and psychics. Every time I see a commercial that looks too good to be true I will use my scientific thinking skills and determine whether or not it is for real or a scam.
Patrick Dougan

Conformity

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I think the concept of social influences as a whole is very interesting. It seems strange when I really think about it: we all have an enormous impact on each other's behavior. One of the least exciting (but in my opinion, one of the most interesting) is conformity. The Asch study, which included the lines of different lengths with confederates intentionally giving incorrect answers was huge in the exploration of conformity.
I've seen myself do things like this plenty of times. In a classroom setting, if enough people give a certain answer out loud to an instructor's question, I have and often do change my opinion. Even if what I think is the correct answer is firmly set in my mind, I'll change my opinion with ease, albeit uncertain ease. Additionally about one in three times I do that, I end up being wrong. If I would have kept my original answer, I would have been one of the few correct students. But with so many people saying something else, it's difficult not to go with the group in those types of situations.
But, I have noticed that the size of the group changes my feelings. As the size of the group increases, I feel more inclined to go with the crowd. In a group of three or so, I will more often stick with what I originally believe is correct. I might be tempted to change my mind in smaller groups, but I usually don't. Regardless, a group of people with a singular belief when I am unsure about something can be convincing. (In a classroom setting at least.) On a social scale when morals come into play, it becomes an entirely different story, which I think is to be expected. I think that peer pressure is slightly less persuasive, while it still is without a doubt effective. I think I'd like to see a study comparing a study similar to the Asch study versus a study on general peer pressure to see how conformity changes with different types of pressure.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4MkcfJA

David Iverson
Section 12

Of the many endearing and memorable topics we have delved into there are many that will probably stick to some degree throughout my years. However the topic of parts of the brain is one that I found the most interest in which is parts of the brain, more specifically the parietal lobe which specializes in the area of touch and perception. The reason for this is because of a personal experience my junior year of high school. In high school I was diagnosed with a benign brain tumor in my parietal lobe. This topic in Psychology 1001 came as most interesting to me because after learning how the different parts of the brain function in different ways, it was intriguing to find what that specific part of the brain did for me and the people around me. Also with this knowledge I was able to put together side effects I had after surgery with the function of the parietal lobe itself. Overall I received a better understanding of the entire situation, as well as a genuine interest for the human brain. While more than likely I won't continue my education to deal with the area of cognitive psychology it was fulfilling to get some answers to a time in my life that I will never forget.

Sigmund Freud founder of psychoanalysis, and his views on how people are motivated by more than what meets the eye, is something that I will always remember from psychology 1001. He theorized that people were driven by sexual desires and that the subconscious, unbeknownst to the subject was the main driver of their actions. He also brought new ideas to the table that psychologists had never thought of before and a set precedent for therapy. An example of ideas he brought to the world of psychology include but aren't limited to dream interpretation, psychosexual development (oral, anal, phallic stages), the id, ego, and superego and commonly known terms referring to coping mechanisms such as repression, denial, and displacement.

Without Freud psychology wouldn't be nearly as developed as it is today. His findings brought about many milestones that future psychologists built off of today. Although Freud was a big figure in psychology, he did have many questionable findings. Such findings include the use of cocaine in his hypnosis therapies and use in treatment of depression and belief in the Oedipus/ Electra complex (idea that children when hitting the phallic stage were attracted subconsciously to their opposite sex parent). Even with his unreliable findings, he went where many psychologists didn't and because of this stands out as a figure that I will always remember from Psychology 1001.

Yesha YIsmaw

Five years from now

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I believe that the concept of personality will be a strong subject that I will remember for a while, probably because it's such a personal subject and I can really relate to it. That chapter taught me how to analyze the way that I act and why it is that I act that way. It was a really interesting chapter to read; one of my favorites. Of course I have a strong sense of who I am and what categories I would probably be put in, but it is still interesting to break it down even further and trace it back through generations or family studies. In my opinion, one of the most interesting things to read in this chapter was the defense mechanisms: repression, denial, regression, reaction-formation, projection, displacement, rationalization, intellectualization, identification with the agressor, and sublimation. It made me think back and realize that I have actually experienced most of these mechanisms. I didn't really agree with Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, especially concerning the stages of psychosexual development, but it was interesting to read such a different perspective on why it is that we act the way we do.

Overall, all the chapters were quite interesting to read. Psychology is a complex and interesting subject. It's a lot to comprehend, but I learned a lot about myself and the people around me; how they interact and how they behave.

Anne Tran

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Social Attraction Predictors (Proximity, Similarity, and Reciprocity)

The reason I chose this concept is because in the next five years of my life I will still be dating women or be in a relationship with one. It is an important concept because without fulfilling these three predictors one will not be able to fulfill the highest levels of compassionate or passionate love. Physical appearance does play a role in social attraction predictors but the most important are proximity (how close two people are), similarity (how much two people have in common) and reciprocity (the likelihood of others reciprocating your actions). In relationships, romantic or not these three factors are key. Studies have shown that the mere exposure effect plays a pivotal role in proximity. The more a person sees of another person, the more they will come to like them. This leads to proximity. Proximity will in turn facilitate in finding similarities between two people. Once similarities have been established the relationship will be open to one person doing something for another and that action will hopefully be reciprocated. All of these factors tie into each other and that is also why I find this concept to be interesting. The ultimate goal in life is for one to achieve self-actualization according to Abraham Maslow, and it would only be that much better if one could achieve that with a partner in compassionate or passionate love. This is important to me because I can apply these three predictors in real life situations while I am dating or involved with somebody. I am positive that in five years I will be applying these predictors in relationships I have romantically or with customers on a daily basis.



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For the past couple of years, I have always been proud of my knowledge. I thought that I knew many things because I always updated new information in my free time. Everything had seemed to be good until the day I started studying Psychology. After reading the first three chapters of the course, I was shocked by the contents; because according to the book, a great part of my knowledge was completely wrong. There were a lot of new concepts that surprised me, but the one, which made me think the most, was "pseudoscience".

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Therefore, if I have to choose a conception that I would still remember five years from now, I would pick "pseudoscience" without hesitation. The reason of my selection is that pseudoscience appears everywhere in our life, and people easily fall prey to it. Furthermore, in chapter 13 of the textbook, I learned one more aspect of pseudoscience, which was related to my major, Marketing.

