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Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality breaks down personality into three categories or levels. The three categories are the Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id is the pleasure-seeking side of our personality that consists of our deepest desires and impulses. It is often depicted as the devil on your shoulder, whereas the Superego is depicted as the angel on your shoulder. The Superego is your sense of morality, meaning your conceptualization of right and wrong based society, experience, etc. Lastly, the Ego ultimately controls our personality, consisting of aspects of the Superego and Id. The decisions of the Ego are based on the Reality Principle. The Reality Principle is the inclination of your Ego to delay pleasure until there is an appropiate opportunity to fulfill your desire.

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This concept is important in the field of Psychology because, although widely-criticized, this theory still has many useful and essential ideas and aspects. You can apply this concept to every decision you have made in your life; for example, when deciding to do this assignment, my Id urges me to play Halo instead of doing this writing assignment, my Superego advises me to do this assignment as soon as possible, and my Ego recommends doing this assignment, and once I finish the blog entry, I can play Halo, which is the Reality Principle.

As I reflect on my writing and Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, I wonder how often everybody succumbs to their Id, instead of following their Ego or Superego. Considering how often you succumb to your Id might aid you in something as simple as avoiding procrastination when doing homework, or maybe help you with something even more significant, such as incarceration because you can't control the desires of your Id.

The debate on whether or not aggressive behavior is influenced by violent video games or violence seen on T.V. was discussed in past lectures, reading assignments and discussion section. I did a bit of research and have concluded in believing that violent video games do contribute to aggressive behaviors that are present in today's society. There is much evidence that proves this to be true. In a 2010 entry on Art Markman's (Ph.D) online science-based blog on the Psychology Today website, he discovers through researching several studies focused on the correlation between aggression and video games, that "there are two different mechanisms" to explaining why aggressive behavior exists in frequent video gamers. Markman explains that both short term and long term studies prove how people become aggressive through playing video games in two distinct manners.

He explains that "playing a violent video game for a short period of time seems to activate or prime the idea of violence. It also increases people's overall level of energy or arousal. So a short amount of time playing a violent video game is generally related to a higher level of aggression immediately afterwards." Markman found that overall longitudinal studies showed that "people who play violent video games for a long period of time are more aggressive overall... In addition... playing violent video games repeatedly makes people less sensitive to the negative aspects of violence."

Markman used several studies to support his position on the controversy where as other researchers used only one. Markman's research article is more convincing because his sources show replicability. His article convinced me to agree with the argument that repetitive playing of violent video games increases aggressiveness in these particular video gamers. I suspect that I found his research article most convincing because the studies he used as sources supported the thoughts I already had on the issue: that violent video games have a negative effect on the players. However it is apparent that confirmation bias is strongly affecting my position on the issue and my decision of what study is most convincing.

Here is the link to Markman's article:

-Kaya Allen
Section 13

During class, we have been discussing language development and how it is affected in individuals who suffer from intermittent hearing loss, blindness, Down's syndrome, and autism. Although we touched on some aspects deafness during class, I have grown to love the deaf community during the time I have spent volunteering at a camp for children who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (HOH) and I wanted to learn more about language development in children who suffer from these types of hearing impairments. Due to the sake of not wanting to write a book on the subject, I will limit my discussion on language development to individuals who have been deaf since birth.

Infant Signing 'Mom'


Deafness and Hard-of-Hearing: What's the Difference?

According to Mirriam Webster Medical Dictionary, individuals who are "hard of hearing" or have a "hearing impairment" have a defective, but functional, sense of hearing, while those who are considered "deaf" are lacking or deficient in the sense of hearing. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act further explains that individuals with hearing impairments can often detect and respond to auditory stimuli, such as speech, while those who are considered deaf are unable to perceive sound stimuli in any form.

While the difference may seem insignificant to the hearing community, there is a huge difference between the two in the deaf community and it would take more than a short blog entry to adequately describe the difference.


What Causes Deafness?

There are two categories that describe what can cause an individual to become deaf. "Acquired" deafness is caused by illness or injury and can affect language development in a multitude of ways, which is why I will focus primarily on "congenital" deafness.

"Congenital" deafness was present at birth and in 50% of cases is due to genetic factors. Congenital deafness can be a result of family history (one or both parents being deaf or carrying a gene that causes deafness), infections during pregnancy, and complications during pregnancy. Unfortunately, there is little data that describes congenital deafness, but the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association says it appears that between 4 and 11 children per 10,000 births suffers from profound hearing loss from birth.


