Young Girls, as young as the age of five, are being sold into slavery. Not only are they vulnerable to cheap labor and intense beatings but also to sexual assault. In the capital of Indonesia alone, "there are 700,000 domestic workers under the age of 18." Some are tortured to death, such as being forced to drink drain cleaner and burning their stomach. Len Len Pedrero crawled, while still carrying out her domestic chores, for a week because her beatings were so brutal. She was heartlessly beaten to the point of suicidal, she says "'My whole body was in pain. I couldn't walk any more. I would rather have died than suffer there like an animal. I wanted to kill myself.'" It is good to hear that Len Len has ran away from that family, but she is still stuck as a domestic slave to another family. An organization called Child Domestic Labour reports that the high numbers of domestic slaves are most likely due to the lack of education.

This article reminds me of the suffering from the book 'Family' by J. California Cooper; especially the narrator, Clora. What reminded me most about her was that so many of these slaves are abused to the point that they think death is the only escape from the suffering. I now understand Clora a bit more, she was uneducated, she could not read, she did not know where else to turn to, she was hopeless. Even though this article was written in 1991, there is no excuse for torturing another human being for no wrong doings. Slavery has been in our history for as long as we can all remember, why haven't we learned from our mistakes? The reason I chose this article was mainly because of it's catchy title but without that title I would not have gotten to see the horrors of a domestic slave.

RAMSDEN, SALLY. "Times Educational Supplement." Silent Cinderellas' Are Trapped in Domestic Slavery; Child Labour; Briefing; International 4328 (1991): 23. Lexis Nexis Academics. International Labour Organisation, 25 Sept. 2000. Web. 3 July 2013.


Many white Americans own slaves but not all can afford to. There are rich, middle, and poor classes in the economic system. Sometime, middle classes and lower class do not have enough money to afford slaves to work for them, so instead of buying slaves, they can hire instead. Hiring a slave to work for them can rise their reputation and make them feel more powerful.

Slaves hiring have increases in antebellum Arizona and it is spreading around the country. White people have rent or hire slaves to work for them in any kind works. They can be working in the house, plantation field, factory, coal mine, etc. It doesn't matter what gender the slaves are, both do the same type of job. "By the 1850s slave hiring was so commonplace that rental agreements were standardized and preprinted, as were insurance policies for hired slaves working in especially dangerous occupations." (Wood 580) Since slave hiring is increasing, there are agreements paper to give the right for the white people to hire slaves.

Renting or hiring a slave gives many white people the advantage to be successful in many ways. When a white family owns a slave, they considered themselves as high and rich. It allowed them to displays their slaves and show that they are powerful. Slaves hiring have changes and improves the economics in Arizona and other countries. Renting slaves can cause controversial for the white renter and the owner, "thus creating opportunities for slaves to exert a greater level of agency." (Wood 580) Slaves create their own agency from the overtime that they worked that allow them to earn more money. Even thought they are trying to form their agency, if they got caught, they are going to be sold or punished. Hiring can be both good and bad for the slaves.

The journal that I choose is by Nicholas Wood. The reason why I choose this article is because I heard about slavery a numerous of times but I have never heard bout slaves being rented. I thought it was interesting how some slaves who got sold and does the same work as the slaves that got hired but they didn't get paid. I thought it was surprising how in the 1850s, a white person would paid a African to do his work back because I never heard or learned about it. This article is related to the themes I learned in Professor Hyland class because most of the topics in class are slaves, work to improve economics and how they are not being treated fairy. This article is related to it because of it slavery and how slaves have change the economic in many white people family.

Wood, Nicholas. "Slaves For Hire: Renting Enslaved Laborers In Antebellum Virginia." Journal Of The Early Republic 33.3 (2013): 580-582. America: History & Life. Web. 3 July 2013.