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Before reading this chapter, I knew that firms often take advantage of pseudoscience to persuade consumers to buy their products. The most common ones that you would see on the Internet would be the advertisements about sex and money. For examples, "click here for the better sexual performance" or "would you like to earn $7,000 every month right at your room". However, the only thing I knew about these advertisements was that they were all pseudoscience, I did not truly understand about them until I studied the section of pseudoscientific tactics from chapter 13. There are seven tactics; the first one is "creation of a phantom goal" that talks about methods to achieve unrealistic objectives. The next three tactics are "vivid testimonials", "manufacturing source credibility" and "consensus heuristic", which usually provide personal experiences as well as the sources that people tend to believe in. In addition, there are other tactics, such as "the natural commonplace" and "the goddess-within commonplace" that discuss about people belief. Many people always think natural products are good, but it is not true. Take poisonous mushrooms, for instance. Moreover, a huge number of people strongly believe in hidden mystical sides without any valid evidences. The last tactic was "scarcity heuristic", which is about people reactions. People often think of something that is rare must be very valuable, thus these ads will always have an additional line telling customers to be fast because the products are going to sell out soon.

In conclusion, I strongly believe that I would still memorize the concept of "pseudoscience" in the next five years, since it is closely related to my major and my future job. Moreover, pseudoscience happens frequently in real life, and I will have to face it everyday. The best thing, after studying about it, is I cannot be deceived easily because I now can recognize many forms of pseudoscience.

Thuc Huynh

Five Years Later

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In five years time I will definitely remember the Little Albert experiment. It was a study to find out how and if classical conditioning worked in humans. The study was to create a fear response to a child with a variety of objects that Albert was not fearful of before the experiment. Albert was subjected to a loud sound and then was presented a white laboratory rat to play with. After many trials, Albert would become anxious and fearful when only the rat was presented which showed learning. Albert would even become fearful when presented with a similar object, such as a furry dog.

I thought this experiment was particularly fascinating because of the ethical and moral views about it. The experimenters (John Watson and Rosalie Rayner) obviously had no problem with exposing Albert to these kinds of treatments even though they were aware that the mother may not think highly of the tests. When the mother found out, naturally, she was outraged and immediately withdrew Albert from the experiment and the child's identity was actually quite a mystery for some time.

Even though the experiment did have its own problems as far as ethics go, it was a successful test and proved the theories to be factual.

~Andrew Wegner

Psychology in Five Years

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Jenny Vue vuexx256@umn.edu

Remember all those times when your friends complained to you about his/her partner? Exactly! Some of them may not think much whereas some can just keep going on and on with the "what ifs." It can even make you go crazy sometimes! This is how psychology concepts comes in.
I always tell my friends, whoever is complaining to me, that there are many possible reasons why their partner respond to them in that sort of way. This concept is the correlation versus causation fallacy:

A -> B A causes B,
B -> A B causes A,
Or
C -> A and B C causes both A and B

Although I have use this concept before, I know that I will use this concept again in the future because it is appropriate for some situations, or should I say most? I might run into some relationship problems, business problems, school problems, or whatever problems and use this concept to lay out the causes for that condition.

Without a doubt, the most important concept in psychology which I believe will stick with me for years is the idea of multiple intelligences. I have always felt that people do exhibit strengths in certain areas over others, and although the book claims that this belief cannot be falsified, I believe that there is more than a hint of truth to what it says. From my experiences growing up, I have seen many kids who possess great skill in one area but lack talent or intelligence in another. For example, I have some friends who are musically brilliant, yet they a logico-mathematical gift. It seems to me that another reason why this intelligence theory is important is because of its ability to encourage those who may be weak in one area to pursue a different one. The Discovery Channel website that I linked to this blog discusses the importance of preaching multiple intelligences to developing minds. A child who is told that they are not talented in one subject may become discouraged and lose confidence when it comes to others. However, if a student is told that they are intelligent in another way, they will be motivated to embrace that skill. It is for all of these reasons that I find the theory of multiple intelligences to be of great interest to me, and why I know it will stick with me for years to come.

Do You Like Me?

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As college students, as young adults, as relationship-seeking animals, we look for love. Sometimes we fail at love, sometimes we succeed. But all in common is that we are constantly looking for intimate relationships. Sometimes, when we fail at love, we look for someone who are experienced so we can get advice from them.

However, there are actually psychological techniques we can use to achieve love with our own hands. The rule is simple: The near the better, the more the better, the similar-er the better.

The law of proximity, mere exposure, and similarity may be the key medicine to your ill-love. The law of proximity states that the closer you live to someone, the more likely you are to have a relationship with him or her. The mere exposure effect suggests that simply the more exposure will lead to a more positive emotion. And lastly, the law of similarity explains why couples tend to look alike, have similar hobbies and personalities.

Now that you know this, next time you go for someone, move close to them, see them as often as possible, and try to know what they are like, so you can be similar to them. Maybe it will work this time, but maybe it won't. If it doesn't work, you have your last option: simply telling someone that you like him or her may cause them to view you differently. So at the end of the day, the most premature and simple way may be the best way. So, next time, let's just be straightforward and honest without any disguise or lies and say, "Hey, I like you."

When it comes to psychology, it is so hard to pinpoint one concept that I found most interesting because there are so many! This is the first psychology course I have ever taken and it has brought me to a whole new level of understanding about the human body and the ways of life. Many of these topics have made me look at life through a new lens. If I had to choose one that influenced me the most, it would be stress/stress management! This really caught my attention, and I will never forget what I learned. The research done by psychologists that has proven that stress and Coronary Heart Disease are, in some cases, very strongly related really caught my attention. At the age of 18, I had a heart attack in October of 2010. My cardiologist suspected that it was stress related due to the fact that my heart had no damage and there was no blockage in my arteries. The concept of stress will always be important to me now. I have realized the impact it can have on ones life. Stress management is something I will never forget after what has happened to me and what I have learned in this class. Many things play into it as talked about in the book, such as sleep, diet, activity, and setting a time-management schedule. It's a big influence on everyone's life, especially us college students. After learning about CHD and how it is caused by stress, I am rather paranoid about how I handle my stress and other variables such as diet and working out. After having a heart attack, I'm going to do everything I possibly can to keep my health at its maximum using the things I have learned in this course.

Stress/stress management is just one of the many concepts that I will remember from this course!

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Five years from now

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In Psychology, there are so many different concepts. Students learning about Psychology can relate to these concepts in different ways. In this week's blog, I was asked to write about a concept that I thought I would be able to remember five years from now. I thought carefully about what concept I was going to choose, and after a debate between a few, I decided to go with the Nature vs. Nurture debate. The Nature vs. Nurture debate is the debate on whether our behaviors emerge from our genes (nature) or to our rearing environments (nurture). I sort of relate to this debate in the fact that my cousin was adopted. She has always had behavioral problems and tended not to get along with her parents or siblings. Her siblings were not adopted. When I first read about this debate in the book, I sided more with the nurture side, because to me that made more sense. However, after thinking about it a little more I slowly started changing my mind. I thought about my cousin who has had behavioral problems all of her life, and how her siblings seem perfectly fine. Other examples in the book such as the identical quadruplets started to influence my decision on switching sides. The reason I think I am going to remember this concept for the next five years is because now every time I see my cousin I am going to wonder if her behavior was constructed by her genes.