How Does Deafness Affect Language Development?

Many people assume that because deaf people do not always communicate verbally, that they do not develop language like we do. However, nothing could be further from the truth. Different forms of sign language exist throughout the world, which utilize a combination of different hand gestures to indicate letters, words, and phrases, as well as distinct syntactic rules, to communicate. Many studies have also indicated that deaf individuals use the same brain regions to process sign language as we do when hearing spoken English. Because of the vast differences in how and when deaf children are exposed to sign language, it is difficult to compare the very early stages of language development.

First word/sign: in deaf children who have been exposed to sign language, their first use of a gesture to indicate a word normally occurs around the same age as a hearing child speaks their first word. Similar to hearing children, the deaf child's first word is normally of extreme importance as well, such as 'mom', 'dad', 'milk', etc. Unfortunately, in deaf children, vocabulary development is extremely delayed. Although they begin signing around the same time, even children exposed to sign language during infancy develop vocabulary at a slower rate than hearing children. For deaf children not exposed to sign language, their vocabulary comprehension rates are typically between and two and four years behind those of their hearing peers.

Combining two words/signs: Similar to when infants depict their first word, the combination of two words occurs at similar times in those children who have been exposed to sign language and hearing children - around two years of age. However, for children not exposed to sign language, they may not have produced their first word at this point.

Syntactic Competence: Unlike in hearing children, most deaf children do not generalize syntactic rules they have learned (such as "I runned fast"). Instead, deaf children learn rules individually and often take much longer to develop proper syntactic competence.

Fingerspelling: One event that does occur in deaf children but that does not have an equivalent in spoken language is fingerspelling, or using individual letters to spell out words. Fingerspelling is a natural part of communication for deaf children and often occurs long before the child can recognize the printed letters. For many children, they recognize the combination of hand shapes used to depict a word, instead of the individual letters used. This principle of recognizing overall shapes is the main reason programs such as "Baby Can Read" have been so successful.


Summary

Based on this information, it is clear that the developmental deficits normally associated with the deaf population are strongly influenced by when the child is introduced to sign language and how often it is used in their presence. In my experience, children suffering from congenital deafness who are born into families where parents or older siblings are also deaf have few deficits in language acquisition. On the contrary, in recent years, many programs have come out that utilize sign language in infants to help accelerate language learning because infants are normally able to control their motor functions, such as hand motions, sooner than they are able to control the muscles involved in vocalization. It is my hope that as hearing screenings for infants become more common, the differences observed in language development between deaf and hearing children will eventually disappear.

Body Language

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The study of body language started in the 1940s by psychological researchers to determine how well our emotions can be conveyed through posture and facial features. Studies have shown that only 7% of human communication lies within speech, while the remaining 93% is made up of body language and the pitch and intonation of speech with the majority being body language (55% consists of body language).

As important as speech is in conveying the way we feel in certain situations, our body language can be much more influential, and sometimes necessary, when trying to get a point across in conversation. It is sometimes clear to see when walking past people on a busy street sitting on a bench just how they are feeling based on the positioning of their body and facial cues. Just by the way someone may be positioning themselves; it is possible to tell what emotions they may be having even with no idea of what may have triggered that emotion.

When a person is "closing" their body (by crossing their arms and/or legs or looking down and away) it can give us insight as to why they are behaving this way. This person could be in a defensive state, hiding, be cold, or possibly relaxing. When a person is "opening" their body (by not crossing their arms and/or legs or looking around or at the other person) it gives us clues to a few feelings as well. This person could be in an aggressive state, feel accepting, or be relaxing. Notice that relaxing shows up in both closed and open body language, this is usually because when relaxing in closed body language people are either cold or have no place to put their limbs.

Emotions that are the most easily conveyed and understood through body language are the easily detectible emotions, such as: anger, fear, sadness, embarrassment, surprise, and happiness. These emotions are easy to spot because of how commonly they occur throughout everyday life. These emotions can even be seen without visible facial expressions.

In my country - Vietnam, video games, especially violent ones, have been widespread since I was a little boy in the late 1990s and early 2000s. At that time, numerous people from every age play that kind of game all day long without feeling bored. I used to think that only Asian people love playing these games; however, I totally changed my mind due to the articles from the Internet as well as my observation here in the United States of America. In fact, people from other continents are also addicted to video games. After I watched the video about how violent movies affect small children in my discussion section, a question comes to my mind:

"How do violent games affect young people minds?"