In 2005, there was a study done to see how children in Elementary school formed friendships. It was to see if African American students would form friendship in their own race or with another. Before the study happened, there were so observations of the fact that these students would form social groups that were based off their own race. The researchers were expecting some discrimination for the students toward their peer and even teachers. There were seventy-three African American children that were involved in this study. These students were apart of this study ever since they were the between the ages of 6 to 12 months. Originally, there were one hundred and forty-four families involved but over time some families dropped out of the program. The study finally took place when the students were in the grades of third and fifth. One of the reasons that the age group was between 8 to 10 was because, "children have relatively sophisticated views about racial discrimination and prejudice by age 10, there is more variability in this knowledge at age 8 suggesting that middle childhood is a time of significant growth in understanding of discrimination" ( The results of this study wasn't what was expected. "Only 3% of the children were in classrooms with less than 15% African American students. About a third of the students in the sample were in classrooms that were between 15% and 40% African American, a third were in classrooms that were between 40% and 80% African American, and a third were in classrooms that were more than 80% African American." ( The students were enrolled in 40 different schools that ranged about 9% to 100% of African American and 0% to 88% European American enrollment. The study showed that out of seventy three students only six of them were reported to have no European American friendships. The other sixty-seven had no problem connecting and gaining relationship with students that were a different race than themselves. Even though this study was done, it doesn't mean that the seventy-three students who were apart of it won't experience discrimination in their peers, teachers, coaches, and etc or continue to gain friendships with other races in the future. It does show that in elementary school, students start to act upon looking different from other students so some tend to make friendships with the students that look similar to how they look.
I picked this journal article because it really caught my eye. Today in society, if you would walk into any high school lunchroom you would see how the same ethnicity usually stay with each other. The blacks with the blacks, latinos with latinos, whites with whites, and etc. So when I was reading this article I found it very interesting to learn that we started this sort of race separation early on and some of us weren't aware that it was and still is happening. This study was evidence that it does happen but it isn't as common for some as people would think because only six of seventy-three students felt it wasn't important to reach out to the European Americans. This study makes you think about the same decisions you make that you weren't even aware that you were making. It's a little eye opener for some and a reminder to others. So the next you walk into a cafeteria, really think about who you are sitting or even close with and ask yourself " Why this person?" Is it because they are also black, hmong, mexican, white, etc or is it because they are just an amazing human being?


Rowley, Stephanie J., Margaret R. Burchinal, Joanne E. Roberts, and Susan A. Zeisel. "Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood." Developmental Psychology 44.6 (2008): 1537-546. Http:// 8 July 2005. Web. 23 Apr. 2008.

The British Empire and India



Everyone knows we have a holiday for Christopher Columbus, because he was the famous British that discovered America. But does everyone really know the full story behind this claim? Well the truth is Columbus first landed in the West Indies, south of America. And he just didn't stop to say hello, which is far from the truth. The main concern for the British was gathering the rich sugar canes that grew in the area. Plantations were set up and business was in session. Taken from an academic paper written by Prakash C Jain, it states that, in between 1838 and 1917, just a time span of 80 years, 240,000 people were brought from British controlled India to Guyana, South America.
This is important to me because Guyana is where my parents are from, where I can trace my history back to. Guyana is a small low developed country that is very unique to other countries in South America because the dialect spoken is a Creole English. From this surplus of Indians brought across seas, the population in Guyana has stayed even when looking at the Indian and Guyanese population. The Indians were not only brought to Guyana but many other places. Also gotten from Prakash Jain, he states that an estimate 12,100,000 Indians were moved away from their country to various countries around the world.
There are a lot of similarities I can find in learning from this discovery that relates to my life and others as well. Such as the music I listen to, the food we dominantly eat in our house, our religious belief which is Hindu, and many other factors. When I was a child and I would be asked where are you from, and I tell them I'm Canadian and be done. But that answer that had so much more than just that simple answer, soon it became not enough for me. I wanted a way to identify myself. And I found it after being told from my father that my great grandma is originally from East India. But what really matters is where I am now. What is most important is the identity I am making for myself now. Because all of us has some history that is ugly, but that is what brings motivation to make the most out of the situation that was never an option for our ancestors.

Indians Abroad: A Current Population Estimate
Prakash C. Jain
Economic and Political Weekly , Vol. 17, No. 8 (Feb. 20, 1982), pp. 299,301
Published by: Economic and Political Weekly
Article Stable URL:

Economics and Racial discrimination


"Racial discrimination pervades every aspect of a society in which every aspect of a society in which it is found." (Arrow 91) Racial discrimination has been going on in this country for a long time. Economical racial discrimination was brought to the public's eyes only the past few years. This kind of discrimination is difficult to find because many of the financial corporate jobs are filled with Caucasian people. This article also explores many aspects of economic, social, and political discrimination in the U.S. Arrow goes through every aspect of discrimination that happened in the U.S.
One of the many aspects that the article explored is the job discrimination. Arrow states that there aren't that many high paying jobs where minorities have. Most of the corporate jobs are dominated by white males. Arrow says that this is because most employers are explicit on keeping the color bar. Not only corporate jobs discriminated against minority's also the U.S. military did to. The military didn't serve African Americans in the cafeterias prior WW II.
The other major thing the article explored is the housing market. "Residential discrimination was of course also overt, enforced primarily through voluntary choice by sellers, but also by covenants attached to the land." (Arrow 92) This states that prices of houses on a certain part of the U.S. Were expensive for African Americans. The unfair mortgage prices lead to segregation in huge scale.
This article gives another view into segregation and Discrimination in America. Discrimination can still be seen in today's society. I think that this kind of discrimination sets back the African American and other minorities in the future job market. This is still an issue and I think this kind of problem needs to be fixed. As the article and Samuel Johnson put it racial discrimination is "too evident for detection and too gross for aggravation."