Pavlov's Dog

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One thing I will not forget about Psychology 1001 is Ivan Pavlov's experiment. His salivating dog provided possible insight to the world of addictions. The pairing of a stimulus and a response, shows how some habits are formed.

When I listen to a playlist multiple times, at the end of each song, I can already hear the next because I formed relationships between the two. This phenomenon can be explained with classic conditioning.

The reason this is fascinating, is because classic conditioning is applied to the real world. For example, commercials and advertisements are based on having the costumer have some sort of conditioned response that will make the product sell.

Knowing these psychological tricks, and being more aware, can possibly prevent me from being manipulated and from falling into the hands of such devices.

Video Summary: This video explains Pavlov's experiment with making the dog salivate when it hears the sound of a bell.

Anna Shrifteylik
Section 12

The classic nature vs. nurture debate will be the most memorable concept that we studied this semester in psychology. This detailed and intricate debate will continue to challenge the origin of our daily behaviors and personalities. In brief, many early philosophers, including John Locke, were convinced that humans were born a clean slate, void of any initial behavioral tendencies. They believed that every behavior was due to the influences and experiences the human is exposed to in their environment, also known as nurture. In contrast, Darwin's evolutionary theory inspired a new branch of evolutionary psychology, in which psychologists suggested that memory, emotion, and personality are adaptive functions for survival and reproduction. Evolutionary psychologists believed that genes were much more important in determining behaviors, rather than environment. So the debate remains, whether our behavior is determined by our experiences in our external environment, or our internal genetic make-up due to evolution.

While today it is generally accepted through substantial research that behavior is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, there are still many implications when investigating many issues in our society today. For example, on average, wealthy students tend to perform scholastically at a higher level than financially less fortunate students. The nature vs. nurture debate questions whether the wealthier students are predisposed to a healthier learning environment, or if they have acquired a genetic make-up more suitable for higher academic performance. In another example, many debate the origins of homosexuality, and whether it is genetic in nature or caused by nurture. Many U.S. researchers have identified genes that they believe to be related to homosexuality, while many religious leaders believe that homosexuality is an unnatural, learned behavior. These are just a few examples of how the debate between nature vs. nurture will always be present when identifying the causation of behaviors.

This is a video exemplifying the implications of nature vs. nurture theory in studies of homosexuality.

Matthew S. Barg

Understanding the young

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As a babysitter, having a good relationship with the kids you are watching is a great thing to have. In order to get along and hang out with the children a knowledge of the development of the child is key. The children I have babysat for range from infants to nine years old, a wide variety of developmental stages there. Knowing when a child can pinpoint and understand punishment and reward is almost pertinent to a successful dynamic between you two. Thankfully I have taken some psychology classes that have helped to outline the stages and ages of specific learning and development. I know that an infant's brain is not developed enough to understand punishment or anger, so I must use other ways, more gentler, to get the point across. A nine year old has had enough development to know that after you eat a meal or playing with toys, cleaning them up is part of the whole sequence. And at this point if they refuse to, they are also able to understand the punishment that can ensue. I've also become accustomed to being able to relate to the children. I know that most of the children I babysit are probably egocentric and aren't the most respectful to others due to naivety. With some background knowledge of child development it is easier for me to understand what is going through the children's heads and if I need to help them solve a problem or if they are able to do it on their own.

Psychology is important as it is concerned with the study of behavior and mental processes and at the same time, it is also applied to many different things in human life. Everything we perform is very much related to or with psychology. Psychology, primarily studies who and what we are, why we are like that, why we act and think like that and what we could be as a person.

Psychology is important in a lot of different ways, for instance the studies that has been conducted in various life threatening illnesses. Through the process of utilizing psychology, psychologists determined different diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and some other Neurological diseases. By making use of psychological research, doctors have now developed medicines and are even able to alleviate different illnesses.

As a writer, psychology is important as it helps me in understanding myself better, it helps me to perceive things positively and it assists me in determining the things that I enjoy doing the most and the kind of stuff I like to write about. It also contributes a lot of great help in the way I handle things in life, the way I face challenges and problems that occur at unexpected times and of course the way I make decisions in my everyday living.

Five Years From Now

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Over the course of this semester in Psychology 1001, we have covered a vast range of topics. Five years from now, when I'm well on my way in the real world and starting my career, I think the thing I will remember the most is the information of how sleep works and the concept of REM sleep. I believe that this is what I will remember most because even while just now being in college, I have applied this the most to my life, by thinking of sleep in a different way and making sure that I am getting enough of it. When I'm on my own completely and working incredibly hard in my career, I will need a lot of sleep and to feel rested every day, and the knowledge of sleep is what I will use to make decisions on my sleep pattern. The idea of REM sleep also interested me in Psych 1001, where I pay attention to whether or not I have vivid dreams, and can relate that back to the quality of my night's sleep. I find it interesting, although I don't know just how actually useful it may turn out to be later in life, Its something to think about when waking up in the morning.
zzz

Overall in my life I can see where psychology has played a big part. It has helped explain many concepts, but the one that sticks out the most to me is the idea of classical conditioning. The knowledge that comes from it helps me to understand why I behave the way I do. Looking into my childhood, and my transition into adulthood, classical conditioning has helped explain many things. Using the concept of classical conditioning I can see that my leadership tendencies root back to my position as the oldest child. From a young age, I was thrown into being the boss of my siblings and looking out for them. That has transferred into my life now tremendously. I'm the "planner" and "organizer" for everything and oftentimes people seek out my advice, it is a natural reflex for me to take control. I love my place as the leader and would not change it for anything. Another concept in my life that is a result of classical conditioning is a lot of my views on the world. I was raised in an area that highly values education and that has transferred into my life. It was never a question of if I was going to go to college, it was a matter of where. Being raised in a different environment could have very easily meant I did not value education the way I do and it could have meant I would react differently to people speaking about college. All in all these concepts represent how classical conditioning has affected my life. Below is a link that further talks of classical conditioning.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqumfpxuzI

In Five Years...

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Although we've been lectured on and discussed many topics in psychology, ranging from bio psych to social psych, one thing that I will never forget will probably be the different forms of conditioning and how it affects us in everyday life. It's always lurking there, but never fully seen. It makes sense of why we might be scared or something or why we avoid something we're scared of. Not only that, but being able to experience different conditioning techniques I think really helped drill these few concepts in my memory. I will never forget that Pavlov used classical conditioning to train his dogs and that Skinner used operant conditioning on pigeons!

No matter what type of conditioning, a person can confidently say that it plays a huge role in life daily. Whether it's teaching a dog new tricks by reinforcing it with a doggy treat or avoiding sushi like no tomorrow after getting sick from it.

"Pigeons reading!?"