For this reason, I did a research on this topic and I was shocked by the results. "Oh my God!" these three worlds were the very first thing that I yelled aloud when I read this article by Reverend Danger. I did not dare to believe that people could kill themselves and the others just because of video games. The moment I finished the last page of this article, I assumed that these people should have some lunatic problems.

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In this review, the reporter selected and posted the most famous deaths by games in order to warn people about the bad influence of video games. Ten cases were picked from many countries over the world, which showed this is a global problem. A remarkable point is that most of the killers were young people, who were considered as the nation leaders in the future. In this blog entry, I will focus on the first case of the article, which was about 18-year-old Devin Moore; who was "inspired" by the killing actions in Grand Theft Auto (GTA), a famous and extremely violent game. According to the article, "he was charged in the shooting of three local policemen after he was arrested for stealing a car." When caught, Moore allegedly said, "Life's like a video game. You've got to die sometime." Therefore we can see that Moore was hugely influenced by the fighting and shootings from the game, so he decided to treat real people the same as the ways he did to the virtual characters in GTA.

This article provided me plenty of new horrible facts about the deaths relating to video games. I finally comprehended the worst facet of playing violent games too much, which is that several people are so immersed with violent games that they can't distinguish between game environment and reality. This useful lesson provides me a better understanding about the negative impacts of violent games on young people. It is also a warning for all of us to be careful about our living style or environment, because our brain is adapting continuously to our surroundings until the day we die.

http://www.spike.com/blog/10-deaths-caused-by/74056

Thuc Huynh

I'm the first to admit that at certain points in my life that money would solve all my problems and make me happy. But does making a large some of money really make people happy? Sure receiving a large sum of money would make life temporarily more convenient and simple. Would the ease of not having to worry about financial constraints be enough to fulfill a person and make them genuinely happy? In the media we see rap stars and pop divas relish in this idea. Rapper 50 cent represents this idea in the song "In Da Club."
http://youtu.be/5qm8PH4xAss
While 50 and other rappers feel as if make money can fulfill the need of happiness both Lilienfeld and several other pop stars disagree. According to Lilienfield quite the opposite is true. Earning a large sum of money or making a huge salary requires quite a bit of work. Which eliminates our free time, drains our energy and can make people unpleasant. But generally the activities of gratitude and giving both correlate high with happy people. Both of these activities are require little to no cash.
On the opposite end of the hip-hop spectrum rappers Russel Simmons and Rev Run felt that more money simply created more problems to deal with. These two turned toward the Christian religion as an alternative. Religion is another activity that Lilienfeld correlates with high levels of happiness. Run and Simmons express their point of view in this short 20/20 clip.

Will Hebert
http://youtu.be/YTx5_8B3kiw
I have to agree with the Rev that the amount of problems that show up with large amounts of money are not worth the cash. In short more money creates more problems. I would take free time over cash any day.

I'm the first to admit that at certain points in my life that money would solve all my problems and make me happy. But does making a large some of money really make people happy? Sure receiving a large sum of money would make life temporarily more convenient and simple. Would the ease of not having to worry about financial constraints be enough to fulfill a person and make them genuinely happy? In the media we see rap stars and pop divas relish in this idea. Rapper 50 cent represents this idea in the song "In Da Club."
http://youtu.be/5qm8PH4xAss
While 50 and other rappers feel as if make money can fulfill the need of happiness both Lilienfeld and several other pop stars disagree. According to Lilienfield quite the opposite is true. Earning a large sum of money or making a huge salary requires quite a bit of work. Which eliminates our free time, drains our energy and can make people unpleasant. But generally the activities of gratitude and giving both correlate high with happy people. Both of these activities are require little to no cash.
On the opposite end of the hip-hop spectrum rappers Russel Simmons and Rev Run felt that more money simply created more problems to deal with. These two turned toward the Christian religion as an alternative. Religion is another activity that Lilienfeld correlates with high levels of happiness. Run and Simmons express their point of view in this short 20/20 clip.
http://youtu.be/YTx5_8B3kiw
I have to agree with the Rev that the amount of problems that show up with large amounts of money are not worth the cash. In short more money creates more problems. I would take free time over cash any day.