This article is about child slaves in India and how there's this never ending cycle to it. There are these creditors that offer families that aren't doing so well financially some money in the form of loans. In return, their child must work for them until it's paid back. "The debt that binds them to their employer is usually incurred by a parent, and ranges on average from 500 rupees to 7,500 rupees, depending on the industry and the age and skill of the child" (Lee 573). There's also interest on these loans making it virtually impossible to pay the money back. Unfortunately, if the child doesn't make enough money to pay back the creditor that debt may fall on the child's future children.
I found this article interesting because it deals with modern slavery in India. There are laws against child labor but a lot of people indulge in it illegally. It is estimated that there are about 15 million child slaves in India trying to pay off debts.
Poverty is one of many things that make families vulnerable to "debt bondage". "Other elements include: an ancient tradition of slavery and debt bondage; the lack of small-scale loans for the rural and urban poor; the lack of a concerted social welfare scheme to safeguard against hunger and illness; a noncompulsory and grossly inadequate educational system; the lack of employment opportunities and living wages for adults; an ossified stratification of occupations, with little opportunity for upward mobility or intergenerational career changes within families; corruption and indifference among government officials; and endemic societal apathy" (Lee 573). As you can tell, this is a very complex and complicating situation to get out off.
This article reminds me of the character Rutherford in Middle Passage and how he was in debt and needed to pay back his creditor Papa Zeguine. In a way, he was a slave to Papa Zeguine; and if he doesn't pay off his debt, he will have to face a consequence just like how those child slaves in India would have too if they don't either. Also, debt one of those things where it will never be forgotten about because you've took a good chunk of someone else's money and unless it's paid back, it will forever haunt the person. Another thing, 85% of this child labor that goes on in India is agriculture; just how slaves in the United States had to work on plantation to help the economy, so to speak.

Works cited: Tucker, Lee. "Child Slaves in Modern India: The Bonded Labor Problem." Human Rights Quarterly 19.3 (1997): 572-629. Web.

Books and their influence in Morals



It is said that it depends on the culture if people have morals or not, mostly because each individual has a different perspective about education and morals in general. From the article I took "Huck Finn's Conscience" we could tell that sometimes it is not only on the culture but also in many different sources and places that we do not even think about. The article give us a brief description and analysis of the main character, we could tell by his behavior what kind of person he could be. In the article the author says "there is no reason for us to adopt Huck's own view of what constitutes his conscience," now if we were to think about this statement, we could see that many people was influenced by these thoughts, like modern culture nowadays. In our society we have many different ways to portray people or to put them in categories depending on their situation. If we were to talk about morals and how many different pieces of art influenced the way that many people think, we could see that everything is related, most pieces of art have a common bond that for some people is controversial. The article also talks about sympathy and its possible outcomes, how well we get along with the statement and how we practice it, the author of the article said, "Huck's conflict cannot simply be a conflict between conscience and sympathy, because sympathy plays an important role on both sides." This is I believe a strong statement, because now the author is not only talking about conscience but also about sympathy, these two different things that people have to deal with everyday, and in this situation, culture or race is not an important factor to consider. Many people believe is some statements they find in books, but sometimes it doesn't really are something that we expect. It is not something we would do right away, because we have conscience, and we analyze it first before we go along with people's sayings.
Schinkel, Anders. "Huck Finn, Moral Language and moral Education." Journal of philosophy of education 45.3 (2011): 511-525