Joann Khong
Section 13

The Hazard of Groupthink

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Throughout the semester, I've been exposed to numerous psychological concepts. Every single concept is memorable in its own right because each provides me different insight into the human's psyche and behaviors. Be that as it may, the most distinguished concept, which I believe that I will still remember five years from now on, is groupthink.


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Groupthink, as defined in the Lilienfeld textbook, is the emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking. In this phenomenon, which is closely related to conformity, groups aim to make sure that everyone agree with each other; therefore, groups often make decision by combining common knowledge - information that group members share, rather than considering unique knowledge. Consequently, groups often make vacuous decisions because there is no net gain in information. Two incidents that illustrate the catastrophe of groupthink is the 1961 invasion of the Bay of Pigs in Cuba, and the space shuttle Challenger explosion in 1986.


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Groups are vulnerable to groupthink when they display these following symptoms: illusion of invulnerability, illusion of unanimity, illusion of morality, conformity pressure, excessive stereotyping of the out-group, self-censorship, and mindguards. When discerning these symptoms, group leaders can put an end to groupthink by either encouraging active dissent within the group, or having independent experts to evaluate whether the group's decision is justifiable. Last but not least, holding a follow-up meeting to assess if the decision reached in the previous meeting still seems practical can also serve as a beneficial check against erroneous reasoning.


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In the workplace nowadays, collaboration and group work are crucial; therefore, it is inevitable that I will have to work in a group at some point in my future career. With the knowledge that groupthink often leads groups to make poor and overconfident decisions, I can properly warn other group members against the hazard of groupthink. As a result, the group can take sufficient precaution against groupthink, thus increasing group's productivity.

Ngoc Nguyen
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Remembering Psychology 1001

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Throughout the Psychology 1001 course I have learned about many interesting topics ranging from human growth to language development to personality and much more. However, one piece of information that I believe will stick with me is the function of the amygdala. The amygdala is housed in the limbic system, the part of the brain that regulates emotions. This complex almond shaped region is devoted to excitement, arousal, and fear. I found it very interesting to learn that a Pavlovian Conditioning study on rats found that legions in their amygdalas completely blocked fear. This demonstrated the large role it has in fear. In addition, brain scans show that during an orgasm the amygdala becomes less active, explaining why people feel extremely relaxed and comfortable afterwards. I will forever be able to differentiate from the hippocampus, responsible for episodic memory, and the amygdala, whose role lies in emotional conditioning. I thought it was very interesting to learn the functions of different parts of the brain. I believe this particular region will forever be embedded in my head because it was prevalent throughout the majority of the course due to its wide range of functions. For more information on the amygdala watch this video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6GdALwuYtG8

Michaela Doud

Five Years From Now

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Five years from now, the concept that I believe will be most imbedded in my memory and I will be able to remember would be the concept of sleeping and dreaming. I thought it was so interesting that men usually dream about other men more than they do about women and women usually dream about men. I also thought it was very interesting about lucid dreaming where you know your dreaming, even when you're sleeping. That has happened to me and it's fun to figure out that it happens with everyone and there is actually a term for it. I was interested in the five different cycles of sleeping as well. I knew there was REM sleep but I did not know that there was five types of sleep that you go through more than one time a night. I was also curious to find out that I probably suffer from insomnia some of the time. I am a person who takes naps a lot and I tend to get too much sleep during the day. Due to these naps I suffer from insomnia at night, laying in bed for about an hour until I am able to fall asleep. My sleep schedule is really messed up from these naps so I have been trying to not take as many, due to what I learned about our REM cycles at night. This helps me go to sleep at night now and I'm guessing I will remember this trick five years from now.
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Prejudice and discrimination ave always been huge issues in society. In five years, it will obviously still be an issue and that is why I believe that the concepts of Robbers Cave Study and Jigsaw Classrooms are important ideas in psychology. In Robbers Cave Study, two groups that originally ad negative prejudices towards each other were forced to work together in order to achieve a greater goal that could not be accomplished by one of the groups alone.It was found that two groups working together with cooperation toward a common goal significantly decreased the ideas of discrimination that the groups had previously had toward each other. The concept of Jigsaw Classrooms is basically the same idea, but it is where each individual is assigned a task to contribute to the entire lesson or project.Studies have proven that jigsaw classrooms dramatically decrease racial prejudice. In society it would be nice to eliminate negative prejudices we have against other groups. How can this be achievable? Using these concepts I believe would definitely decrease any negative ideas we have towards other groups. Another step to take towards removing racism is to try to teach children at a young age that it is not acceptable. Although I don't think racism will ever completely go away, I know as a person of mixed ethnicity that steps in a positive direction can be made.

Grace Eicher

Bystander Intervention

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In Psychology 1001 I have learned many different concepts, theories, and evidence. However, in five years the piece of the class that I believe I will remember the most is the idea of Bystander Intervention. Our book specifically said that after reading the chapter on social psychology many of us will intervene in crucial societal situations because we now have the knowledge that many other people will not stop to help out. I have already noticed this theory working itself out in my life. Yesterday I was in Coffman and I noticed glass on the floor so I went and told the front desk because I remembered reading chapter 13 and I figured nobody else would go say something. This is a beneficial piece of psychology to remember because now I know that if a situation comes up I will be more likely to help.
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Bystander Intervention has also taught me not to look down upon those who may not have helped out in a situation because it is not that they do not want to help, but rather that they feel someone else will, such as in the cases of pluralistic ignorance and diffusion of responsibility. Overall, I will remember this concept in psychology in five years because it can have a great effect in the daily lives of society and will benefit those around me.

The Next Five Years

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We have learned a excessive amount of topics in this psychology course. There are many things that caught my interest. One of these things is the big 5 personality profile and personality tests in general. This for some reason got me interested in personality and how accurate these tests are. As a current freshman, we had to take a personality test that gives us five strengths that we have. This test was to bring to our attention the strengths we have so were able to utilize them. I believe that figuring out peoples personalities will help us get to know and interact with that person better than before. I will remember these concept in five years because it was something out of all the concepts we learned that really caught my interest. The big five personality profile consists of openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, and extraversion.
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-Spencer Overgaard

Five years from now

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There have been lots of concepts in the psychology class. Among those, the concept I believe I will remember five years from now is the idea of false memory. I found it very interesting to learn that even a vivid and detailed memory can be actually inaccurate. The book demonstrated that people can have memories that did not actually happened at all. After learning about this, I wanted to check if it is true, so I tried to remember the most vivid memory in my life. The most vivid memory in my life was a car accident after which I could not get up for three days. Then, I called my mom to check if there is anything false in my memory. Surprisingly, mom told me that I had never had a car accident. I still do not know why I remember a car accident in so much detail. After some researches, I found that it is possible to remember as my own if I saw a car accident and felt highly aroused. Because I get highly aroused easily, I became so curious of how many memories are false in my life. A good thing is that since I learned this concept, I think I will not make a false memory ever again unless it is inevitable.