Binge. Purge. Starve. These are all words used to describe the eating disorder known as Bulimia. About 95% to 98% of people with bulimia tend to be female, but this disorder can also be found in males. Bulimia is when someone eats something and then end up vomiting what they just ate. This routine is supposed to give people the satisfaction of eating, but then by throwing up the contents your not actually gaining the weight. This results in rapid weight lose and unhealthy conditions later occuring down the road.
One interesting fact that many bulimics' don't know about is a thing called "ox hunger". This is caused by binging and can give you a feeling that makes you want to keep eating, instead of eliminating that hunger. "Ox hunger" can lead to purging which can then lead to abusing laxatives and diet pills. Bulimia is a never ending cycle that can get very intense within a matter of days.
Bulimia can cause horrible health problems internally, some that can't be undone. Very survere cases of Bulimia have resulted in death. This eating disorder goes hand and hand with Anorexia another eating disorder that strictly revolves around starving yourself completely.

Here is a video that shows the horrible images of a girl caused by eating disorders such as Bulimia and Anorexia.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AXyMlD5vygE&feature=related


Saron Theodros

Parenting Styles

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As I was growing up, I always thought that I grew up in an authoritarian household because it seemed as though I always had strict guidelines to follow and I felt as though sometimes my parents were unsupportive. However, as I reflect back on it, I feel horrible for even thinking that! My parents have always been there for me, and although their expectations are a bit higher than most, they show me a lot of affection. I also was never punished strongly, just being grounded for a week at most.
Different cultures respect different parenting styles. Not only that, but it can cause great conflict within a family if one parent wants to raise a kid one way and the other wants to raise the kid another way. The development of a child can also be impacted through the parents' choice of parenting style.
According to our psychology textbook, there are four distinct parenting styles: permissive, authoritarian, authoritative or uninvolved.
A permissive approach is where the parent(s) are super lenient. This is also known as the indulgent parenting style, since the parents allow the children a considerable amount of freedom inside and outside the household. Parents who are raise children using this approach are very laid back and generally have low expectations for self-control. Most of the time, they do not discipline their children and make few demands. According to Baumrind, permissive parents are more response than demanding and also very nontraditional. They do not require mature behavior from their kids.
The authoritarian style is known to be very strict with little time for free play. The Authoritarian style involves strong punishment with very little affection towards kids. This style is usually common in collectivists' cultures, which can be seen in Japan, where the parenting style is usually authoritarian.
Another style, the one to aim for most (in my opinion) is the authoritative style. This parenting technique is defined by being supportive of children but also being clear on what the limits are and keeping the limits firm. Most families in America, in my opinion aim to exhibit this style.
The last parenting style is being uninvolved in the child's life. The child is ignored completely. This parenting style has negative impact on a child's development.

Here's a video discussing parenting tips: click here for video!

Joann Khong
Section 13

When it comes to relationships, whether it is with friends or a romantic partner, there is a common phrase that is a huge misconception. This phrase is that opposites attract. According to the Lilienfeld "likes attract likes" text, people who are opposites might find it difficult to establish a personal connection because of the lack of things they have in common. Support that disproves that opposites attract is all around us. Take a moment and reflect on your close friends or significant other, you will most likely discover that you have a lot in common with your close friends. Having things in common can be anything from having the same taste in music, coming from a like background, having the same political views, or sharing negative impressions about others, organizations, concepts, or about any other things. According to the lilenfeld text, one of the main things that binds friendships together in the beginning is sharing negative impressions about others. When I reflected on my own friendships I found that in all of my relationships, both friends and romantic ones, we are very similar and I really do not connect very well with people who share different likes and views.

One of my relationships that supports that "likes attract likes", is my current romantic relationship. My boyfriend dean and I have been together for eight months, and we come from the same social class, share the same interests like enjoying the outdoors, being competitive, being family orientated, having the same interest in music and various other things. Another one of my relationships that clearly supports that "likes attract likes" is the one with my best friend Karlee. It almost seems as if we have one mind, people call us twins all the time because we are always together and we have the same views on everything. We love the same movies, music, clothing, boys, subjects, shoes, purses, books, brands and many other things as well. We both grew up in family orientated, religious, republican household. We both love sports, and participated in them in high school. We have grown up together and we are as similar as two people can get, and as we both have gone off to college we continue to stay close. We intend on being "Best Friends Forever" The other friendships that supports that "likes attract likes" are my two close friends that I have made in college. All three of us share the same political views and also like to bash democrats. This supports the fact that in early stages of friendships, sharing negative impressions about others (in our case democrats), helps bind friendships together.

In my personal experience, opposites do not really attract. I want to have things in common with my friends and significant others, so we can build personal relationships, and also have a lot more fun.

Morgan Dobberstein
dobb0076

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