Stereotypes of Enslaved Women


journal article 4.jpg

Earlier in the first week in our African American Literature class when we read Family, it tells us how there are slaves who are being treated cruelly and as sex objects to their masters. As I was reading this article, there was a category that fits perfectly into Family. It made me thought of Family and a little bit of Kindred right away. The category that I found most fit into Family and Kindred is the stereotypes of enslaved women. On this category, there were two types of stereotypes shown; binary oppression and mammy.
Binary oppression is where the enslaved women have to work at the productive and reproductive labors. The productive labor is where the women works on the farms and the reproductive labor is where the women are forced to have sex with their masters and have children to be slaves for the master.
The mammy is where there is one main slave who is a woman and she is to be dedicated to the family wholeheartedly. She is the replacement wife and mother whenever the husband needs her and not the mistress. "However, because she was still considered property and was forced to do certain activities, she still fell into the objectification of slavery." (
After reading all this, I still chose it because it was very interesting how there are vocabularies for the roles of enslave women. I learned something new and that knowledge will be with me too because it is something that we are learning in class and outside. I also feel bad for the enslaved women because "binary oppression increased the everyday struggles of slave women and created an environment in which they fought against frequent objectification in everyday life." ( I thought this wasn't fair for the women because they are only women and can't protect themselves from their master and mistress.


LaFleur, Camille, J. Kenji Nishikawa, Katie Thomas, and Samiyyah Tillman. "Enslaved Women and Rebellion ยป comparative slave rebellions winter 2011." Sites@UCI -- Simple Websites & Blogs. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 July 2013.


In slavery, the health of the slaves weren't really cared for. A long as they were healthy or looked healthy when they were bought, it satisfied the owners because they could get the job needed done. While the slave trade was up and running, the female slave maternity rate was low. They could be replaced at anytime so there was no need for them to have children. In 1807 that all changed when the slave trade was abolished. The plantation owners were forced to change their direction and paid doctors to watch over their slaves, especially the women because they could bear children. Also "reassignment of pregnant slaves to lighter tasks during the second trimester, 2-3 months maternity leave after delivery and shorter working hours, and upon resumption of work, breaks during the day." It is interesting that this happened in Jamaica at the time because I never would think that something like this would happen in slavery. Hearing about what happens here in the U.S, there was no such thing as doctors watching over the slave. I didn't even know that it was an option back in the days.Like in Family, they had to learn how to take care of their children and work at the same time. It shows the difference in slavery based on where people lived. After the emancipation in 1838, slaves became apprentices and it made the plantation owner not want to pay for their health care anymore. They felt like it wasn't their job anymore. Instead some bought indentured servants from India and China. The "importation of labour from India and China was expensive" meant that most plantation owners choose between keeping the doctors or loosing money for buying indentured servants.

McCaw-Binns, Affette. "Safe Motherhood in Jamaica: from slavery to self-determination" (2005): 254-261.

Worse than Pigs or Dogs


This article is about the treatment of homosexuals in Africa and how the leaders of numerous countries there even campaign and codon homosexuality. More specifically Uganda, Cameroon, Congo(DRC), Malawi and Nigeria. "Homosexuals are "worse than pigs and dogs" asserted one former African President" (Paul Semugoma, Steave Nemande, Stefan D Baral). Treating the very small population of Africa as though they caused all disasters and destruction of all. Even though they know that the many homosexuals in Africa had already been there even before colonial times. Bill were passed against same gender sexuality, even the death penalty is granted. Also mentioning that because most of the bias against homosexuality, clinics and health facilities even blame them for the spread of HIV/AIDS virus. "People working in HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention in Africa should not be blind to the forces of homophobia and prejudice against homosexuals." (Paul Semugoma, Steave Nemande, Stefan D Baral). The discrimination at most times comes to the point that if the transmission of the HIV virus was by that of the same gender, clinical staff openly harass and even became reluctant when providing their services.
This is an opinionated article and is meant to affront the leaders of Africa countries intelligently. There are many supporters for gay rights all over the world but in Africa their is a necessary need for re-educating the homophobic population and reminding them that they too (homosexuals) are human being too.

Work Cited
Semugoma, Paul, Steave Nemande, and Stefan D. Barai. "The Irony Of Homophobia In Africa." Lancet 380.9839 (2012): 312-314. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 July 2013.


Recent Comments

  • zamza001: that interesting. I didn't know that. I've always wonder why read more
  • zamza001: I want to see the day when skin color doesn't read more
  • Mahendra J: I see that a lot where there are many communities read more
  • leex6255: It is horrible that they cannot express themselves. I know read more
  • leex6255: Wow, that is really interesting that enslaved women all had read more
  • zamza001: They're humans too. atleast be tolerant and act humans towards read more
  • leex6255: This is good! I like how you talked about it read more
  • zamza001: I totally agree with you Ericka. having morals and sympathy read more
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