Learning about Learning

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Learning about psychology this year got me thinking about learning. It sounds like a very simple statement, but it had me intrigued at every turn of this class. When we began the chapter on how people learn and the different types of learning that are used I began to reflect upon each class after the school day was over. How was I taught in psychology today? Was it through operant conditioning or classical conditioning? How often were concepts mentioned and what sort learning mechanisms were attached to specific concepts to help me remember them better? When I first started doing this my head was spinning. I was using what I learned in psychology to dissect exactly how I learned those concepts in psychology.

I eventually started to use this information to analyze how I was being taught in my other classes. I was looking at my education in a whole new light. I found out that I best learn when I am able to put information into a meaningful pattern and learn that same information even better when I write this pattern down multiple times. This information I gained helped to streamline my studying for tests by saving me time as well as improving my grades on later tests in different classes. I will always remember the concepts presented to me in the Learning chapter of our textbook for it has forever changed how I approach my studies.

Ian Peters

Is There Safety in Numbers?

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I think one of the most interesting topics we studied this year in psych 1001 was social psychology. I will be able to recall what I learned in chapter 13 for years to come because it talked about human reactions with one another and why we, depending on the situation, act the way we do. The information was valuable for me to learn because it helped explain social behaviors that are commonly encountered. I found the section of the chapter about people's reactions based on groups very interesting. It is so odd how people tend to feel less responsible when they are in a group of people or in a public place.

After reading the stories of bystander nonintervention I thought of how important it is to still voice your opinion, even if you are in a group. The stories talked about terrible things that happened in completely public areas. I know that if I ever were to get into trouble I hope I would be able to rely on bystanders to help me. It is important that we don't fall victim to pluralistic ignorance, diffusion of responsibility or social loafing.

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The image above is Kitty Genovese. She was murdered in a public area where it is estimated that 30 or so neighbors may have heard her screams and cries for help. Many of the neighbors were most likely engaging in pluralistic ignorance. They made the error of assuming that no one in a group was perceiving what they were

By: Danielle Spizzirri

Magic Memory Chunks

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A concept I believe I will remember five years down the road is the "Magic Number" and "Chunking" memory tricks. The magic number is the span of short-term memory, according to George Miller: seven plus or minus two pieces of information. That for many people, you can remember this many things at any time during your short term memory.

This is a neat trick that I have seen used on one of my favorite TV shows Survivor. The objective was to remember items from a distant board and return and reproduce the board. Now if you were wrong you needed to return to the original board which only slowed you down. The person who won mentioned the magic number. When he was remembering the items he grouped them into groups of seven at a time. He finished quite a bit faster than the others and explained the magic number. I've remembered that ever since but not known what it was called. He also said that's why phone numbers are seven digits long, making them easier to remember!

Another thing I think I'll remember in five years is "chunking". With this we are able to remember more than seven plus or minus two items by ordering the items into meaningful groups. This is a very useful technique that I fell will help my memory with things like going to the grocery store to taking exams! It's a pretty simple concept that I think is really interesting.

Here is a video on the chunking technique:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDbAYMUXpcA


-Nathan Bourgeois

Remembering the Big 5

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One aspect of psychology which I think I will carry with me and use for the rest of my life is the Big Five Personality profile. When I learned the concept that a person's personality is based on the amount of each of the big five personality traits, it changed the way I perceive the personalities of myself and others. The five personality dimensions are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. I thought it was so interesting that by exploring which characteristics a person possesses you can better understand why they act the way they do. In my future jobs I will be inclined to learn and understand the dimensions of the big five in which my colleagues possess. This understanding would be very valuable because once you better understand the dimensions someone holds you are able to better interact with the person and understand them better.
The Big 5 personality profile will have a lasting influence on me because it is apparent and can be applied all around the world we live in. As we talked about in lecture you can see it in cartoons such as the Simpsons. It can also be seen and applied in celebrities, athletes, and people you see every day.

Ben Sicoli

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vm2vafSHf_U

Last blog post

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The concept I learned from Introduction to Psychology that I am sure I will remember in the future is a rather basic one; the 6 principles of scientific thinking. The 6 principles are ruling out rival hypothesis, Occam's razor, falsifiability, replicability, extraordinary claims and correlation versus causation. They are easy to remember and will stick in my head, not only because there was questions on them on every single quiz and test I took, but also because almost every example of psychology I learned over the semester can be examined by using them. Yes, it may be a rather boring thing to remember from Psych but I also believe it is one of the most important things that will stick in my mind because it is useful in all facets of my life when examining things that may or may not be true. These six principles go beyond Psychology and can be applied to all forms of science, or quite frankly, anything that requires an explanation. I have these 6 core principles memorized into my core thanks to Psychology and I highly doubt I'll be forgetting them any time soon.


One thing that I will remember five years from now is how the mind develops from a baby to an adult. The one thing in general is the false-belief task. The false-belief task is when a child is told or shown a story about two children. In this story the two children, most often Sally and Anne are in a room with a basket and a box. Sally also has a marble which she will put into the basket. Sally then leaves the room and then Anne moves the marble from the basket to the box. Sally will then come back into the room. The child is then asked where Sally will look for the marble. The child passes the test if they say she will look in the basket, where it was when she left. They will fail if they say that she will look in the box where they know it is.

The most interesting thing with this is that I was at the Science Museum this past weekend and they have a table with this exact scenario. There happened to be a three year old girl at the table with her parents and they were reading the story to her. When they asked her where the girl would look she said that it was in the box. Her parents looked at us and said that you can't explain it to her, she just doesn't get it. It was really interesting to see this in real life.


Becky Selser

five years from now

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Five years from now, psychology may be still hiding somewhere in the back of my mind. Of all of the things we have learned this semester, I think I will remember the Big Five personality traits the best. Going back to the Big Five traits, they are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. There are many different reasons why I think I would remember this in five years. First off I think the big five traits are very interesting when looking at a person distinctiveness. By knowing a person's traits, you can get a feel of how the person may act. The next reason I will remember them is to look at myself. I feel i will remember the big five personality traits because I want to see if mine will have changed over the next five years of my life. I feel it would be really cool to look later on in my life and see what my key personally traits are. I would like to see what about me has changed. It could be openness, conscientiousness, extraversion etc... I just don't know. Looking ahead in my life, I would wonder why certain traits of mine have changed. What in my life would affect my personality to change, or would it just stay the same. I don't know that now, but in five years I might. This is why the Big Five personality traits are something I am going to remember in five years.

Matt Gonsior

Schemas

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The psychological aspect that I believe will stay with me in the future is the concept of schemas. As I walked around and explore this huge campus, I make an effort to remember the places I go and how I came to be there. I never want to become lost because this gives me great anxiety; therefore, I always make it known how to get somewhere. For example, the first time I had a REP study in Elliot Hall, I found it rather difficult locating South rooms compared to North rooms. After a little time and back tracking my steps, I finally found the hidden south elevator.University-of-Minnesota-Twin-Cities-Campus-Map.mediumthumb.jpg Having a mental map of my surroundings gives me comfort. In fact, if my friends don't know where a class is, I provide a turn by turn presentation of how to get there. I even explain my ability to remember locations by stating, "Never doubt where someone is going if their last name is a direction." I get some sarcastic laughs, but in all seriousness I have always wondered what the technical term for what enables me to recall such elaborate mental maps. The concept of schemas finally gave me the answer.

Going back to what Paul Broks, he is the one that I agree with the most because I can actually relate to it. Matter fact, it's a problem I that I am currently struggling with at the moment. The idea of fully understanding the concept, but not being able to apply it to you knowledge when most need, or not being able to use it when you are asked about it. Now first, I want to talk about my exams in my Psychology class and how I am struggling with them even though I have the knowledge from the required readings. Now I know that this might seems a little off topic, but I was thinking that if I can't apply my knowledge from the readings to my exams then how in the world am I going to keep it for years. Second of all, in the book it talks about the idea of "Belief Perseverance" in which the tendency to stick to our premises even when proved otherwise with data and evidences. Like me when I was young I always believed that my father was murdered instead of what the doctors said which in this case, "Natural cause", heart attack. At that time, it was impossible for me to believe that my father, a very healthy person and 43 years old died of a heart attack. I started developing theories and observations that weren't even there so I "See" what I wanted to see even when evidences contradicted me. I believe that us, as human beings we have something called "Instincts" that we would follow no matter what sometimes regardless of what everyone has to say.

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The things I learned in psychology that I am going to take with me are the five principles of scientific thinking. One of the reasons is because we have used them throughout this entire course. You can barely turn a page without seeing a orange, purple, pink, blue, green, or navy blue blurb. The second reason may be because I constantly use them in daily arguments with my sister and boyfriend. It has become a knee jerk reaction to evaluate any claim I hear with these five principles. I find myself doing this often when watching television or reading items on the internet.

I will also take the fallacies that we learned about. I have fallen prey to more than one of these. Psychology has given me a heads up so I can avoid these mistakes in the future. This will allow me to save money in the future on items endorsed by pseudoscience. I was even gracious enough to share my knowledge with a friend and she chose not to continue consuming her diet pills.

Psychology has given me many tools, but these two will be used the most in my life.

Lynzi Daly

The concept in psychology that I know I will remember five years from now is the idea of rehearsal, which is an important part of the mind's memory. The concept rehearsal helps me remember important information for a longer period of time through the act of repetition. I am certain I will remember this concept because I presume that I will always find the need to repeat new information in order to extend the duration of retention in my short-term memory. I currently use the concept of rehearsal very often as I find the need to remember ideas presented in particular classes that I know I will be tested on. Though I will most likely not be in school five years from now (or so I hope), I am sure that I will continue to use the concept of rehearsal when I need to remember a phone number, driving directions, rules for a new job, a recipe, a license plate, when to pay my bills, etc. I predict that I will continue using the concept of rehearsal throughout my entire life as it is a very useful memorization strategy and it is quite inevitable to not practice. Without the concept of rehearsal, I would be quite forgetful and ill informed.

Kaya Allen
Section 13

In five years I know I will remember one crucial concept to psychological learning. That concept is conditioning. It's not that hard to forget! We use it every day, often times without consciously knowing it.

Conditioning is where we add or take away stimuli to elicit a behavior. There are two types of conditioning: Classical and Operant. Classical Conditioning is when organisms respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus, eliciting an automatic response. Operant Conditioning is learning controlled by the consequences of a behavior.

Conditioning plays such a large role in how people learn and behave. Not a single one of us has gotten away from conditioning. We become thirsty when we see a Coca-Cola sign, we teach our dogs to sit by giving it treats. Someone may get sick every time they hear someone say McDonalds because they got sick from that Big Mac and large fries. No one can escape the effects of conditioning. It's inevitable, at least once in our life we will fall victim to conditioning.

That's why I will remember conditioning. It's not the fact that I studied it for days. It's the fact that it's the soundest way to get what you want. You can train just about anyone, given enough time, to do your biddings. Unethical, yes but it is true none the less. We can't escape conditioning so we might as well use it to our advantage.

Stress & Hardiness

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Modern life is creating stress. The causes of stress in modern life emerge from the too many obligations we have to handle everyday to the modern way of negative thinking. Salvatore Maddi and his colleagues studied the qualities of stress-resistant people. They determined that resilient people possess set of attitudes called hardiness. Hardy people view change as a challenge rather than a threat, are committed to their life and work, and believe they can control events. Hardy individuals have the courage and motivation to confront stressors and engage in problem solving to contend with them. Maddi conducted a longitudinal study that examined changes in health and attitudes over time. At the end of 2 years, people whose attitudes toward life reflected high levels of control, commitment, and challenge remained healthier than those whose attitudes didn't. Hardiness can boost stress resistance among nurses in hospice settings, immigrants adjusting to life in the United States. Hardiness can transform stressors from potential disasters into valuable growth opportunities. This concept will help us to live healthy life in the future.


Sonam kim

There are many things I will take with me throughout the years after having psychology this semester. I have learned that the world is not always as it may seem and people sometimes do things you would never expect. This is the case in the bystander effect.
The bystander effect is the phenomenon in which the more people present, the less likely someone is to help another person in distress. This happening is interesting to me because it of course seems as though the opposite would occur. After lecture and reading the text I found out that the larger the group, the less obligated people feel to help. The presence of others makes each individual person feel less responsible for the outcome. This feeling of having less responsibility in a crowd of others is also known as the diffusion of responsibility. Many people also may find the situation to be too dangerous or they just don't want to get involved.
This is something I will remember because it shocks and terrifies me. I would hope someone would stop to help me in an emergency instead of just walk by or expect someone else to help. I also hope that I would have the courage to step up to help when someone else is in need. I think I would, but you never really know how you are going to react until you are actually in the situation. Learning about this phenomenon has made me more conscientious of this occurrence and I feel like I will be more likely to take action. I know I will never forget the myth of "safety in numbers".

Nina Carney

One thing I'll Remember

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One thing that I will remember from this semester of psychology is the classification of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, or OCD for short. I will remember this most because I have it. However one useful thing that I will take out of this reading that I don't have it as bad as the book says is possible. I like to do things in threes and fives and if I can help it I will. However I am not so extreme where I can only do things in those two numbers. Another thing the book mentioned is that these people tend to repeatedly check door locks and such and this especially related to me because I constantly worry that I haven't locked my door.
Other than the common "rituals" that people with OCD suffer from I learned the most that I wasn't as extreme which helps me because it can be easily treated. Since my OCD is not that extreme I could easily overcome it by gradually decreasing the extent to which my OCD affects certain areas, much like the idea of extinction. With that I could start to lose this habit and that is one thing I will remember because it affects me daily.
Overall I would say I learned I should try to keep this under control or try to get rid of it completely, the first one being a more obvious and easier choice. And once again since this affects me daily, I will remember this in the next 5 years.

Jacob Patnode

5 years from now...

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In five years the two concepts I think I will remember most heuristics and conformity.

Heuristics are mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world. I will remember how heuristics work most of the time by making us not overwhelmed by thousands of pieces of information, but they occasionally can fool us. They are meant to simplify reality but they can over simplify it, by leading us to false conclusions, which is helpful to know. One common heuristic to remember is the representativeness heuristic. This is when we judge the probability of something based on similarities to another. Another common one is the availability heuristic. This is when we overestimate the likelihood of an event happening based on the ease with which we can think of it. So I will remember how my mind can play tricks on me by creating these shortcuts, that aren't always correct.

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I really like the picture above because it is an example of non-conformity. Conformity is the tendency of a person to change their behavior as a result of group pressure. I will remember this, because the results of the Asch study were very surprising to me. Being in college and around groups of people a lot, I feel like this is something that is around me every day. I like the picture above, because it's a good example of being yourself, even if you are the only person hanging upside down, and other people look at you weird like the birds above. Learning about this in psychology will help me to not conform and be myself.

I didn't know much about psychology before entering this class, so in extremely general terms I will remember that psychology, or a psychologist, is a lot more than a person sitting there talking about their feelings, while another person tries to help. I learned that psychology is a science, and conducts studies, experimental or correlational, that explore everything from the mind to behaviors and more.

Sources
Lilienfeld Textbook

Katie Johnson

Geine Wiley

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In five years the topic from psychology 1001 that I will most clearly remember would have to be the effects of language deprivation in extreme situations. Specifically the story of a girl named Genie will never leave my memory bank. This poor girl was malnourished, abused, and deprived of social contact with people for 13 years. She is a living example of the effects of language deprivation.
Genie was found in a basement in 1979 chained in a back room. She could not speak or perform basic social norms. The following youtube video explains the situation in depth. This video is the first of 8 youtube videos from the PBS series nova. If you would like to watch all of the links on the side will assist you.


While this situation is extreme there are other cases of language deprivation that happen all the time. Children who suffer from hearing loss or who are fully deaf who live with hearing parents are in a similar situation. Generally, the parents will invent a homesign which according to Lilienfeld is a system of sings invented by deaf children of hearing parents who receive no language input. Cases in which this happen tend to produce high functioning and normal individuals. But these situations where homesign is used as opposed to American Sign language still provided enough mental background for a person to learn a formal sign language later in life. These individuals present evidence for the need of some sort language in the infantile development phase of a child's life.
These cases of homesign or the extreme situation of Genie Wiley are a shocking example of language deprivation. Genie recovered as best she could from that terrible situation. This story is one that I could never forget and demonstrates the need for social linguistic connections. I hope there are never any situations in which a human is subjected to this kind of abuse.

Remembering Psychology

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Psychology has given me a greater understanding of how to think on a critical level. I won't necessarily use Sigmund Freud's crazy ideas or the many parts of the brain in 5 years, but I have learned how to think in a way that is more accepting of grey areas. Down the road I believe that will be very useful to me.

In the majority of classes I have taken so far, the major questions professors proposed had definite sides of right and wrong, black and white. In psychology there is a lot of grey area that is still being researched today. The nature vs. nurture debate is a great example of that. Who we grow up to be is not entirely dependent on heredity nor are they dependent entirely on environmental influences. Most traits are considered partially heritable, but there is no "alcoholic gene."

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Everything in academics is structured and organized, and from what I hear from about the real world is that very little of what you learn in class is applicable to your life. I think the experience of cyphering through grey areas and thinking critically is something I will certainly use in the future, not just tomorrow or in school but throughout life.

Brandon Budnicki
Budn0019

Resilience

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Although it's difficult to narrow down all that I've learned in Psychology 1001 to one memorable topic, there is something that sticks out in my mind; the idea that we all have a baseline of happiness and that we are constantly on what Brickman and Campbell call the hedonic treadmill (which says that our moods are always adjusting and adapting to our external environments).half-full-half-empty.png As humans, we all tend to overestimate the amount of time that our moods will affect us (which is the durability bias), when in reality, we are very resilient and we can bounce back rather quickly.

After reading about this in chapter eleven, I realized how true it really was; when we do poorly on an important test or experience some other sort of devastating or exhilarating event, we think these events will have major impacts on our mood and our life in general, when we really just return to "baseline" happiness within a fairly short matter of time.

This is something that I will remember because it reminds me that nothing is really as bad (or good, for that matter) as it seems. We will have highs, and we will have lows, and it can all depend on how we view our experiences. Humans are very strong beings in general, and can withstand the worst of the worst. We can adjust our moods to fit our circumstances. So, for the most part, no matter what happens, life will go on.

Amanda Blake

Psychology of MY Future

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Psychology can be applied every single day in life. It is necessary in almost every profession, but in my intended profession, owning a bridal store, personality is especially important. I will need to be able to read people's personalities in order to help them find the perfect dress to complement their personality, and in turn, one they will LOVE. Personality and the characteristics that depend on it will be prevalent in my next five years professionally and for my entire life in general. Using personality traits to help customers find the perfect dress for them is what makes a successful bridal store, and learning about personality in psychology has helped me immensely already. Every woman's personality is different and her dress should reflect that. It will take me a few years to learn the kind of personalities matches which dresses, but I will soon be able to help women find the dress of their dreams based on her personality. Knowing about personality will also help me deal with picky, angry, or stubborn women. I will be more ready to see how they act and how they respond to others based on their personalities.

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If you ever need a wedding dress, find the one that corresponds to your personality here or here, and then come find me.

I will remember several principles of social psychology; groupthink and conformity, for years to come. I am in groups all the time, with friends, in school and in work, so these aspects of social psychology are very relevant to my life.

First, I will remember groupthink. Groupthink is when you are in a group of people and everyone tends to just "go with the flow" instead of actually thinking critically about decisions they will make. Now that I know about how groupthink works, I will be more careful to avoid it. I know that I will have to actively engage in dissent with the group.

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Second, I will remember conformity. Conformity is when people change their behavior as a result of pressure from other people within a group. It is so easy to fall prey to conformity, especially when you are just trying to fit in and get along with other people. However, I must remain wary of this common mistake. I cannot compromise my values or beliefs just to fit in or make friends. I must not conform too much, or it could be dangerous.

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I will be wary of groupthink and conformity and will be sure not to let them trip me up in the future.

Jennifer McLean

It Never Goes Away...

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Taking a psychology class changes the way we think about things. We become more critical, a bit more insightful, and perhaps we understand more about why we are the way we are and do the things we do. Hopefully much of what we have learned will stay with us, but of course, there are some ideas that will stick with us for much longer than most.
One of the concepts I learned about this semester that will stay with me for a long time to come, is the concept of attraction, love, and hate. With 7 billion people in the world, we are constantly interacting with others. What determines who we like and don't like, who we fall in love with, and why we just can't stand some people? It's a simple question with a complicated, unclear, and dynamic answer - as usual with psychological questions. I found it so interesting what factors are likely to attract people to one another (similarity, reciprocity, and proximity.)
I also found the theory of there being three sides of love fascinating. It's an interesting idea that intimacy, passion, and commitment can intersect to form different types of love in our varying relationships. Also related to the idea of the three sides of love, are the three elements of hate. Very similar to the three sides of love, the three elements of hate are negation of intimacy, passion, and commitment. Hate is an incredibly powerful and destructive emotion, and knowing more about what causes it may help us be able to lessen the amount of it in the world.
These are very pervasive concepts in our lives, and everything I have learned about them will undoubtedly come back to me at various times in the future.

Phoebe Stephan

Bystander Effect

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Our textbook defines the bystander effect as a phenomenon where "bystanders in emergencies typically want to intervene, but often find themselves frozen, seemingly helpless to help." The book even goes as far as to mention there is actually danger in numbers rather than safety in them. I think that this concept is something that will stick with me because it's something I've heard before. I've known this concept and grown more and more fascinated with it every time I re-learn it. The stories of this effect that the book highlights further emphasize the ridiculousness of this concept. It's strange to me that because there are other people around, others would actually just avoid the situation thinking that "someone else will handle it". It is something that I'm sure I have actually witnessed in my day to day life, but it's not something that stands out to someone as being a problem. I think this is another reason why I will remember this concept. Because it is something that I recognize as happening in my life, it's much more relatable. I'm never going to look at a situation and think "wow, what a great example of the absolute refractory period" or "this definitely relates to the activation-synthesis theory". No. It's not realistic. The bystander effect is something that is truly relatable to and something that people can actually recognize.

Our sleep!

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For some reason I really loved learning about the sleep chapter. I believe in five years I will still remember the different sleep cycles. I loved to analyze how I sleep and how it can effect if I dream or do not dream. In the sleep chapter, or Chapter 5- Consciousness, I learned so many interesting things about sleep. First, I will remember that you have to get REM sleep or you could die. This is because its the deep sleep that you need and without it, you are not getting nearly enough sleep. Also I will remember that if you suddenly dream for a couple of nights in a row, it's probably because you didn't sleep enough before this. When you don't get enough REM sleep and you finally get a good nights rest your brain suddenly kicks into overdrive and you experience a lot of REM sleep. It's your bodies way of playing catch up! REM sleep fascinated me when I began reading this chapter! I know that in five years I will remember it because I often find myself discussing topics on sleep patterns when they are brought up in a conversation! I love to be able to tell people about what I learned in this chapter!
-> this video tells you how to get a better REM sleep!

-> this video discusses the stages of sleep

It's Evolutionary!

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With so much new information that was taught to the Psych 1001 class this semester, I actually had some difficulties thinking of one concept that has and will stick with me. I finally decided that the concept of evolutionary psychology is the most significant topic I have learned in this class.
As lectured in class, evolutionary psychology is the study of how evolutionary factors such as natural selection has developed the modern human psyche. Our minds are programmed from the early years of human kind by traits that were successful enough to be passed onto the next generation. For example, it has been found that the human brain has specialized functions such as to learn language, to fear spiders, snakes, and heights, to detect healthy/unhealthy individuals, and finally, to identify 'cheaters' in groups. These traits can be seen today, and for a good reason--it keeps us alive!


This provides a good idea of why it is good to be able to identify a sick individual.


This shows why it's okay to be afraid of spiders--they are dangerous!

I will remember this concept five years from now because I find it so interesting how functions we take for granted today are traced back to our earliest ancestors. It is fascinating that the reason of why some people are terrified of heights or why we flinch whenever someone sneezes next to us is explained simply because those functions helped our species survive.

--Ashli Carlson

It comes time to do a group project, and you quickly choose your friends in the class to be partners with on the project. You all get together and decide your topic--you're feeling great about it! But when the time comes to actually buckle down and do work, not much gets done and the group project is due tomorrow, ahhh!

This phenomenon where individuals become less productive in groups and tend to slack off is called social loafing. It is believed that social loafing is a variation of bystander nonintervention because it seems to be due in part to diffusion of responsibility--people feel less responsible when working in groups for the outcome of a project, which leads them to not devote too much of their time and effort.

One way to prevent social loafing is to disperse the diffusion of responsibility that occurs within groups by making sure everyone is identifiable, or has an equal part in which they can be evaluated in the project.

In the Lilienfeld textbook, research, done by Hardy and Latane in 1986, found that cheerleaders cheer less loudly when they believe they're part of a group than when they thought they were making noises alone. I found this very interesting, and relatable because I was a football cheerleader in high school and my coach would get on our case about not cheering loud enough only because we were in a squad. She always reminded us how loud be were at tryouts, which are done individually, and how our intensity level wasn't at its limit.

I have also experienced social loafing in a class setting where I had to be put in a group for an assignment. I felt like I had to do much of the work and my partners did not seem to want to invest much effort into the work as I did. For this reason, I personally prefer to work individually on projects because I don't get much done in a group.

Social loafing and the research that proves it is important because it may benefit students to prove to teachers and professors that some of the time, assigning a group project may not be a good idea because not everyone can show their true, academic potential, people may slack off, or not much can get done when people are grouped together.

Here is a clip from South Park where social loafing is demonstrated:
(I was not able to embed the video because the distributor has disabled the option, apologies)
http://youtu.be/gqJ79kAFVho

- Judy Pathammavong

five years from now...

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Anne Schneider
Section 12
Five years from now I know I will remember that humans find others more attractive who have larger pupils. This relates back to the Middle Ages when women would put poisons or other bad things into their eyes to make them look more attractive. I found this part of the section on attributes that make others so attractive interesting because it relates to things we think about everyday. I know that when I see a couple together I wonder what attracted them to each other. The idea that an enlarged pupil makes you more attractive sounds so ridiculous that it is something I will never forget.

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The other main thing I believe that I will remember five years from now is that stress has an impact on your body, and your immune system. I will keep in mind that it is important to be aware of those sick around your during times of finals or other stressful moments. It is important to know these things because the worse thing that could happen would be to become sick during important (and usually extremely stressful) moments of your life. Hopefully I remember many other things from psychology, but these are just two that I know i will not forget.

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